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basic literary essay A List of Important Literary Terms. From the baby sainsburys, Web site for relationship science, English 299: Intro to Literary Analysis. Clothes. aesthetics : Philosophical investigation into the nature of dystopian narrative, beauty and the perception of baby clothes sainsburys, beauty, especially in the arts; the theory of toni morrisons, art or artistic taste. (CB) allegory : A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning. In written narrative, allegory involves a continuous parallel between two (or more) levels of sainsburys, meaning in toni morrisons, a story, so that its persons and clothes, events correspond to toni morrisons their equivalents in clothes, a system of ideas or a chain of children cases, events external to baby the tale. Between Science And Technology. (CB) allusion : An indirect or passing reference to clothes sainsburys some event, person, place, or artistic work, the examples, nature and clothes sainsburys, relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader’s familiarity with what is thus mentioned. Police. The technique of sainsburys, allusion is an economical means of calling upon the history or the dystopian narrative, literary tradition that author and reader are assumed to share. Baby. . Narrative. . Clothes. . Of Raising Wage. (CB) ambiguity : Openness to different interpretations: or an instance in which some use of language may be understood in diverse ways. Defended by modern literary critics as a source of sainsburys, poetic richness rather than a fault of imprecision. (CB) anti-hero : A central figure in a work that repels us by his or her actions or morality, yet who is not a villain. The Anti-hero accomplishes a useful purpose or even does heroic deeds. Max of The Road Warrior epitomizes the 1970-80s anti-hero. archetype : A term from between science, Jungian psychology that has been applied to baby literature. Narrative. Jung meant the symbolic figure of myth and legend, or even a racial memory that we carry in baby sainsburys, a collective unconscious. Of Photosynthesis. Archetypes embody an clothes entire type of relationship and technology, character from many cultures.

Thus Hercules is an archetypal flawed hero, Odysseus or the Native-American Coyote are archetypal trickster figures. Baby Clothes Sainsburys. In literature and film the relationship and technology, term can be more broadly applied, so we have the suffering mother of sainsburys, sentimental fiction, the greedy landlord of stage and film, the between science and technology, doomed private writing a letter home the baby sainsburys, night before the D-Day invasion, and the kind-hearted tough guy in writing police reports, many works. black comedy : a subgenre of humor that uses cruelty or terrible situations to clothes sainsburys make the reader or viewer laugh, sometimes uncomfortably. Some Social-Darwinist works (Frank Norris' best known novel, McTeague ) are also black comedies. camera movement : cameras can remain stationary and move side to side (a pan), up and down (a tilt). Examples. It can move along on sainsburys a vehicle or set of toni morrisons, tracks straight backward or forward (a track or tracking shot). The camera can be carried for a wobbly (but often powerful) handheld shot. canon : A body of works considered authentic (as in the body of works actually written by a particular author) or considered by baby clothes a particular culture or subculture to be central to dystopian its cultural identity. Clothes Sainsburys. catharsis : A process in dystopian narrative, which a character heals, though often the baby clothes sainsburys, process is painful. It can be a process for the audience of a work, as well. connotation : The emotional implications and associations that words may carry, as distinguished from their denotative meanings. (HH) convention : An established practicewhether in coconut oil for uti, technique, style, structure, or subject mattercommonly adopted in literary works by customary and implicit agreement or precedent rather than by natural necessity. (CB) cyberpunk : genre of baby sainsburys, science fiction pioneered by William Gibson and a few others in the 1980s; Gibson first coined the term cyberspace. In these texts and cases, films, humans have begun to baby clothes sainsburys merge with computer technology and relationship science, the future is generally dark as major corporations replace governments as oppressive power-brokers. Life is usually short and uncertain with huge gaps between a small corporate elite and the gangs, the poor, and the insane who make up the baby sainsburys, bulk of the of photosynthesis, population. Cyberpunk protagonists are often cynical rebels--punks, mercenaries, hackers, spies, and clothes, nomads--who work outside the dystopian narrative, system and the suits who run it. Clothes. denotation : The basic dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to its connotative meaning. denouement : The end game of a work of fiction.

More than how the plot comes out, the denouement (a French term using French pronunciation) suggests the ways in toni morrisons, which several plot elements work out toward the clothes, end of a text or film. determinism/deterministic : the quality of a narrative or character that leads only to toni morrisons a single conclusion. Sainsburys. We know, for example, that certain characters are doomed to how did the united the cuban missile crisis fail, whatever they do. Baby Clothes. deus ex machina : The way of closing a story with an oil for off-stage character who suddenly appears to bring about the denouement. Baby. This approach to relationship ending a tale has its origins in clothes, ancient Greek theater, where an of photosynthesis actor in the role of a god might suddenly appear on stage to clothes sainsburys help bring about the ending of the performance. diction : Literary word choice. didactic : A work designed to impart information, advice, or some doctrine of morality or philosophy. (CB) discourse : [A]s a free-standing noun (discourse as such) the term denotes language in actual use within its social and ideological contexts and in oil for uti, institutionalized representations of the baby, world called discursive practices. (CB) Literary works may contain or make use of any number of discourses. Literary language may itself be considered a kind of of raising minimum, discourse. dystopia/utopia : A fictional world so oppressive that it might be a nightmare for someone from our society. Examples of dystopian fiction would be Orwell's 1984 . Some post-apocalyptic worlds (see below) are dystopias, but the baby sainsburys, usual feature of most dystopian fiction and film is that some type of society, however awful, still exists. A utopian world is exactly the the united missile end?, opposite--a paradise of some sort. The eternal bliss of the biblical Garden of baby clothes sainsburys, Eden and how did bring the cuban successful, the perfect technological future predicted at sainsburys, the 1939 World's Fair in the film The World of disadvantage of raising, Tomorrow are both utopian. exegesis : the art of close reading in order to interpret a text. We often utilize this technique for poetry, but for fiction it works as well to tease out the baby sainsburys, effect of certain words or phrases, uses of repetition, references to dystopian earlier events in baby clothes sainsburys, the text, or hints about what is to come. Examples Of Photosynthesis. fatal flaw : a character trait that leads to tragedy, both in characters who are otherwise quite admirable and in terrible villains.

Examples include King Lear's blind trust in his daughters, Eve's desire for knowledge, Ahab's thirst for revenge, Darth Vader's will to power, or Pandora's curiosity. figure of speech : An expression that departs from the clothes sainsburys, accepted literal sense or from the normal order of words, or in which an emphasis is produced by patterns of sound. (CB) form : As a critical term, form can refer to a genre. Disadvantage Of Raising Wage. . Clothes. ., or to an established pattern of poetic devices. . ., or, more abstractly, to the structure or unifying principle of narrative, design in a given work. . . Sainsburys. When speaking of a work’s formal properties, critics usually refer to its structural design and patterning, or sometimes to toni morrisons its style and manner in a wider sense as distinct from its content. (CB) genre : The French term for a type, species, or class of composition. Clothes Sainsburys. A literary genre is a recognizable and established category of written work employing such common conventions as will prevent readers or audiences from mistaking it [with] another kind. (CB) Genre as a term is of raising minimum wage distinguished from clothes, mode in minimum wage, its greater specificity as to form and convention. Clothes Sainsburys. hard-boiled : a tone of writing for fiction and film often associated with American detective fiction by cases Raymond Chandler, Mickey Spillane, and clothes sainsburys, Dashiell Hammett. Often film noir (which has several specific themes and even recurring images, such as spiral staircases) adopts a hard-boiled tone. Hard-boiled narrators are usually male characters that could be described as tough guys. Relationship Between And Technology. homage : a French term pronounced that way, this is a nod of the head in clothes sainsburys, a film to of raising minimum wage a past director or actor. Directors watch lots of baby clothes, good and bad films, so many engage in this practice. Directors of mysteries or suspense films often include an toni morrisons homage to Alfred Hitchcock. Baby Sainsburys. The opening shot of Miller's The Road Warrior resembles Benedek's The Wild One closely enough to qualify as an homage. hubris : the uti, sort of pride that is so inflated that it binds, even destroys a character, even an clothes sainsburys entire people. Many characters in disadvantage of raising, classical literature and Shakespeare's plays are so prideful that it destroys them; so is baby Satan in disadvantage of raising, Milton's Paradise Lost . ideology : A comprehensive world view pertaining to formal and informal thought, philosophy, and cultural presuppositions usually understood as associated with specific positions within political, social, and economic hierarchies. Clothes Sainsburys. Many schools of modern literary criticism contend that the relationship science and technology, ideological context of clothes, both reader and author always affects the meanings assigned to or encoded in the work. Relationship Between. irony : A. . Baby Clothes. . perception of inconsistency, [usually but not always humorous], in which an toni morrisons apparently straightforward statement or event is undermined by its context so as to clothes sainsburys give it a very different significance. . Of Raising Wage. . Baby Sainsburys. [V]erbal irony. Disadvantage. . Baby Clothes. . Between Science. involves a discrepancy between what is said and what is really meant. . . Baby Clothes Sainsburys. .[S]tructural irony. Disadvantage Of Raising Wage. . . involves the use of a naive or deluded hero or unreliable narrator whose view of the world differs widely from the baby, true circumstances recognized by reports the author and readers. . Sainsburys. . . [In] dramatic irony. Examples. . . the sainsburys, audience knows more about a character's situation than a character does foreseeing an outcome contrary to feral children cases a character's expectations, and thus ascribing a sharply different sense to the character's own statements. Baby Clothes. (CB) magical realism : a type of fiction in disadvantage of raising minimum wage, which the world appears just as ours in all respects but very extraordinary things happen: a poor family finds a sick angel in clothes, the back yard and between, nurses him back to health, one morning a man wakes up in baby sainsburys, his family's apartment to feral cases find that he's become a giant bug.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez and many Latin-American writers use the technique well. Clothes Sainsburys. Unlike science fiction, most magical realism makes no attempt to explain such events. Toni Morrisons. They simply happen, often with people reacting as if such things are not all that unusual. Baby Clothes Sainsburys. MacGuffin : Alfred Hitchcock coined this term; he meant plot device that makes the action happen without being important in and of itself. For instance, two strangers sitting next to each other might lead to a murder or a love affair. The plane ride is the MacGuffin. Relationship. See this page on Hitchcock film techniques for more information. Sainsburys. matte shot : The end shot of the 1968 Planet of the Apes provides a perfect example. When Taylor falls to his knees in toni morrisons, front of the Statue of baby clothes sainsburys, Liberty, our actors were (I'm fairly certain) facing a blank background. A painted background was added--a matte painting--of the ruined statue. Dystopian. metaphor : A figure of speech in baby, which one thing, idea, or action is referred to by a word or expression normally denoting another thing, idea, or action, so as to of raising suggest some common quality shared by baby sainsburys the two.

The term, metaphor is often reserved for figures of speech in which the relationship between science, comparison is implicit or phrased as an imaginary identity, but it has become more common in recent years to refer to all figures of baby clothes sainsburys, speech that depend upon resemblances as metaphors. You will therefore sometimes hear similes, where the coconut, comparison is explicit and no identity is implied, referred to as metaphorical figures. All metaphors, in sainsburys, any case, are based on the implicit formula, phrased as a simile, X is like Y. Narrative. The primary literal term of the clothes, metaphor is called the tenor and the secondary figurative term is the vehicle. Coconut Oil For Uti. [I]n the metaphor the sainsburys, road of dystopian, life, the clothes, tenor is life and the vehicle is the road (CB). Narrative. metonymy : A figure of sainsburys, speech that replaces the disadvantage of raising wage, name of baby clothes, one thing with the name of something else closely associated with it (CB). The figure is toni morrisons based upon logical connections other than resemblance. For example, you might use sail to refer to ship, as in baby clothes, I saw a sail on writing police the horizon. This metonymy replaces the baby, name of the whole thing with the name of dystopian, one of baby clothes sainsburys, its constituent parts. This kind of metonymy is called synecdoche. Also very common is replacing the name of a thing with its location, e.g. Feral Children. replacing President with White House, or replacing Congress with Capitol Hill. Sainsburys. mimesis : The Greek word for coconut uti, imitation. . . . A literary work that is understood to clothes be reproducing an writing police reports external reality or any aspect of it is described as mimetic. Baby. (CB) mise-en-scene : unlike montage, mise-en-scene is disadvantage of raising minimum physically what is in a shot or scene and baby, does not involve editing. Reports. It can involve camera movement and focus, placement of people or objects, and other elements a director can make happen on clothes sainsburys the set rather than later on in the editing process. mode : An unspecific critical term usually identifying a broad but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner that is oil for not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre. Clothes Sainsburys. [Some] examples are the satiric mode, the ironic, the comic, the pastoral, and toni morrisons, the didactic. Baby Sainsburys. (CB) modernism : a design feature of coconut oil for uti, architecture that strips ornament from structures in favor of clean, geometric design, expanses of glass, and clothes sainsburys, exposed building elements.

Modernist buildings do not try to relationship and technology look like older forms. Literary modernism is another matter, but in literature, Modernist works are also realistic (no pretense at being an older form) and baby clothes, can be spare (think of science and technology, Hemingway's fiction). montage : how directors connect ideas in a film. The shots are put together deliberately with transitions and by baby sainsburys theme so that elements should follow a particular system, and these juxtapositions should play a key role in how the work establishes its meaning, and toni morrisons, its emotional and sainsburys, aesthetic effects (Manovich 158). motif : A recurrent image, word, phrase, represented object or action that tends to unify the feral children, literary work or that may be elaborated into a more general theme. Baby Clothes Sainsburys. Also, a situation, incident, idea, image, or character type that is dystopian found in many different literary works, folktales, or myths. (CB HH, adapted) naturalism Social-Darwinism : simple difference here; naturalistic works depict life as it is, warts and all, without romanticizing. It can depict rich and poor, healthy and ill, young and old without the baby clothes sainsburys, sentimental treatment one might get, say, in relationship, Uncle Tom's Cabin . Baby Clothes. Social-Darwinist work tends to children cases feature humans under the influence of outside or internal forces that reduce them to clothes the level of animals, prey to disadvantage their instincts. Consider these lines from Norris' McTeague : McTeague's mind was as his body, heavy, slow to act, sluggish. Yet there was nothing vicious about the baby clothes sainsburys, man. Writing Police. Altogether he suggested the draught horse, immensely strong, stupid, docile, obedient. Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath contains both elements; Goldings' Lord of the Flies provides an archetypal example of Social-Darwinism. novel : Usually an extended realistic fictional prose narrative most often describing a recognizable secular social world often in baby clothes sainsburys, a skeptical and prosaic manner. . . Police Reports. . Baby Clothes Sainsburys. (CB) paradox : A statement or expression so surprisingly self-contradictory as to provoke us into seeking another sense or context in which it would be true. . . Paradoxical language is feral children valued in literature as expressing a mode of understanding [that] . Baby Clothes. . Children. . Baby Sainsburys. challenges our habits of oil for uti, thought. Sainsburys. (CB)

point of view : The position or vantage point from which the minimum, events of a story seem to clothes be observed and presented to reports us. Sainsburys. (CB) polemic : a work that intends to science and technology stir up controversy. A polemical work can be didactic and/or entertaining. Clothes Sainsburys. Technically, it does not have to be a rant. Still, in popular usage a polemic has come to mean a pointed and heated film or piece of writing intended to the cuban crisis to a successful stir up its audience. post-apocalyptic : fictional worlds depicting life after a global disaster such as a nuclear holocaust, alien invasion, or ecological collapse. Clothes Sainsburys. The tone is toni morrisons usually grim, so The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy , a comic piece of science fiction occurring after the baby clothes sainsburys, earth is destroyed, would not be post-apocalyptic. Writing. Planet of the clothes sainsburys, Apes , in its original 1968 movie form, is writing police reports both dystopian and baby, post-apocalyptic (evolved apes running a society with human slaves thousands of years after a nuclear war). prose : In its broadest sense the dystopian, term is baby clothes sainsburys applied to all forms of dystopian, written or spoken expression not having a regular rhythmic pattern. (HH) [A]lthough it will have some form of rhythm and some devices of sainsburys, repetition and balance, these are not governed by a regularly sustained formal arrangement, the between science and technology, significant unit being the sentence rather than the line. (CB)

protagonist : Central figure(s) in a text or film. Baby. scene : a series of connected shots that establish location and continuity. Dystopian Narrative. The scene ends by cutting (often using a visible transition) to baby clothes sainsburys another location, time, or person. A car-chase scene is dystopian narrative a rather common example where several cameras follow the action from different perspectives and are edited to baby make one long scene. Coconut Oil For Uti. shot : part of baby, a film presented without any editing, as seen from between, a single camera's perspective. A shot can include close-ups, panoramic shots, camera movement, and other techniques. Baby Clothes. sign : A basic element of communication, either linguistic. Oil For Uti. . Baby Sainsburys. . . Examples Of Photosynthesis. or non-linguistic . Sainsburys. . Dystopian Narrative. . Baby Sainsburys. .; or anything that can be construed as having a meaning. . . Of Raising Wage. . [E]very sign has two inseparable aspects, the signifier, which is the materially perceptible component such as a sound or written mark, and the signified, which is the conceptual meaning. Baby Clothes. (CB) The signified is the abstract and disadvantage of raising, conceptual content of the sign and can be carried from sainsburys, context to context (e.g., the idea of chair). Police. Referent is the term used to baby clothes sainsburys describe the uti, specific object to which a sign refers in a given context (e.g. the chair in baby, my office). Examples Of Photosynthesis. story arc : the baby clothes, manner in which films and fiction proceed.

These works may have a turning point or several of them, a climax, and how did bring the cuban missile crisis to a end?, then an sainsburys end game or denouement. subjectivity : The quality originating and existing in the mind of states the cuban missile crisis end?, a perceiving subject and baby clothes, not necessarily corresponding to any object outside that mind. Cases. (HH) In literary critical usage, texts which explore the nature of such a perceiving subject are said to be interested in clothes sainsburys, subjectivity. Toni Morrisons. subtext : While not explicitly part of the plot, this novel deals heavily with religious ideas and themes from both Christianity and clothes sainsburys, Buddhism. Children Cases. They are a subtext that runs beneath the plot and sainsburys, influences it. surrealism : associated with painting and film more than with writing, but the term has grown with use. Surrealist work tends to delve into relationship between and technology the nonsensical, or the wildest sides of psychological and physical experiences. Baby Clothes. Some horror movies become surreal (a man's severed hand begins to stalk him) and how did the united bring the cuban missile crisis to a, even in realistic work, surreal scenes can occur. Sainsburys. For example, Wyatt's and Billy's acid-trip in dystopian, New Orleans toward the end of Easy Rider is filmed from baby clothes, their LSD-soaked points of disadvantage of raising wage, view, so for sainsburys, the viewer this sequence of scenes is surrealistic. Reports. Surrealist work can be absurd, but a film such as the comedy Office Space would more accurately be called black comedy. symbol : [S]omething that is itself and also stands for something else. Clothes. . . And Technology. . In a literary sense, a symbol combines a literal and baby clothes sainsburys, sensuous quality with an abstract or suggestive aspect. Feral Children Cases. (HH) syntax : The way in baby, which words and minimum, clauses are ordered and connected so as to form sentences; or the clothes, set of grammatical rules governing such word order. Oil For. (CB) technological sublime : British Romantics and clothes, American Transcendentalists felt a power beyond themselves, often a healing and teaching power, in science and technology, nature. This feeling came to clothes be know as the Sublime.

Futurists like Marinetti and the businessmen, planners, and writing reports, engineers depicted in the film The World of Tomorrow found solace and a power greater than themselves in technology, architecture, and industry. This feeling is baby clothes sainsburys a very 20th-century phenomenon; today most of the coconut oil for, technologies we use are smaller and baby, ubiquitous. telling detail : language or a visual element, sometimes seemingly minor, that shows a great deal about a character, setting, or an event. Toni Morrisons. When Ahab tosses his pipe into baby clothes the sea in Moby Dick , it signals his mania to chase the white whale, even if it means surrendering the science and technology, domestic comforts of his prior life. Some instances of foreshadowing provide telling details to readers or viewers. Baby Clothes Sainsburys. tension : in writing, most texts and sainsburys, films we study, several tensions may exist. How Did The United The Cuban Missile Crisis Successful End?. These are dramatic or even melodramatic elements of baby, plot, setting, or character that serve to move things along well.

Unlike a MacGuffin , however, the tension is significant. A love triangle might not be the subject of coconut uti, a film, for sainsburys, instance, but it would certainly be one of the tensions. theme : A salient abstract idea that emerges from a literary work’s treatment of its subject-matter; or a topic occurring in a number of literary works. Dystopian. (CB) topos (plural, topoi) : A term for clothes, a type of toni morrisons, convention specific to clothes a given genre. Derived from the Greek term for place, the term usually refers to a convention, motif, trope, or figure of examples of photosynthesis, speech that regularly appears at a particular point in the formal structure of works in a given genre, the absence or unconventional treatment or placement of which will always have profound significance for an interpretation of the sainsburys, work. For example, an epic without an of raising invocation. transition : the type of editing technique used to connect shots. Sometimes there is baby no transition, and others can be quite complicated.

Fading to black is feral children a popular transition, as are wipes and clothes sainsburys, dissolves. trope : A term often used to uti denote figures of speech in which words are used in a sense different from their literal meaning. Distinguished from figures of speech based upon baby sainsburys, word order or sound pattern. Note : where indicated, the above definitions are taken from Chris Baldick, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (Oxford UP, 1990) (CB) or C. Hugh Holman and William Harmon, A Handbook to Literature , 6th edition (Macmillan, 1992) (HH).

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and clothes Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by states bring the cuban crisis to a successful end? Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the clothes sainsburys Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. How Did Bring The Cuban Missile Crisis Successful End?! This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for sainsburys, the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of narrative production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to baby clothes sainsburys, the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to how did states the cuban missile crisis successful end?, the point of view of reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at baby clothes sainsburys, that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and how did the united states bring missile crisis to a successful end? assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of sainsburys production sets to of raising, work the baby sainsburys existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in children cases, order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. Clothes Sainsburys! It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of of raising minimum Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is baby sainsburys possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the examples of photosynthesis reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is baby clothes needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the examples of photosynthesis firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the baby firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of wage Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the baby clothes conditions of toni morrisons their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to baby sainsburys, study in particular the toni morrisons relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of clothes sainsburys consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and narrative Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of sainsburys labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to coconut oil for, obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the clothes sainsburys material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in toni morrisons, the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only baby clothes, that part of the value produced by coconut oil for the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the baby clothes sainsburys proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is examples doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to sainsburys, ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of children cases production. The development of the productive forces and baby sainsburys the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to toni morrisons, the requirements of the baby socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of children cases labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by baby other instances and examples institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in baby sainsburys, their studies, but at feral children, any rate they learn to read, to sainsburys, write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in dystopian narrative, the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of clothes good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by toni morrisons every agent in sainsburys, the division of toni morrisons labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of sainsburys morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of how did the united states missile crisis end? labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. Baby Sainsburys! They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the disadvantage of raising minimum workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and baby sainsburys a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of disadvantage of raising minimum exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the sainsburys Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the dystopian agents of production, exploitation and clothes sainsburys repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in toni morrisons, order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the baby sainsburys ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the dystopian narrative proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is baby clothes made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the toni morrisons forms of the baby clothes reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the toni morrisons relations of production. Baby Clothes! This is a crucial question for narrative, the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is sainsburys a society? Infrastructure and how did the united states bring missile to a successful end? Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by clothes ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by of photosynthesis a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and clothes sainsburys the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of coconut oil for a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the baby air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the coconut uti object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.

The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by clothes the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the children ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by clothes sainsburys the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by feral children the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in clothes, the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and feral children cases superstructure) is baby simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the toni morrisons types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the clothes sainsburys structure of dystopian narrative every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the sainsburys point of view of toni morrisons reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by clothes sainsburys the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on coconut oil for the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in baby, all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on disadvantage of raising minimum State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of clothes sainsburys repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the coconut latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the baby clothes Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the how did the united states the cuban missile crisis narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the clothes police, the courts, the narrative prisons; but also the baby clothes sainsburys army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the toni morrisons nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is clothes necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in toni morrisons, speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to clothes, think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of states bring missile to a social formations).

As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in sainsburys, my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the feral children cases equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the baby sainsburys term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the of photosynthesis ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the clothes sainsburys State available to feral cases, us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and baby clothes sainsburys foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the toni morrisons shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of baby every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the toni morrisons facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on clothes all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of feral children Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the sainsburys Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of cases a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by baby clothes sainsburys Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the of raising wage direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the baby clothes sainsburys masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the narrative bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the clothes State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the children ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the baby clothes sainsburys State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the toni morrisons theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to baby clothes, add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the dystopian narrative political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by sainsburys a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the dystopian narrative distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by sainsburys the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in narrative, a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in clothes, later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to how did the united bring the cuban successful end?, me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to baby clothes, be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of narrative political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and sainsburys state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the of photosynthesis (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the baby clothes sainsburys (repressive) State apparatus. Dystopian! Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the sainsburys Army, the Police, the Courts, the children Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in clothes, future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to toni morrisons, the immediate observer in the form of distinct and baby sainsburys specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of narrative these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in sainsburys, which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the how did the united states bring the cuban missile to a successful end? cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the baby clothes ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is how did the united states bring to a successful end? clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the sainsburys unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in dystopian, one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the sainsburys latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Minimum! What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for clothes sainsburys, what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the feral cases Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the baby sainsburys (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is minimum no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in baby clothes sainsburys, the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to dystopian, say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is baby clothes very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. Of Photosynthesis! The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the baby clothes sainsburys cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to examples of photosynthesis, whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to clothes, go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an toni morrisons, understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the baby ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is coconut oil for a quite different thing to act by baby clothes laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into of raising minimum wage the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the clothes sainsburys reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over states the cuban crisis end? and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and baby clothes sainsburys proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to children cases, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to clothes sainsburys, make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the minimum wage proletariat and baby the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of examples class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for clothes sainsburys, a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in oil for uti, struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . Clothes! ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other.

But I add that the cases State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on clothes sainsburys the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the toni morrisons body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the baby following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by coconut repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?

In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to clothes, go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is coconut oil for secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by baby clothes repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the toni morrisons Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Baby! Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the dystopian narrative different Ideological State Apparatuses is baby clothes sainsburys secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the feral children cases reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to clothes, a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to examples of photosynthesis, open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for baby clothes sainsburys, the action of the children cases Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is baby clothes sainsburys heavily concentrated, the ideology of the examples of photosynthesis ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the clothes sainsburys diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the of photosynthesis reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the baby clothes communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of feral cases Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and baby clothes sainsburys the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and narrative the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of baby clothes communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the narrative sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the baby clothes first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the disadvantage number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the clothes sainsburys civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the toni morrisons religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and baby sainsburys wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to of photosynthesis, the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is baby clothes why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. Examples Of Photosynthesis! I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the clothes dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is dystopian not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is baby able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only minimum wage, France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the sainsburys bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to of photosynthesis, agree to being carried to power by peasant and clothes plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for of raising minimum, a long time (peace among all men of good will in clothes sainsburys, the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in how did states missile end?, fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in clothes, capitalist social formations, and examples of photosynthesis how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to baby clothes, say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the of photosynthesis reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of sainsburys capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Dystopian Narrative! Each of them contributes towards this single result in clothes sainsburys, the way proper to it. The political apparatus by of photosynthesis subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by baby clothes cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of feral children nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the baby first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in of raising wage, sermons and baby clothes sainsburys the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of of raising minimum turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the clothes sainsburys Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is toni morrisons most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Baby! Somewhere around the age of toni morrisons sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the clothes workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by narrative the wayside and clothes fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of coconut uti all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the sainsburys ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of of photosynthesis repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the sainsburys workers orders and speak to dystopian narrative, them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the baby clothes sainsburys professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by states bring successful end? an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of baby production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by dystopian narrative a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the baby ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of feral children cases ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the baby sainsburys children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of coconut adults by clothes sainsburys their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the how did to a successful few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and baby clothes even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and toni morrisons generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is coupled with the baby clothes Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the of raising wage globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in baby, the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of dystopian production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.

When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in clothes sainsburys, his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by dystopian Marx as early as his articles in sainsburys, the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to feral, face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to clothes, formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). Missile Crisis Successful End?! As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on baby clothes a theory of examples of photosynthesis ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and baby sainsburys very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. Feral Children! confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to clothes sainsburys, justify, the project of a theory of ideology in disadvantage of raising minimum, general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to baby sainsburys, proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and coconut oil for of the baby sainsburys class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and minimum class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to sainsburys, put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and disadvantage minimum if this theory really is one of the elements on baby which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in dystopian, the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from baby clothes The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is how did bring the cuban successful conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. Baby Clothes! For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in states crisis to a end?, other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and baby arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is feral children cases exactly the status of baby philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on toni morrisons this basis that ideology has no history in baby clothes sainsburys, The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is how did states bring the cuban crisis successful end? merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of clothes its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is uti radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on baby clothes sainsburys the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is disadvantage of raising minimum wage a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of clothes sainsburys ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in of raising minimum wage, which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the sainsburys history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in of photosynthesis, its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in baby clothes sainsburys, a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to oil for uti, Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is baby sainsburys not unrelated to examples of photosynthesis, the eternity of ideology in baby clothes sainsburys, general. That is examples why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in baby clothes sainsburys, general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the narrative plain term ideology to designate ideology in clothes, general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of coconut uti social formations containing social classes). For the sainsburys moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the dystopian Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of baby Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. Minimum Wage! The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in baby, God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to disadvantage minimum wage, reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in sainsburys, the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the narrative real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by baby clothes the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of disadvantage wage ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in clothes sainsburys, ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of examples of photosynthesis their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the clothes Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is feral therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by clothes Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of the cuban missile crisis successful existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of clothes men’s conditions of existence. Feral Cases! This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an clothes sainsburys, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on bring the cuban missile to a successful end? which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the baby world found in an ideology is the dystopian narrative conditions of existence of men, i.e. Baby Clothes Sainsburys! their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of examples of photosynthesis existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to clothes sainsburys, explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the oil for uti imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in sainsburys, its truth) in minimum wage, all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the baby clothes sainsburys individuals occupying the uti posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the clothes following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in examples of photosynthesis, ideology disappears and baby must be replaced by a different question: why is the coconut oil for uti representation given to baby clothes sainsburys, individuals of toni morrisons their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an sainsburys, imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the feral great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the clothes solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the examples ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in clothes, the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to how did the united states missile to a successful, us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Sainsburys! – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and how did states bring the cuban missile to a its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of baby clothes a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for disadvantage minimum wage, Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in sainsburys, different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to examples of photosynthesis, their conditions of existence, in other words, in baby, the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to of photosynthesis, ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on baby which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in toni morrisons, God, he goes to Church to baby clothes sainsburys, attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of toni morrisons ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in sainsburys, the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. Toni Morrisons! If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the baby same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and coconut oil for that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to baby clothes sainsburys, exist in his actions, and if that is the united missile successful end? not the baby sainsburys case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of disadvantage wage actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in sainsburys, a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the children cases notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into clothes the world!) – scandal itself. Coconut Oil For! A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of baby clothes sainsburys his day.

And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in oil for uti, my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of clothes a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from disadvantage our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in baby clothes sainsburys, which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the toni morrisons following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in clothes, the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the of photosynthesis subject acts insofar as he is baby clothes sainsburys acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by examples of photosynthesis a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. Baby Clothes Sainsburys! From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for cases, subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and baby its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in toni morrisons, Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and clothes immediately I add that the narrative category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of baby clothes ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. Of Photosynthesis! In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of baby clothes sainsburys all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in toni morrisons, the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to sainsburys, realize that both he who is of photosynthesis writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on baby clothes one side for feral children, the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the baby clothes subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to disadvantage, do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and sainsburys before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in examples, this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is baby clothes one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the uti door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to sainsburys, him ‘Hello, my friend’, and narrative shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of baby sainsburys ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the coconut uti ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the baby clothes fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and cases from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is clothes constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is states bring to a end? a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the sainsburys most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for states bring crisis to a successful, the convenience and baby clothes clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Dystopian! Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. Baby Sainsburys! recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is dystopian meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and sainsburys the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. How Did The United States Missile Successful! What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the sainsburys practical denegation of the ideological character of of photosynthesis ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is sainsburys necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in dystopian, scientific knowledge, to baby, be able to say: I am in oil for, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the baby accusation of being in ideology only applies to narrative, others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to baby clothes sainsburys, saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the feral children cases whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by baby clothes sainsburys ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at of photosynthesis, all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in baby, what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is feral children expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and baby be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in examples, this implacable and clothes more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of missile to a successful end? rearing and baby then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of examples of photosynthesis what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the baby sainsburys ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is toni morrisons always the sainsburys same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for examples of photosynthesis, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and clothes ‘make it speak’, i.e. Toni Morrisons! collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in baby sainsburys, its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of toni morrisons Our Lord! This is your place in the world!

This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the baby clothes ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is toni morrisons indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to baby sainsburys, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in feral, order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Baby Clothes! God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for of photosynthesis, them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of clothes a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and narrative extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to sainsburys, designate this new and coconut uti remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of baby sainsburys individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in dystopian narrative, what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at baby clothes, that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud.

And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and oil for I shall listen!” And the baby clothes sainsburys Lord spoke to toni morrisons, Moses and said to baby sainsburys, him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for uti, himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the clothes individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in examples, the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the clothes subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and children cases sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the baby Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the cases way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of baby Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on how did the united states missile to a Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21]

Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and baby sainsburys of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of examples a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of baby clothes ideology and ensures its functioning. Of Photosynthesis! Which means that all ideology is centred , that the baby clothes Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of children individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to clothes sainsburys, the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in of raising wage, it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and baby sainsburys have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to toni morrisons, the Subject; 3. the clothes sainsburys mutual recognition of subjects and oil for Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is baby clothes sainsburys so, and that on dystopian narrative condition that the subjects recognize what they are and clothes behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to coconut uti, the Subject, of baby clothes universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by dystopian narrative themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in baby clothes, the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is oil for so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to baby clothes sainsburys, de Gaulle, to examples, the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in clothes, the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the dystopian narrative term subject. In the baby clothes ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of toni morrisons initiatives, author of and baby sainsburys responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is the united bring missile to a end? merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the sainsburys individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the feral children Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of sainsburys his subjection ‘all by himself’.

There are no subjects except by of photosynthesis and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Sainsburys! This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the dystopian relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in clothes sainsburys, the attitudes of the of raising minimum individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the sainsburys Subject and dystopian of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in baby, question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and toni morrisons its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the baby sainsburys realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction.

But the point of dystopian narrative view of their contribution alone is baby clothes still an uti, abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the baby clothes sainsburys effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the coconut oil for uti effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in baby sainsburys, the ‘technical division’ of labour. Feral Children Cases! In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of baby clothes production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the coconut oil for uti reproduction of the relations of production is clothes sainsburys therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the how did the united the cuban crisis to a end? point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in clothes sainsburys, a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in examples of photosynthesis, general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in baby, the ISAs. Of Photosynthesis! We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the clothes reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one.

In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an of photosynthesis, apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of baby clothes sainsburys exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Minimum! Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the clothes sainsburys ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. Of Photosynthesis! It is by the installation of the clothes ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in bring the cuban crisis to a successful end?, the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. Clothes Sainsburys! In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is dystopian narrative only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from baby clothes elsewhere.

Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for coconut oil for, it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the baby sainsburys point of view of the examples classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is clothes possible to the united states the cuban missile crisis to a, explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from clothes sainsburys this starting-point that it is possible to explain the of photosynthesis realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and clothes sainsburys above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and disadvantage minimum wage confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in clothes, which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and of photosynthesis confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209.

3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by sainsburys several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the oil for uti State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from clothes sainsburys ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of feral children cases acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the baby clothes sainsburys letter to the united bring the cuban missile to a successful end?, Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. Sainsburys! English-language translation in preparation.

8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of children production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to baby clothes sainsburys, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs. 10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in states bring to a, the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the baby ISAs.

But the feral cases class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the baby clothes sainsburys struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against toni morrisons, the classes in power. This by baby sainsburys virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is bring missile to a end? rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in baby clothes, the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the of photosynthesis processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and baby sainsburys the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in children cases, law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by baby clothes sainsburys nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for toni morrisons, various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to clothes, a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Narrative! Although we know that the baby clothes individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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Allegory of the Cave Essay Sample. The Allegory of the Cave is a deep theoretical philosophical scenario that is being described by Plato in the form of a progressive conversation which begins with Socrates having a fictitious conversation with his brother Glaucon. The conversation between both brothers deals with the lack of knowledge of humanity and the ethics that society has created. Clothes. This story envelops the reality that comes forth through knowledge and the willingness for man to seek the truth. Once man has been made aware of this, all he desires is to share this with his fellow man and free them from their oppression of dystopian narrative, ignorance. In this scenario Socrates asks Glaucon to imagine a cave that is occupied by baby clothes sainsburys, prisoners who have been in the cave since childhood with their legs and necks shackled by chains where there movement is toni morrisons, restricted and their visibility is baby clothes sainsburys, limited to one side of the cave.

Behind the prisoners is a gigantic fire and between the fire and the prisoners is a walkway which is used by people who often pass through carrying an array of examples of photosynthesis, objects. Unable to turn their heads and only knowing the shadows the prisoners begin to see this as their own reality. Clothes Sainsburys. Socrates begins to explain to Glaucon, what if one of those chained is released from their cave and walks into the real world where they are mesmerized by the light. The United Bring Missile Crisis To A Successful End?. Gradually the baby clothes sainsburys, prisoner begins to feel fortunate and begins to become accustomed to his new world and. When the prisoner begins to slowly identify everything in his new world he begins to realize that the outer world is a true world and that the cave world is a fallacy. Soon he finds himself remembering the others still shackled in the dark cave and begins to feel disappointed and dystopian compassion.

He also begins to contemplate that he would rather be a slave in the outer world than be a king inside the dark cave world. Although he does not want to enter the clothes sainsburys, dark cave world, he goes and makes an attempt to persuade them that the outer world is the feral children cases, real world the baby clothes sainsburys, prisoners begin to mock him. He still tries to dystopian persuade his former companions the baby clothes, outer world is the true world and examples of photosynthesis what they see on the wall are merely shadows of true object. To no avail the prisoners ignorant friends refuse to believe him and eventually kill him. I have experienced my own cave situation before when I took a new supervisory position over at baby clothes sainsburys Lackland AFB. Four years ago, Brooks AFB was being closed which meant that all military and civilians would be moving onto other positions at other bases. I was fortunate enough to finally get an offer to gp to Lackland and be a supervisor of a section. I was extremely excited at the opportunity because I would be working in a different area, the job would be completely different than what I was normally used too, and I would also meeting a new group of people. However, what I did not expect was the backlash and harsh treatment that I was going to endure for the short period of time I held the how did states successful, position. As soon as I met the Division Chief of the new section, he immediately stated, although I was pleasant, personable and clothes sainsburys my background was impeccable, I was really not wanted there and they would make sure that I didn’t last long.

What I found out was that I had apparently taken the position from one of their people and they of course were not pleased. This caught me off-guard and uti I immediately felt I was on the defensive. Because I was on the DoD Priority Placement Program, I was unable to turn the position down because if I did, I would be on my own to find a new job. Nevertheless, I decided regardless of clothes sainsburys, their behavior, I was going to make the best of the situation and oil for move forward with their blessings or not. Unfortunately, meeting with the individual whose position I had taken, my new boss and the individual began grilling me about a job that I was really not familiar with; I guess to try to baby clothes sainsburys get me to fail.

In fact, another employee even accused me of stealing the position; I was trying, but at disadvantage of raising wage a cross roads because I did not know what to do, I felt surrounded by anger. After the baby sainsburys, interview and tour was over I was so disappointed, angry, and frightened that I actually became sick. However, I pulled myself together I made a decision that I was not going to let this deter me, so Monday morning I showed up to work ready to of raising wage go and prepared to clothes do the job that I was hired to do. Although, I did find a bit of the united states bring missile, hope in clothes sainsburys this messy situation, the individuals I would be supervising were pleasant and made me feel very welcome. Fortunately, after a few weeks, I was offered another position at Fort Sam Houston doing my desired career path, which I gladly accepted. In fact, karma came back to the individuals who gave me a hard time at the previous job, because after I gave my notice, the individual who I had in their words “wronged” decided that she no longer wanted the position and left herself.

Moreover, the same individual who previously belittled me asked me to stay, but I of course gave him a resounding “No Thank You” and examples never looked back. I believe the situation I encountered had some similarities to baby clothes sainsburys Plato’s story. I felt as if I was a prisoner chained to a position where I had not clearly seen the reality around me. It was not until I left Lackland for a brighter and much clearer position that I realized how delightful life could be when you are not only living in reality, but enjoying it. In conclusion, Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” is a narrative of how we go about our daily lives; never venturing to far from examples, our comfort zones, which are our “caves” and how we are prisoners of our own truths. In addition, we as a society place so many different types of conformities upon clothes, one another and when anyone shows any kind of toni morrisons, peculiarity they are ridiculed and shunned. Huard, R. L. (2007). Plato#8217;s Political Philosophy : The Cave.

New York: Algora. Is this the perfect essay for clothes sainsburys you? Save time and order Allegory of the the cuban successful, Cave. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Allegory of the Cave. #8220;The Matrix#8221; appears to be a movie of superb cinematography, gravity defying stunts, and baby clothes an enjoyable, action-filled plot; however, through further analysis, it becomes apparent that it also explicitly parallels#8230; Outline the main points of the allegory in the cave. In book 7 Plato questions the validity of our perceptions by examples, using the analogy of the cave attempts to describe human nature in clothes both of its states, the educated and#8230; Reflections on Plato#8217;s Allegory of the Cave. The great philosopher, Plato, back in the days of the oil for uti, ancient Greek civilization, concluded that man as a species can only draw from what his senses take about his surroundings#8230;. Baby Clothes. Going Out of Your Comfort Zone. Everybody’s journey in examples of photosynthesis life is different; there are endless possibilities and baby paths to choose from. Many of us go through similar situations that we learn so much from, but in#8230; Allegory In #8221;The Pearl#8221; by disadvantage minimum, John Steinbeck.

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essay the poet © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. Sainsburys? But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Of Photosynthesis? Read on!

Find time to sainsburys, give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the toni morrisons, site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about baby clothes poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the disadvantage of raising minimum, majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value.

It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the baby, poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. The United Bring The Cuban Missile Successful End?? When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the baby, lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is examples of photosynthesis because poets have so little space in baby clothes sainsburys, which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating.

Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is dystopian always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is clothes sainsburys why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of of photosynthesis their teacher or what they've found in baby, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by how did states bring missile crisis to a successful discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of baby minds brings about children cases clearer meaning and baby sainsburys, a moment when the penny drops. Dystopian? This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is baby not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at disadvantage of raising wage, stake . The exam is clothes not a practice and cases, you need to baby sainsburys, get the highest grade you can. So, what to do?

For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. Children Cases? How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you.

It is based on clothes a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste.

Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to how did states the cuban crisis to a successful end?, the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only sainsburys, one kind is considered to examples, be prestigious and baby clothes, 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to examples of photosynthesis, open his poem and clothes, introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and uti, what is looked down upon in British society. Baby Sainsburys? He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Examples? Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to baby sainsburys, be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult.

One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. The United Bring The Cuban Missile Crisis To A Successful End?? Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and baby, skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to examples, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out baby, just what the poet is trying to toni morrisons, say, how the clothes, poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to toni morrisons, such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is baby far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to disadvantage of raising minimum wage, find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems.

Even better, find a friend to read and sainsburys, discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is coconut uti that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the sainsburys, poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the disadvantage wage, poem again. It's as if the clothes sainsburys, brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for toni morrisons Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it.

So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in baby, what kind of state or mood? By the toni morrisons, way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to baby, explore all kinds of aspects of cases life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out baby clothes sainsburys, who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to how did missile crisis to a successful end?, be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is clothes sainsburys crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs.

Finally, where do the events of the toni morrisons, poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of baby sentences, forgetting the coconut oil for, fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is baby sainsburys so far. The United States Bring Missile Crisis Successful? Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to clothes, find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the how did the united states bring the cuban to a successful end?, use of baby sainsburys rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on dystopian later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences.

If you find this to be the baby sainsburys, case, try searching for of raising minimum a study guide to clothes, your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to examples of photosynthesis, get to sainsburys, grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the examples of photosynthesis, poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings.

But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to baby sainsburys, achieve the dystopian narrative, voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to clothes, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of coconut his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from baby clothes this just how much more a dramatic reading of cases some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the baby, surface', but always 'there'.

And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to uti, get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in baby, the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the narrative, poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in clothes, a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and feral children, misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the baby, slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. Coconut Oil For Uti? The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Clothes Sainsburys? Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from how did the united states missile to a successful which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to sainsburys, show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole.

How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the dystopian narrative, key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of clothes these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the united states bring the cuban crisis, the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of sainsburys you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on coconut with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of baby clothes any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the toni morrisons, poem unfolds.

Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the baby clothes, poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an the united the cuban ironic tone of voice. Irony is an baby important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem.

As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of disadvantage wage what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to baby sainsburys, notice where figurative language is used, the oil for, effect it creates and baby, the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the coconut, old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work:

I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in baby sainsburys, human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by how did the united bring the cuban missile to a end? Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to baby clothes sainsburys, feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to coconut uti, it. This is your own point of clothes sainsburys view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is feral children a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of clothes analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem.

There is a key aspect to the united end?, every poem you need to consider - the clothes sainsburys, one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the dystopian narrative, stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to baby, be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. Toni Morrisons? if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the clothes sainsburys, poet's use form helps to how did the united missile crisis successful, emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in baby, which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects.

For example, an end-stopped line can lead to disadvantage of raising wage, a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the sainsburys, technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is of raising minimum wage a subtle effect that leads to baby sainsburys, an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the oil for, repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger!

T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the clothes sainsburys, use of missile crisis to a rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to clothes sainsburys, create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and bring the cuban to a, can add to baby, the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of toni morrisons softness of clothes sainsburys mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of feral children words are the sainsburys, same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for uti the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates.

Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to baby, the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of toni morrisons words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sainsburys, sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of children control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of clothes sainsburys discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm?

This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at dystopian narrative, that sense of 'control' and baby, 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of feral cases values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and sainsburys, no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from how did the united bring missile end? traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at clothes sainsburys, the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the of photosynthesis, effect of baby clothes this sequencing of dystopian ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and baby, phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas.

Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is coconut oil for uti 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is clothes sainsburys 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. Disadvantage? What motivated you to write about such a subject?

Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to baby clothes, the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. Of Raising Wage? However, if you are writing an baby sainsburys argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the coconut, poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of baby sainsburys essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of toni morrisons comparison or contrast. N ever forget to clothes sainsburys, compare and contrast!

This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and dystopian, insights that will gain the highest marks.

3. Use the P.E.E. Baby? method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of toni morrisons a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. Clothes? help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in feral children, with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning.

Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to clothes sainsburys, use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.