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Philosophy of Leadership Essay

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It would be fair to say that there are few twentieth century thinkers who have had such a far-reaching influence on subsequent intellectual life in the humanities as Jacques Lacan. Lacan's return to the meaning of Freud profoundly changed the institutional face of the psychoanalytic movement internationally. His seminars in the 1950s were one of the formative environments of the currency of philosophical ideas that dominated French letters in the 1960s and'70s, and which has come to Philosophy, be known in the Anglophone world as post-structuralism. Both inside and outside of France, Lacan's work has also been profoundly important in the fields of aesthetics, literary criticism and The Significance in Chopin's The Awakening, film theory. Through the work of Louis Pierre Althusser (and more lately Ernesto Laclau, Jannis Stavrokakis and Slavoj Zizek), Lacanian theory has also left its mark on political theory, and particularly the analysis of ideology and institutional reproduction. This article seeks to outline something of the philosophical heritage and importance of Philosophy Essay Lacan's theoretical work. Essay! After introducing Lacan, it focuses primarily on Lacan's philosophical anthropology, philosophy of language, psychoanalysis and philosophy of ethics. 1. Biographical and of Leadership, General Introduction.

Jacques-Marie-Emile Lacan was born in Paris on reference format April 13 1901 to a family of solid Catholic tradition, and was educated at a Jesuit school. After completing his baccalaureat he commenced studying medicine and later psychiatry. In 1927, Lacan commenced clinical training and Philosophy, began to work at psychiatric institutions, meeting and working with (amongst others) the famous psychiatrist Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault. His doctoral thesis, on paranoid psychosis, was passed in 1932. In 1934, he became a member of La Societe Psychoanalytique de Paris (SPP), and commenced an analysis lasting until the outbreak of the harvard reference war. During the Nazi occupation of France, Lacan ceased all official professional activity in protest against those he called the enemies of human kind. Following the of Leadership Essay war, he rejoined the SPP, and it was in the post-war period that he rose to world trade conspiracy, become a renowned and controversial figure in the international psychoanalytic community, eventually banned in 1962 from the International Psychoanalytic Association for his unorthodox views on the calling and of Leadership, practice of psychoanalysis. Lacan's career as both a theoretician and practicioner did not end with this excommunication, however. In 1963, he founded L'Ecole Freudienne de Paris (EFP), a school devoted to the training of analysts and the practicing of psychoanalysis according to 1993 trade, Lacanian stipulations. In 1980, having single-handedly dissolved the Philosophy EFP, he then constituted the Ecole for La Cause Freudienne , saying: It is up to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness, you to be Lacanians if you wish; I am Freudian. Lacan died in Paris on September 9, 1981.

Lacan's first major theoretical publication was his piece On the Mirror Stage as Formative of the I. This piece originally appeared in 1936. Of Leadership! Its publication was followed by an extended period wherein he published little. In 1949, though, it was re-presented to wider recognition. In 1953, on the back of the success of his Rome dissertation to the SPP on bombing The Function and Field of Speech in Psychoanalysis, Lacan then inaugurated the seminar series that he was to continue to convene annually (albeit in different institutional guises) until his death. It was in this forum that he developed and ceaselessly revised the ideas with which his name has become associated. Although Lacan was famously ambivalent about publication, the seminars were transcribed by various of his followers, and of Leadership, several have been translated into English. On Consumerism! Lacan published a selection of his most important essays in 1966 in the collection Ecrits . An abridged version of this text is available in Essay, an English-language edition (see References and Further Reading). Lacan's avowed theoretical intention, from at least 1953, was the attempt to winter dreams, reformalize what he termed the Freudian field. His substantial corpus of writings, speeches and seminars can be read as an attempt to Essay, unify and reground what are the four interlinking aspirations of Freud's theoretical writings: a theory of psychoanalytic practice as a curative procedure; the generation of a systematic metapsychology capable of 1993 world trade providing the basis for the formalization of a diagnostic heuristic of mental illness; and the construction of an account of the development of the civilized human psyche. Lacan brought to this project, however, a keen knowledge of the of Leadership latest developments in the human sciences, drawing especially on structuralist linguistics, the structural anthropology of Claude Levi-Strauss, topology, and game theory.

Moreover, as Jacques Derrida has remarked, Lacan's work is characterized by an engagement with modern philosophy (notably Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Heidegger and Sartre) unmatched by other psychoanalytic theorists, especially informed by his attendance at Andre Kojeve's hugely influential Paris lectures on Hegel from 1933-1939. 2. Lacan's Philosophical Anthropology. Lacan's article The Mirror Stage as Formative of the I (1936, 1949) lays out the parameters of a doctrine that he never foreswore, and which has subsequently become something of a post-structuralist mantra: namely, that human identity is decentred . The key observation of Lacan's essay concerns the behaviour of infants between the ages of The Significance The Awakening 6 and 18 months. At this age, Lacan notes, children become capable of recognizing their mirror image. This is Philosophy of Leadership, not a dispassionate experience, either.

It is a recognition that brings the child great pleasure. For Lacan, we can only explain this jubilation as a testimony to how, in the recognition of its mirror-image, the child is having its first anticipation of itself as a unified and separate individual. Before this time, Lacan contends (drawing on contemporary psychoanalytic observation), the child is little more than a body in bits and pieces, unable to clearly separate I and Other, and wholly dependant for strategy formulation process of its survival (for a length of time unique in the animal kingdom) upon its first nurturers. The implications of this observation on the mirror stage, in Lacan's reckoning, are far-reaching. They turn around the fact that, if it holds, then the Philosophy of Leadership Essay genesis of individuals' sense of individuation can in no way be held to issue from the organic or natural development of any inner wealth supposed to be innate within them. The I is an of Art in Chopin's Essay Other from the ground up, for Lacan (echoing and Essay, developing a conception of the winter dreams ego already mapped out in Freud's Ego and Id ). The truth of this dictum, as Lacan comments in Aggressivity and Psychoanalysis, is Philosophy of Leadership, evident in infantile transitivity: that phenomenon wherein one infant hit by another yet proclaims: I hit him! and visa-versa. It is harvard format, more simply registered in the fact that it remains a permanent possibility of adult human experience for Philosophy of Leadership us to speak and think of ourselves in the second or third person. What is decisive in on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, these phenomena, according to Lacan, is that the ego is at base an object: an artificial projection of subjective unity modelled on the visual images of objects and others that the individual confronts in Essay, the world. Identification with the ego, Lacan accordingly maintains, is what underlies the unavoidable component of aggressivity in human behaviour especially evident amongst infants, and which Freud recognised in his Three Essays on harvard format Sexuality when he stressed the primordial ambivalence of children towards their love object(s) (in the oral phase, to love is to devour; in the anal phase, it is to master or destroy). b. Desire is the Desire of the Other.

It is on the basis of this fundamental understanding of identity that Lacan maintained throughout his career that desire is the desire of the Other. What is meant by him in this formulation is not the Philosophy Essay triviality that humans desire others, when they sexually desire (an observation which is not universally true). Again developing Freud's theorization of sexuality, Lacan's contention is rather that what psychoanalysis reveals is that human-beings need to learn how and what to desire. Lacanian theory does not deny that infants are always born into the world with basic biological needs that need constant or periodic satisfaction. Lacan's stress, however, is winter dreams, that, from a very early age, the child's attempts to of Leadership, satisfy these needs become caught up in the dialectics of its exchanges with others. The Significance Essay! Because its sense of self is Philosophy of Leadership Essay, only ever garnered from identifying with the images of is the these others (or itself in Philosophy Essay, the mirror, as a kind of other), Lacan argues that it demonstrably belongs to humans to desire---directly---as or through another or others. We get a sense of his meaning when we consider such social phenomena as fashion. As the 1993 trade center conspiracy squabbling of children more readily testifies, it is fully possible for an object to become desirable for individuals because they perceive that others desire it, such that when these others' desire is withdrawn, the object also loses its allure. Lacan articulates this decentring of desire when he contends that what has happened to the biological needs of the individual is Essay, that they have become inseparable from, and format, importantly subordinated to, the vicissitudes of its demand for the recognition and love of Philosophy of Leadership Essay other people.

Events as apparently natural as the passing or holding back of ribbon formula stool, he remarks in Philosophy Essay, Ecrits , become episodes in the chronicle of the child's relationship with its parents, expressive of its compliance or rebellion. A hungry child may even refuse to eat food if it perceives that this food is offered less as a token of love than one of its parents' dissatisfaction or impatience. In this light, Lacan's important recourse to game theory also becomes explicable. Winter Dreams! For game theory involves precisely the attempt to Philosophy Essay, formalize the possibilities available to individuals in situations where their decisions concerning their wants can in principle both affect and be affected by the decisions of others. As Lacan's article in the Ecrits on the Direction of the Treatment spells out, he takes it that the analytic situation, as theorized by Freud around the notion of reference format transference (see Part 2), is precisely such a situation. In that essay, Lacan focuses on Philosophy Essay the dream of the butcher's wife in Freud's Interpretation of Dreams . The said butcher's wife thought that she had had a dream which was proof of the invalidity of Freud's theory that dreams are always encoded wish-fulfillments. As Freud comments, however, this dream becomes explicable when one considers how, after a patient has entered into ribbon formula, analysis, her wishes are constructed (at least in part) in relation to the perceived wishes of the analyst. In this case, at least one of the Philosophy Essay wishes expressed by the dream was the woman's wish that Freud's desire (for his theory to be correct) be thwarted. In the same way, Lacan details how the deeper unconscious wish expressed in the manifest content of the dream (which featured the woman attempting to stage a dinner party with only one piece of smoked salmon) can only be comprehended as the coded fulfilment of a desire that her husband would not fulfill her every wish, and leave her with an unsatisfied desire. c. Oedipal Complex, Castration, Name of the Father, and the Big Other.

The principle that desire is the desire of the Other is also decisive in how Lacan reformulates Freud's theory of the child's socialisation through the resolution of center its Oedipal complex in its fifth or sixth year. Lacan agrees with Freud that this event is decisive both in the development of the individual, and in the aetiology of any possible subsequent mental illness. However, in trying to understand this stage of subjective development, Lacan distances himself from Freud's emphasis on the biological organ of the penis. Lacan talks instead of the phallus. What he is primarily referring to is what the child perceives it is that the mother desires. Philosophy Of Leadership Essay! Because the child's own desire is structured by its relationships with its first nurturer (usually in Western societies the mother), it is thus the desire of the mother, for Lacan, that is the decisive stake in world trade, what transpires with the Oedipus complex and its resolution. In its first years, Lacan contends, the child devotes itself to of Leadership Essay, trying to fathom what it is that the mother desires, so that it can try to make itself the phallus for The Significance in Chopin's The Awakening Essay the mother- a fully satisfying love-object. At around the time of Philosophy of Leadership Essay its fifth or sixth desire, however, the father will normally intervene in a way that lastingly thwarts this Oedipal aspiration.

The ensuing renunciation of the aspiration to be the phallic Thing for the mother, and not any physical event or its threat, is what Lacan calls castration, and it is thus a function to which he thinks both boys and girls are normally submitted. The child's acceptance of its castration marks the center resolution of Philosophy its Oedipal complex, Lacan holds, again shadowing Freud. The Oedipal child remains committed to its project of trying to fathom and fulfil this desire. It accordingly (and famously) perceives the father as a rival and threat to ribbon, its dearest aspirations. Because of this, in a maverick theoretical conjunction, Lacan indeed likens the Philosophy of Leadership Essay father-child relation at this point (at least as it is perceived by the child) to the famous struggle to the death for pure recognition dramatized in harvard reference, Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit . In this struggle, of course, the child invariably loses. But everything turns, according to Lacanian theory, on whether this loss constitutes a violent humiliation for the child or whether, as in Hegel's account of Philosophy Essay Lordship and Bondage, its resolution involves the founding of Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America a pact between the parties, bound by the solemnification of mutually recognised Law. If the castration complex is to normalize the child, Lacan argues, what the child must be made to Philosophy, perceive is that what satisfies or orders the desire of the mother is not any visible (imaginary) feature of the father (his obviously better physical endowments, and so on). The child must come to see that the whims of the mother are themselves ordered by a Law that exceeds and tames them.

This law is what Lacan famously dubs the name ( nom ) of the father, trading on a felicitous homonymy in French between nom (name) and non (the no! to incestuous union). When the father intervenes, (at least when he is what Lacan calls the vs Happiness in America symbolic father) Lacan's argument is Philosophy, that he does so less as a living enjoying individual than as the delegate and spokesperson of a body of social Law and convention that is also recognised by the mother, as a socialised being, to be decisive. This body of nomoi is what Lacan calls the formulation big Other of the child's given sociolinguistic community. Philosophy Of Leadership! Insofar as the force of its Law is magnesium ribbon formula, what the child at of Leadership Essay castration perceives to be what moves the mother and gives the father's words their performative force (Austin), Lacan also calls it the phallic order. d. The Law and Symbolic Identification. The Law of the father is in this way theorised by Lacan as the necessary mediator between the child and the mother. A castrating acceptance of its sovereignity precipitates the child out of its ambivalent attempts to be the The Significance in Chopin's The Awakening example fully satisfying Thing for the mother. Philosophy Of Leadership! As Lacan quips, when the child accedes to castration, it accedes to the impossibility of it directly satisfying its incestous wish. If things go well, however, it will go away with title deeds in its pocket that guarantee that, when the time comes (and if it plays by the rules), it can at least have a satisficing substitute for its first lost love-object.

What has occurred, in this event, is formulation process, that the individual's imaginary identifications (or ideal egos) that exclusively characterised its infantile years have been supplemented by an identification of an Philosophy Essay entirely different order: what Lacan calls a symbolic identification with an ego ideal. This is precisely identification with and within something that cannot be seen, touched, devoured, or mastered: namely, the words, norms and directives of its given cultural collective. Symbolic identification is always idenification with a normatively circumscribed way of organising the example social-intersubjective space within which the Philosophy of Leadership Essay subject can take on its most lasting imaginary identifications: (For example, the hysterical-vulnerable female identifies at the symbolic level with the patriarchal way of structuring social relations between sexes, outside of which her imaginary identification would be meaningless). So, to repeat and summarise: Lacan's philosophical anthropology (his answer to ribbon, the question: what is it to be human?) involves several important reformulations of Freudian tenets. By drawing on Hegel, game theory, and contemporary observations of infant behaviour, he lays greater systematic emphasis than Freud had on the intersubjective constitution of Philosophy of Leadership human desire. In this feature at least, his philosophical anthropology is united with that of philosophers such as Levinas, Honneth and Habermas. Equally, since for world Lacan human desire is the Philosophy of Leadership desire of the other, what he contends is at stake in the child's socialisation is its aspiration to be the fully satisfying object for winter dreams the mother, a function which is finally (or at least norm-ally) fulfilled by the Law-bearing words of the father. Human-being, for Philosophy of Leadership Lacan, is thus (as decentred) vitally a speaking animal (what he calls a parle-etre ); one whose desire comes to be inmixed with the 1993 center bombing conspiracy imperatives of, and Philosophy, stipulated within, the Essay vs Happiness in America natural language of its society. Philosophy! [see Part 2] Particularly, Lacan picks up on certain cues within Freud's texts (and those of Saint Paul) to emphasise the dialectical structuration of human desire in relation to the prohibitions of Law.

If the Law of the trade center conspiracy father denies immediate access to what the Essay child takes to be the fully satisfying object (as expounded above), from this point on, Lacan argues, (at least neurotic) desire is formula, necessarily articulated in the interstices of what is permitted by Philosophy of Leadership Essay, the big Other. And it is characterised by an innate and fatal attraction to what it prohibits as such, which is why he placed such central emphasis throughout his career on the enigmatic Freudian notion of Essay vs Happiness a death drive. Finally, it should be noted that, because of of Leadership Essay Lacan's reformulations of several of Freud's key notions, Lacan's diagnostic heuristic differs markedly from Freud's. For Lacan, what is decisive in is the process of, understanding mental illness is Essay, not the ribbon formula conflict between the embattled ego and its two more irrational psychic bedfellows, the of Leadership Essay superego and the id. It is how the subject bears up with respect to the condition of being a castrated animal forced to pursue its desire on the inverted ladder of the signifier, within the phallic order of its society's big Other.

The question to be asked, for strategy of Lacan, is: how fully has the subject acceded to its symbolic castration?, and- as such- how fully has it overcome the transitivity and aggressivity characteristic of the earlier infantile stages of its development? As in Freud, Lacan stipulates three major classes of mental illness, all of which are situated by him with respect to the terms of this question, and which (as such) are elevated by him to something like three existential bearings towards the condition of being a decentred socialised animal. According to the Lacanian conceptualization, the neurotic is someone who has submitted to castration, but not without remainder. His/her symptoms stand testimony to a lasting refusal of, and resentment towards, the castrating agency of the big Other. The pervert is someone who has only partially acceded to castration. For him/her, the Law does not function wholly to repress or render inaccessible what s/he deeply desires (the maternal body).

Because of this, this Law comes itself (either in of Leadership, its prosecution, or in its sufferance) to formulation process of, function as the object of her/his desire. Finally, the psychotic is Philosophy Essay, someone who has never acceded (or been drawn to accede) to the symbolic order of winter dreams social interchange bound by the name of the father. For him/her, this order of the big Other, in which people follow the Law because it is the Law can thus only ever appear to be a semblance. As is most clear in the delusions of Philosophy of Leadership Essay paranoiacs, s/he will thus permanently be prey to the delusion that there must be some Other of the big Other (for example: aliens, the CIA, God) behind the scenes, pulling the strings of the harvard social charade. The component of of Leadership Essay Lacanian theory for Essay vs Happiness which it is perhaps most famous, and which has most baffled its critics, is the emphasis Lacan laid on language in his attempt to formalize psychoanalysis. From the 1950s, in Philosophy of Leadership Essay, complete opposition to reference, any Jungian or romantic conceptions, Lacan instead described the unconscious as a kind of discourse: the discourse of the Other. There are at Philosophy least three interrelated concerns that inform the construction of what one might call Lacan's philosophy of language. The first is the central argument that the child's castration is the decisive point in its becoming a speaking subject. The second is his taking very seriously what might be termed the interpretive paradigm in magnesium ribbon formula, Freud's texts, according to which Freud repeatedly described symptoms, slips and dreams as symbolic phenomena capable of interpretation. -The third is Lacan's desire to try to understand the Philosophy efficacy of psychoanalytic interpretation as a curative procedure that relies solely on what Freud called in The Question of Lay Analysis the magnesium ribbon formula magical power of the word.

In Part 1, in recounting Lacan's view on the resolution of the Oedipal complex, one reason why Lacan allocated language such importance was touched upon. Philosophy! For Lacan, it is only when the child accedes to castration and the Law of the world trade center bombing father, that s/he becomes fully competent as a language-speaker within his/her given social collective. By contrast, individuals suffering from psychosis, Lacan stresses (in line with a vast wealth of psychological research), are prone to characteristic linguistic dysfunctions and inabilities. Already from this, then, we can outline a first crucial feature of Lacan's philosophy of language. Philosophy! Like the later Wittgenstein, Lacan's position is that to learn a language is to learn a set of rules or laws for the use and combination of words. Accordingly, for him too, learning is based on believing (Wittgenstein). Formulation Is The Process! Particularly, Lacan asserts a lasting link between the capacity of Philosophy subjects to perceive the in Chopin's example world as a set of discrete identifiable objects, and their acceptance of the unconditional authority of a body of convention. We will return to this below. b. Psychoanalysis as Interpretation.

Lacan's contention concerning human-being as a parle-etre , put most broadly, is that when the subject learns its mother tongue, everything from its sense of how the world is, to the way it experiences its biological body, are over-determined by Philosophy, its accession to this order of language. This is the clearest register of the debt that Lacan owes to phenomenology. From Heidegger, he accepts the notion that to be a subject is to experience the is the process of world as a meaningful totality, and that language is crucial to this capability. Aligning Freud with the theories of Merleau-Ponty and Sartre, Lacan developed a psychoanalytic conception of how the body is caught in the play of meaning-formation between subjects, and expressive of the subjectivity that lives through it, as well as being an objectificable tool for of Leadership Essay the performance of instrumental activities. For Lacan, that is, the unconscious does not name only some other part of the mental apparatus than consciousness.

It names all that about a subject, including bodily manifestations and identifications with others and external objects that insist beyond his/her conscious control. Freud had already commented in winter dreams, the Introductory Lectures to Psychoanalysis that the unconscious can be compared to a language without a grammar. Lacan, using structuralist linguistics, attempted to Philosophy of Leadership, systematize this contention, arguing that the unconscious is structured like a language, and that it speaks/ ca parle . A symptom, Lacan (for example) claimed, is to be read as a kind of embodied corporeal metaphor. As Freud had argued, he takes it that what is at stake within a symptom is a repressed desire abhorrent to harvard reference, the consciously accepted self-conception and values of the subject. Philosophy! This desire, if it is to gain satisfaction at all, accordingly needs to be expressed indirectly. For example, a residual infantile desire to of Art Essay example, masturbate may find satisfaction indirectly in a compulsive ritual the subject feels compelled to repeat. Just as one might metaphorically describe one's love as a rose, Lacan argues, here we have a repressed desire being metaphorically expressed in some apparently dissimilar bodily activity. Equally, drawing on certain moments within Freud's papers On the of Leadership Essay Psychology of Love, Lacan argues that desire is structured as a metonymy.

In metonymy, one designates a whole object (for example, a car) by naming one part of it (for example: a set of wheels). Lacan's argument is that, equally, since castration denies subjects full access to their first love object (the mother), their choice of subsequent love objects is the choice of a series of objects that each resemble in part the lost object (perhaps they have the same hair, or look at him/her the same way the The Awakening example mother did ). According to Lacan, the unconscious uses the multivalent resources of the of Leadership natural language into which the Essay on Consumerism in America subject has been inducted (what he calls the Philosophy Essay battery of the signifier) to world trade center conspiracy, give indirect vent to of Leadership, the desires that the magnesium ribbon formula subject cannot consciously avow. Lacan's Freudian argument is that a directly comparable process occurs in formations of the unconscious as in jokes. As Freud detailed in Philosophy of Leadership Essay, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious , the magnesium ribbon punch line of jokes pack their punch by condensing in one statement, or even one word, two chains of meaning. The first of these is what the Philosophy Essay previous words and cues of the winter dreams joke, and our shared norms for interpretation, lead us to expect. The second is a wholly different chain of associations, whose clash with what we had expected produces our sense of amusement. In the same way, Lacan observed that, for example, when an analysand makes a slip of the Philosophy of Leadership tongue, what has taken place is that the unconscious has employed such means as homonymy, the merging of two words, the forgetting or mispronunciation of certain words, or a slippage of pronoun or tense, etc., to intimate a whole chain of associations which the subject did not intend, but through which his unconscious desire is given indirect expression. Lacan argues that what the winter dreams consideration of jokes, symptoms and slips thus shows are a number of features of Philosophy how it is that human beings form sense in language. The first thing is that the sentence is the absolutely basal unit of winter dreams meaning.

Before a sentence ends, Lacan notes, the sense of each individual word or signifier is uncertain. Philosophy! It is only when the sentence is completed that their sense is fixed, or---as Lacan variously put it---quilted. Before this time, they are what he calls floating signifiers, like to winter dreams, the leading premises of Essay a joke. The sense of this position can be easily demonstrated. One need only begin a sentence by proffering a subject, but then cease speaking before a verb and/or predicate is assigned to this in winter dreams, accordance with linguistic convention. For example, if I say: when I was young I or it's not like, my interlocutor will be understandably want to know what it is Essay, that I mean.

At the end of the sentence, by contrast, the sense of the beginning words becomes clear, as when I finish the first of the 1993 world bombing conspiracy above utterances by saying when I was young I ran a lot, or whatever. This understanding of Philosophy of Leadership sentences as the basic unit of sense, and of how it is that signifiers float until any given sentence is finished, is what informs Lacan's emphasis on the future anterior tense. Sense, he argues, is always something that will have been. The Significance Of Art The Awakening! It is of Leadership Essay, anticipated but not confirmed, when we hear uttered the beginning of a sentence (see transference below). Or else, at sentence's end, it is something that we now see with the benefit of twenty twenty hindsight to have been intended all along. This is why, in Seminar I , Lacan even quips that the meaning of symptoms do not come from the past, but from the future.

Before the work of magnesium ribbon interpretation, a symptom is a floating signifier, whose meaning is unclear to the analysand, and also to Philosophy, the analyst. As the analytic work proceeds, however, an interpretation is achieved at some later time that casts the whole behavior into on Consumerism in America, relief in a wholly different light, and makes its sense clear. c. The Curative Efficacy of the Talking Cure Lacan's emphasis on language is also over-determined by an elementary recollection that, if Freud's intervention promised anything, it is that speaking with another person in strictly controlled circumstances can be a curative experience for people suffering from forms of mental illness. The analysand comes to Essay, the analyst with his troubling symptoms, and the analyst, at certain decisive points, offers interpretations of these behaviors that retrospectively make their meaning clear.

And this is not simply an intellectual exercise. As Freud stressed, there is knowledge of the unconscious, and Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, then there is knowledge that has effects upon it. A successful psychoanalytic interpretation is one that has effects even upon Essay, the biological reality of the body, changing the subject's bearing towards the Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America world, and Philosophy of Leadership, dissolving his/her symptoms. The need to explain this power of winter dreams words and language is a clear and lasting motive behind Lacan's understanding of language. His central and basal hypothesis concerning it can be stated in the following way. In a symptom, as we saw above, an unconscious desire seeks to make itself manifest. The symptom is recounted to Philosophy of Leadership Essay, the analyst, or else repeated in the way the strategy subject responds to the analyst in the sessions.

Then an interpretation is offered by the analyst, which recognizes or symbolizes the force of the desire at work in the symptom, and the symptom disappears. Of Leadership Essay! So here the recognition of a desire at the same time satisfies the desire. Magnesium Formula! What this can accordingly only mean is that the Essay unconscious desire given voice in magnesium, the symptom is itself, from the start, at least in part a desire for recognition. This is an absolutely central Lacanian insight, wherein he again shows the influence of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit upon his most central concepts. It synchronizes exactly with the Essay philosophical anthropology recounted above, and Lacan's stricture concerning how human desire is always caught up in the dialectics of individuals' exchanges with others. But, for Lacan, it also shows something vital about the of Art The Awakening Essay example language in or as which the subjects' repressed desires are trying to find a vent. This is that language is above all a social pact. As Lacan wrote in Philosophy of Leadership, the Ecrits : As a rule everyone knows that others will remain, like himself, inaccessible to of Art in Chopin's The Awakening Essay example, the constraints of reason, outside an of Leadership Essay acceptance in principle of a rule of debate that does not come into force without an explicit or implicit agreement as to what is called its basis, which is almost always tantamount to an anticipated agreement to what is at stake.

I shall expect nothing therefore of these rules except the good faith of the Other, and, as a last resort, will make use of them, if I think fit or if I am forced to, only to amuse bad faith. (Lacan, 2001: 154-155). Lacan's idea is that to speak is to presuppose a body a conventions that ensue that, even if my immediate auditor doesn't get it, the true meaning of what I wish to convey always will emerge, and be registered in winter dreams, some Other place. (Note that here is another meaning of the big Other touched upon in Part 1. The big Other is the place, tribunal, collective or single person which we presuppose will register the truth of what we say, whenever we speak.) This is why Lacan's philosophy of language is to Philosophy, be read in Essay on Consumerism in America, strong opposition to any philosophical account (whether Lockean, descriptivist or phenomenological) which argues that meaning is formed prior to the communicative act. Lacan defines speech as a process in which the subjects get their meanings back from the Other in of Leadership, an inverted form. On Consumerism Vs Happiness! Think once more of what is Philosophy, involved in psychoanalytic interpretation. Here the meaning of a symptom is rendered by the analyst. What this means, for Lacan, is that the symptom not only vs Happiness in America bears upon the subject's past relations to others. Philosophy Of Leadership! If it can be dissolved by an Other's interpretation, this is because it is strategy process, formed with an eye to Philosophy Essay, this interpretation from the start. To quote Slavoj Zizek on this Lacanian notion of how the symptom is from the start addressed to an Other supposed to know its truth: The symptom arises where the world failed, where the circuit of symbolic communication was broken: it is a kind of prolongation of communication by other means': the failed, repressed word articulates itself in a coded, ciphered form. The implication of this is strategy is the process of, that the symptom can not only Philosophy be interpreted but is, so to speak, formed with an eye to its interpretation in the psychoanalytic cure the symptom is always addressed to Essay example, the analyst, it is an appeal to him to deliver its hidden message This is the Philosophy of Leadership Essay basic point: in its very constitution, the symptom implies the field of the big Other as consistent, complete, because its very formation is an appeal to format, the Other which contains its meaning (Zizek, 1989: 73).

Even the key meaning of transference, for of Leadership Essay Lacan, is this supposition that there is an Other supposed to know the The Significance The Awakening example truth of my communicative acts, even down to the most apparently meaningless slips and symptomatic behaviours. In terms of the previous section, transference is the condition of possibility for the quilting of the meaning of floating signifiers that occurs even in the most basic sentences, as we saw. What occurs in a psychoanalytic interpretation is simply one more consequential version of this process. The subject, by speaking, addresses himself to some Other supposed to know her/his truth, and at the end of this process, the signifiers he offers to the Other are quilted, and Essay, return to him in The Significance of Art example, an inverted form. What has occurred at this point, on Lacan's reckoning, is that the previously unquilted signifiers finding voice in the manifestations of his unconscious are integrated into the subject's symbolic universe: the way s/he understands the world, in the terms of his/her community's natural language. They have been subjectivised; which means that now s/he can recognise them as not wholly alien intrusions into his/her identity, but an integral part of this identity.

Lacan's stress is thus always, when he talks of psychoanalytic interpretation, that this interpretation does not add new content to the subject's self-understanding, so much as affect the form of this understanding. An interpretation, that is, realigns the Philosophy of Leadership Essay way the s/he sees her past, reordering the signifiers in which his/her self-understanding has come to be ordered. A crucial Lacanian category in winter dreams, theorising this process is that of the Philosophy of Leadership Essay master signifier. Master signifiers are those signifiers to which a subject's identity are most intimately bound. Standard examples are words like Australian, democrat, decency, genuineness. They are words which will typically be proffered by reference format, subjects as naming something like what Kant would have called ends in themselves. They designate values and ideals that the subject will be unwilling and unable to question without pulling the semantic carpet from beneath their own feet. Lacan's understanding of how these master signifiers function is a multi-layered one, as we shall see in more detail in Part 3. It is certainly true to say, though, that the importance of these signifiers comes from how a subject's identification with them commits them to certain orderings of all the rest of the signifiers. For example, if someone identifies himself as a communist, the meanings of a whole array of other signifiers are ordered in quite different ways than for someone who thinks of himself as a liberal. Freedom for Essay him comes to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness, mean freedom from the exploitative practices enshrined in capitalism and hidden beneath liberal ideological rhetoric. Democracy comes to mean the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Equality comes to mean something like what ensues once the sham of the capitalist equal right to trade is unmasked. What Lacan argues is involved in Philosophy Essay, the psychoanalytic process, then, is the elevation of new master signifiers which enable the subject to reorder their sense of themselves and of their relations to others. Previously, for example, a person may have identified with a conception of decency that has led him to Essay in America, repress aspects of his own libidinal makeup, which then return in neurotic symptoms. What analysis will properly lead him to do is Essay, identify himself with a different set of master signifiers, which re-signify the signifiers he had unconsciously been addressing to the Other in his symptoms, reducing their traumatic charge by integrating them into his symbolic (self-)understanding. 4. Lacanian Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Ethics. Whereas Freud never systematically spoke on the ethics of strategy process of psychoanalysis, Lacan devoted his pivotal seventh seminar (in 1959-1960) to precisely this topic. Seminar VII: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis goes to some lengths to stress that the position on ethics Lacan is concerned to develop is of Leadership Essay, concerned solely with the clinical practice of psychoanalysis. Its central topic, in line with what we examined in 1993 trade center conspiracy, Part 1 concerning the intersubjective structuration of subjective desire and identity, is the desire of the analyst as that Other addressed by the patient and implicated in the way s/he structures his/her desire through the transference. Nevertheless, it remains that Lacan develops his position through explicit engagement with Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics , as well as Kant's practical writings, and Philosophy, the texts of in Chopin's The Awakening Marquis de Sade.

Moreover, Lacan's ethics accord with his metapsychological premises, examined in Section 2, and his theorization of language, examined in Philosophy of Leadership Essay, Section 3. In this Section 4, accordingly, we will see Lacan's understanding of Essay in America ethics as a sophisticated position that, disavowals notwithstanding, can be read as a consistent post-Kantian philosophy of Essay ethics. Formula! Section 4 is divided into three sub-sections. The first two develop further Lacan's metapsychological and philosophical tenets. The first sub-section involves a further elaboration of the Lacanian conception of the master signifiers. The second sub-section involves an exposition of Philosophy of Leadership Essay Lacan's notion of the fundamental fantasy.

The final sub-section then examines Lacan's later notion of traversing the fantasy as the basis of his ethical position. a. Master Signifiers, and the Decentred Nature of Belief. As I stated at the end of Part 2, Lacan assigns great importance in his theorization of the psychoanalytic process to what he calls master signifiers. These are those signifiers that the subject most deeply identifies with, and which accordingly have a key role in the way s/he gives meaning to the world. As was stressed, Lacan's idea about these signifiers is that their primary importance is less any positive content that they add to the subject's field of symbolic sense. It is rather the efficacy they have in reorienting the subject with respect to all of the other signifiers which structure his/her sense of herself and the world. It is precisely this primarily structural or formal function that underlies the crucial Lacanian claim that master signifiers are actually empty signifiers or signifiers without a signified. As with all of Lacan's key formulations, the notion that the master signifiers are signifiers without signified is Essay on Consumerism, a complex one. Even the key idea is the following. The concept or referent (or both) signified by any master signifier will always be something impossible for any one individual to fully comprehend.

For example, Australian-ness would seem to be what is aimed at when someone proffers the self-identification: I am an Australian. The Lacanian question here is: what is Australian being used by the subject to designate here? Is Australian-ness something that inheres in everyone who is Philosophy of Leadership Essay, born in Australia? Or is it a characteristic that is passed on through the medium of culture primarily? Does it, perhaps, name most deeply some virtues or qualities of character all Australians supposedly have? However, even if we take it that all Australians share some basic virtues, which are these? Can a closed list everyone would agree upon be feasibly drawn up?

Is it not easy to think of other peoples who share in valuing each individual trait we standardly call Australian (for example: courage, disrespect for pomposity)? And, since Australian would seem to winter dreams, have to aim at a singular entity, not a collection, or else some grounding quality of character that could perhaps unite all of the others, which is this? And is this essential quality- again- simply biological, perhaps genetic, or is Philosophy, it metaphysical, or what? What Lacan's account of master signifiers thus emphasizes is the gap between two things. Ribbon Formula! The first is our initial certainty about the nature of such an apparently obvious thing as Australian-ness. (We may even get vexed when asked by someone). The second thing is the difficulty that we have of putting this certainty into words, or naming something that would correspond to the essence of Australian-ness, beneath all the different appearances. What Lacan indeed argues, in line with his emphasis on the decentred self, is Philosophy Essay, that our ongoing and usually unquestioning use of these words represents another clear case of how the construction of sense depends on the transferential supposition of Others supposed to know. Though we ourselves can never simply state what Australian-ness, etc. is, that is, Lacan argues that what is nevertheless efficient in 1993 world center bombing, generating our belief in (and identification with) this elusive thing is a conviction that nevertheless other people certainly know its nature, or seem to. Just as we desire through the Other, for this reason Lacanian theory also maintains that belief is always belief through an Other. (For example, in the Christian religion, priests would be the designated Others supposed to know the meaning of the Christian mystery vouchsafing believers' faith.)

At this point, it is appropriate to recall from Part 1 Lacan's thesis that castration marks the point wherein the child is made to renounce its aspiration to be the phallic Thing for the mother. A subject's castration amounts at base, for Lacan, to the acceptance that it is the injunctions of the father- and through his name the conventions of the big Other of society- that govern the Philosophy of Leadership Essay desire of the winter dreams mother. Essay! The master signifiers are also what Lacan calls phallic signifiers. The reason is exactly that- despite the difficulty of locating any simple referent for them- they nevertheless are the words that seem to intimate to subjects what really matters about human existence. The Significance In Chopin's! While no Christian believer may know what God is, nevertheless s/he will be in no doubt of the transcendent importance of Philosophy Essay whatever It is that this word names.

Lacan thus is drawing together his philosophical anthropology and his theorization of language when he defends the position that it is the consequence of castration that subjects are debarred from immediate knowledge of what it is that the phallic signifiers signify. Conspiracy! He is also arguing, in the psychoanalytic field, a position profoundly akin to the Kantian postulation that finite human subjects are debarred from immediate access to things in themselves. Lacan's argument is that it is this lost signified, which would as it were be more real than the other things that the subject can readily signify, that is what is of Leadership Essay, primordially repressed when the subject accedes to The Significance in Chopin's Essay example, becoming a speaking subject at castration. When the subject accedes to the symbolic, he repeats, the Real of aspired-to incestuous union, and the sexualized transgressive enjoyment or jouissance it would afford, is necessarily debarred. If the neurotic subject does not to forego the Oedipal supposition that there is some Thing that would fully satisfy the desire of the mother, it is because s/he constructs fantasies about the nature of Philosophy of Leadership this lost Thing, and how s/he stands towards it. The primary means s/he deploys in this process is what we recounted above, when we noted how the harvard reference difficulty in knowing the referent of the phallic master signifiers obliges subjects to construct their beliefs concerning it in a decentred manner, through the Others. While the subject accepts that the Essay Real phallic Thing is lost to him/her, that is, in his/her fantasmatic life s/he yet supposes that there are Others who do know what it is that phallic signifiers refer to, and have more direct access to the Real of jousissance . In line with this, Lacan's further argument is indeed that the of Art The Awakening deepest fantasmatic postulation of Essay subjects is always that the Real Phallic Thing that s/he has been debarred from must be held in reserve by the big Other whose law it is that discernibly structures the mother's desire. What follows from this is the of Art The Awakening Essay example position that the manifestations of the unconscious represent small unconscious rebellions of subjects against the losses that they take themselves to have endured when they acceded to of Leadership, socialization.

They are all under-girded by the more basic fantasmatic structuration of identity as constituted by the loss endured at castration. On Consumerism Vs Happiness In America! This is why Lacan talks of a fundamental fantasy, and argues that it is above all this fundamental fantasy that is at stake in psychoanalysis. Lacan strived to formalize the invariant structure of this fundamental fantasy in the matheme: $ a. This matheme indicates that: $, the barred subject which is divided by Philosophy of Leadership Essay, castration between attraction to formulation of, and repulsion from the of Leadership Object of its unconscious desire, is correlative to ('') the fantasised lost object. This object, designated in winter dreams, the matheme as a, is called by Philosophy of Leadership, Lacan the object petit a, or else the object cause of desire. Lacan holds that the subject always stabilizes its position with respect to the Real Thing by constructing a fantasy about how the debarred Thing is held in the big Other, manifesting only in a series of metonymic or partial objects (the gaze or voice of his/her love objects, a hair style, or some other little piece of the Real) that can be enjoyed as compensation for its primordial loss of the world center bombing maternal Thing.

Lacan's argument is that the fundamental psychological gain from the fundamental fantasy is the following. The fundamental fantasy represents what occurred at castration in the terms of a narrative of possession and loss. This fantasm thus consoles the subject by positing that s/he at one point did have the phallic Thing, but that then, at castration, it was taken away from him/her by the Other. What this of course means is that, since the Thing was taken away from the Philosophy of Leadership subject, perhaps also It can be regained by him/her. Winter Dreams! It is Philosophy Essay, this promise, Lacan maintains, that usually structures neurotic human desire. What the fantasy serves to hide from the subject, then, is the possibility that a fully satisfying sexual relationship with the mother, or any metonymic substitute for her, is not only world bombing prohibited, but was never possible anyway. As I recounted in Part 1, the Lacanian view, which is informed by observation of infantile behavior, is that the mother-child relationship before castration is not Edenic, but characterized by imaginary transitivity and aggressivity. This is why Lacan quips in Seminar XX that there is no such thing as a sexual relationship and elsewhere that the Philosophy Woman, with a capital W, does not exist. Note then that the deepest logic of 1993 world castration, according to Lacan, is a profoundly paradoxical one. The no! of the father prohibits something that is impossible. Its very prohibition, however, gives rise in the subject to the fantasmatic supposition that the Thing in question is one that is attainable but only being debarred.

Lacan thus asserts that the fundamental fantasy is there to veil from the of Leadership subject the terminal nature of harvard reference its loss at castration. Of Leadership Essay! This is not simply a speculation, however. It is supported by telling evidences that he adduces. The key point that supports Lacan's position is the stipulation the objet petit is an anamorphotic object. Winter Dreams! What this means can be seen by looking at even the most well-known exemplar of the Lacanian objet petit a : the object gaze. Contrary to how it is Essay, sometimes read, the Lacanian gaze is anything but the intrusive and masterful male gaze on the world. For Lacan, gaze is indeed a blind spot in the subject's perception of visible reality, disturbing its transparent visibility (Zizek, 1999a: 79). What it bears witness to is the subject's inability to fully frame the objects that appear within his/her field of winter dreams vision. The classic example of the object-gaze from Philosophy Essay Lacan's Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is the floating skull at on Consumerism vs Happiness in America the feet of Philosophy Essay Holbein's Ambassadors . What is singular about this thing is that it can literally only be seen from awry, and at the cost that the rest of the picture appears at that moment out of focus.

From this point on the canvas, Lacan comments, it is as if the painting regards us. What he means is that the skull reminds us that we, and with us our desires and fantasies, are implicated in how the scene appears. Here then is strategy formulation is the process, another meaning to $ a: the of Leadership objet petit a , for Lacan, as something that can only operate its fascination upon winter dreams, individuals who bear a partial perspective upon it, is that object that re-presents the subject within the world of Essay objects that it takes itself to be a wholly external perspective upon. If a subject thus happens upon it too directly, it disappears, or else---as in psychosis and the well-known filmic motif of what happens when one encounter one's double---the cost is world, that one's usual sense of how the rest of the Philosophy of Leadership Essay world is must dissipate. What this indicates is that the strategy formulation process of object petit a , or at least the fascinating effect the object which bears it has upon the subject who is under its thrall, has no objective reality independently of this subject. Philosophy Essay! The logical consequence of this, though, as Lacan stipulates, is harvard, that this supposedly lost object can never really have been lost by the subject, since s/he can never have possessed it in the first place. This is why Lacan argues the apparently chimerical position that the objet petit a is by definition an object that has come into being in being lost. c. The Lacanian Subjects, and Ethics. Lacan argues that the subject is the subject of the signifier.

One meaning of this claim at least is that there is no subject proper that is Philosophy Essay, not a speaking subject, who has been subject to castration and the law of the magnesium ribbon formula father. I shall return to Philosophy of Leadership Essay, this formulation below, though, for its full meaning only formulation of becomes evident when another crucial claim that Lacan makes concerning the subject is properly examined. Of Leadership! This is the apparently contradictory claim that the subject as such, at the same time as being a linguistic subject, lacks a signifier. There is no subject without language, Lacan wants to say, and yet the subject constitutively lacks a place in language. At the broadest level, in this claim Lacan is winter dreams, simply restating in the language of structuralist linguistics a claim already made by Sartre, and before him Kojeve and Hegel (and arguably Kant). Philosophy Of Leadership! This is the claim that the subject is not an object capable of being adequately named within a natural language, like other objects can be (table, chair, or so on). It is no-thing. One of the clearest points of influence of Kojeve's Heideggerian Hegelianism on magnesium formula Lacan is the emphasis he places on the subject as correlative to a lack of being ( manque-a-etre /want-to-be), especially in of Leadership Essay, the 1950's. Of! Lacan articulates his position concerning the subject by way of a fundamental distinction between the ego or moi /me and the subject intimated by the shifter je /I.

The subject is a split subject, Lacan claims, not only insofar as---Freud dixit---it has consciousness and of Leadership, an unconscious. When Lacan says the subject is formulation of, split, he means also that, as a subject of language, it will always evince the following two levels. The first is the ego , or subject of the Philosophy of Leadership enunciated. Harvard! This is the self wherein the of Leadership subject perceives/anticipates its imaginary unity. Since the ego is an object, according to strategy formulation, Lacan, it is capable of being predicated about like any other object. I can say of myself more or less truthfully that I am fat, or honest, or anything else. What my enunciated sentence will speak about in these cases, for Lacan, is my ego. But this is to be distinguished from Philosophy a second level of subjectivity: the subject of the enunciation . On Consumerism Vs Happiness! Here as elsewhere, Lacan's position turns around his philosophy of language examined in detail in Part 2. Essay! The distinction between the subject of the enunciation and the subject of the enunciated follows from Lacan's understanding of what speech-act theorists like Austin or John Searle would call the performative dimension to language. Speech-act theorists emphasise that the words of strategy is the process of given speech-acts are never enunciated in a vacuum. They are always uttered in a certain context, between language speakers. And through the utterances, subjects effectively do things (hence Austin's title How to Do Things With Words ). This is particularly evident in cases like commands or promises.

When I make a promise (say: I promise I'll meet you at 5:15) I do not primarily make a claim about an existing state of affairs. It is what I have done that matters. What I have done is make a pledge to meet you at some future time. Lacan's key argument, alongside that of Essay Austin here, is that all linguistic acts have two important dimensions. The first is what Austin would call the constative dimension. Lacan calls this the level of what is enunciated. The Significance In Chopin's Essay! Words aim to express or represent factual states of affairs in the world. Philosophy Of Leadership! The second is the formula performative dimension, that Lacan calls the level of the enunciation. The subject of the Philosophy Essay unconscious is the subject of the enunciation, Lacan insists. This is one way he expresses the elementary Freudian hypothesis that, in symptoms and parapraxes, the subject says more than s/he intended to winter dreams, say.

What s/he intended will usually be captured in the explicit content of what s/he has enunciated. Nevertheless, in his/her body language, or in a second chain of Essay signification indicated by her/his mispronunciation (etc.), something other than what s/he intended will be conveyed to the analyst. This second chain of signification as it were happens- it is performed for the Other supposed to know before it can be explicitly and consciously enunciated by the speaking individual. Lacan's distinction between the subject of the enunciated and the subject of the enunciated can be exposed further through examining his treatment of the liar paradox. Harvard Reference! This is the paradox of someone saying: I am a liar.

The paradox is that, if we suppose the proposition true (person x is a liar), we at the same time then have no reason to believe he is telling the truth when he says: I am a liar. As a liar, he can only be lying when he says this. But what this means is that we must suppose that he is a sincere truth-telling person. Lacan argues that this is a paradox only insofar as we have wrongly collapsed the distinction between the subject enunciated in Essay, the sentence, and the subject of the harvard format enunciation. A better understanding of the meaning of this utterance can be garnered by presenting the speech-act in both its two dimensions, as a case wherein (to formalize): person x says: I am a liar.

The point is that the I in the spoken sentence here is what Lacan calls the Philosophy subject of the enunciated. Of this ego, it may (or may not) be true that s/he is a liar. Yet, this ego is in no way to be identified with what we have called person x in the above formalization. Person x here is not the subject spoken about. S/he is the person speaking. Winter Dreams! And Lacan's point is that it this subject of the enunciation that addresses itself to the Other supposed to know in analysis, despite whatever egoic plays and ploys the analysand might masquerade before his/her analyst in what s/he enunciates.

The hysteric, Lacan thus says, is someone who tells the truth about his/her desire (at the level of enunciation) in the guise of lying or at Philosophy least being indifferent to the factual truths of which she speaks (at the level of the enunciated). The obsessional, by contrast, lies or dissembles the format truth of Philosophy of Leadership Essay his/her involvement in what s/he speaks about (at the formula level of enunciation) in the guise of always telling the truth (at the level of of Leadership what s/he enunciates). Lacan's position is that, when subjects wish to speak about themselves, the subject of enunciation is always either anticipated- at the beginning of the speech-act; or else missed- at the end of the speech-act, whence it has come to be falsely identified with the ego. In line with his prioritization of the future anterior, he comments that the subject always will have been. In philosophical terms, we can say that the Lacanian subject is harvard format, a presupposition of any speech-act (someone will always be speaking), yet impossible to fill out with any substantial content. It is for Philosophy this reason that Slavoj Zizek has recently drawn a parallel between it and The Awakening Essay, Kant's unity of apperception in The Critique of of Leadership Pure Reason . Lacan himself, in his seminar on the logic of winter dreams fantasy, strove to articulate his meaning by a revision of Descartes' famous cogito ergo sum : I am not where I think. Philosophy Essay! The key to this formulation is the opposition between thinking and being. Lacan is saying that, at the point of my thought and speech (the subject of enunciation), there I have no substantial being that could be known. Equally, I am not where I think draws out the necessary misapprehension of the nature of the subject in what s/he enunciates. If Lacan's subject thus seems a direct psychoanalytic restatement of Sartre/Kojeve's position, however, it needs to be read in conjunction with his doctrines concerning the master signifier and strategy formulation, the fundamental fantasy.

Lacan says that master signifiers represent the Philosophy subject for other signifiers. Given his identification of the winter dreams subject with a lack of of Leadership being, a first register of vs Happiness this remark becomes clear. The master signifiers, as examined above, have no particular enunciated content or signified, according to Lacan. But the Lacanian position is precisely that this lack of enunciated content is correlative to the subject. In this way, his theorisation of the subject depends not only on Philosophy Essay a phenomenological analysis, as (for example) Sartre's does in Being and Nothingness . If the subject is the subject of the lack of the winter dreams signifier, Lacan means not only that it cannot be objectified at the point of its thinking, as I examined above. The subject is---directly---something that emerges at the point of- and because of- a lack in the field of signification, on his reckoning. This was already intimated above, in the section on the logics of the fantasy, which recounted Lacan's position concerning how it is that subjects develop regimes of fantasy concerning what Others are supposed to know in order to Philosophy, ground their own belief in, and identification with, the master signifiers.

The point to in Chopin's Essay example, be emphasised now is of Leadership Essay, that these master signifiers, if they are to function, cannot do without this subjective investment of fantasy. Lacan's famous claim there is no metalanguage is meant to imply only this: that there is no field of sense that can be quilted, and attain to a semblance of consistency, unless subjects have invested their partial, biased perspective upon that field. This is even the final and most difficult register to what Lacan aimed to express in bombing conspiracy, the matheme: $ a. As we saw in Part 3, ii., the subject is of Leadership Essay, correlative to the fantasmatically posed lost object/referent of the master signifiers. We can now state a further level of what Lacan implied in this matheme, though. Ribbon Formula! This is that in fantasy what subjects misrecognize is of Leadership, not simply the non-existence of the winter dreams incestuous-maternal Thing. What subjects primordially repress is the necessity of subjects' implication in the play of signification that has over-determined the symbolic coordinates of their lives.

The archetypal neurotic subject-position, Lacan notes, is one of of Leadership Essay victimization. It is the Others who have sinned, and not the subject. S/he has only suffered. What is of course occluded by these considerations (which may be right or wrong from a moral or legal perspective) is how the subject has invested him/herself in the events of magnesium his/her life. Firstly, there is the fantasmatic investment of the subject in the Others supposed to Philosophy Essay, enjoy, who are supposed not to have been made to undergo the castrating losses that s/he has undergone. As Lacan reads Freud's later postulation of the strategy formulation is the process superego, this psychical agency is constructed around residual fantasies of the Oedipal father supposed to have access to the sovereign jouissance of the mother's body denied to the child. Secondly, what is occluded is what Freud already theorised when he spoke of subjects' adaption to and gain from their illness, as a way of Philosophy Essay organising their access to jouissance in defiance of the demands of the big Other. Even if the subject has undergone the most frightful trauma, Lacan argues, what matters is how this trauma has come to be signified subsequently and retrospectively by the subject around the fundamental fantasy.

S/he must be made to avow that the subject-position they have taken up towards their life is something that they have subjectified, and have an ongoing stake in. This is why, in Seminar II , Lacan quips that the winter dreams injunction of psychoanalysis is mange ton dasein! - eat your existence! He means that at the close of the analysis, the subject should come to of Leadership, internalise and so surpass the winter dreams way that it has so far organised your life and relations to Others. It is this point, accordingly, that the ethics of of Leadership Lacanian psychoanalysis is announced. Lacan's name for what occurs at the end of the cure is traversing the fantasy. Winter Dreams! But since what the fantasy does, for of Leadership Lacan, is veil from the subject his/her own implication in and responsibility for formulation is the how s/he experiences the world, to traverse the fantasy is to reavow subjective responsibility. To traverse the fantasy, Lacan theorizes, is to Essay, cease positing that the Other has taken the lost object of desire. It is to The Significance of Art in Chopin's The Awakening, accept that this object is something posited by oneself as a means to compensate for Philosophy Essay the experienced trauma of castration. One comes to accept that castration is not an event with a winner (the father) and a loser (the subject), but a structurally necessary factum for magnesium human-beings as such, to which all speaking subjects have been subjected. What equally follows is the Philosophy giving up of the resentful and acquisitive project of trying to reclaim the objet petit a from the Other, and settling the scores.

This gives way to an identification with the place of this object that is at once within the fabric of the world, and Essay, yet which stands out from it. (Note that this is Philosophy, one Lacanian reading of where It was, there I shall be). The subject who has traversed the fantasy, for Lacan, is the subject who has not ceded on its desire. This desire is no longer fixed by the coordinates of the The Significance Essay example fundamental fantasy. Of Leadership! S/he is able to accept that the fully satisfying sexual object, that which would fulfil the sovereign desire of the mother, does not exist. S/he is thus equally open to winter dreams, accepting that the big Other, and/or any concrete Other supposed by Philosophy Essay, the subject to format, be its authoritive representative(s), does not have what s/he has lost. Lacan puts this by saying that what the subject can now avow is that the Other does not Exist: that it, too, lacks, and what it does and wants depends upon the interventions of the subject.

The subject is, finally, able to thereby accept that what it took to be its place in the order of the Other is Essay, not a finally fixed thing. It can now avow without reserve that it is a lacking subject, or, as Lacan will also say, a subject of desire, but that the winter dreams metonymic sliding of this desire has no final term. Rather than being ceaselessly caught in the lure of the object-cause of desire, this desire is now free to circle around on itself, as it were, and desire only itself, in what is a point of strange final proximity between Lacan and the Nietzcheanism he scarcely ever mentioned in his works.

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1983 Dbq essays and research papers. 86 1983 Dbq Free Essays: 1 - 25. Most of the reasons concerning agrarian discontent in the late nineteenth century stem from supposed threats posed by monopolies and trusts, railroads, money shortages and the demonetization of silver, though in many cases their complaints were not valid. . Imperialism DBQ Throughout American History the U.S. has . DBQ This picture shows an accurate . The crusades occurred in 1095 during the postclassical era just after William the of Leadership, Conqueror had unified England. The fighting was between the Muslims and Christians. Many things contributed to strategy formulation process of causing the Philosophy of Leadership Essay, crusades. Religious motivation and political/ . The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment of the of Art in Chopin's Essay example, 16th and 17th centuries revolutionized thought and learning. Scholasticism and humanism were replaced with rationalism and the scientific method- empiricism.

Scientists were aided by funding by some . Indeed, New England and the Chesapeake regions both had settlers of Philosophy of Leadership Essay English descent; by the 1700's the developments of these sodalities had sculptured them into magnesium formula, two distinct societies. The premier reason for the differentiation of the evolvement was . There were two main parties in the early nineteenth century that could be characterized based on their interpretations of the Constitution. The Jeffersonian Republicans were seen as strict constructionists, while the Federalists were viewed as broad . The generalization that, ???NsThe decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s was more a reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the 1790s than a . Between the years 1825 and 1850, the US underwent a series of social and political reforms which attempted to democratize American life. Reform movements during this period of Jacksonian Democracy attempted to dissolve disunity in the social ladder and . The greeks, between the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, fought for independence from the Ottoman impire. In 1821, when the Greeks revolted against Philosophy Essay, Ottoman turk rule, the Concert of Europe was hardly invoked at all. Ribbon Formula? The cries for of Leadership Essay freedom . The beginning of the 1780's starts off the decade on the right foot. The surrender at strategy of Yorktown ends the war with Great Britain, the Bank of North America is established, the treaty of Paris finalizes the peace with United states and Great Britain, . To prohibit a great people from making all that they can of every part of their own produce advantageous to themselves, is of Leadership Essay a manifest violation of the most sacred rights of mankind. These views of Adam Smith were very much supported throughout . During the Jacksonian era there were many different views on the rights and winter dreams, wrongs of the presidential actions. The Jacksonians thought themselves to be guardians of of Leadership Essay individual liberty, political democracy, the United States Constitution and the equality . 1993 Dbq: New England And Chesapeake. Although the Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies were settled at around the same time, the specific situations affecting each establishment altered the way that they developed. Jamestown was the first settlement on May 24, 1607.

The Virginia . DBQ New England vs. Chesapeake The . Northern Middle-Class Women (1981 Dbq) Between the years of 1776 and 1876, a key change came about in America over the women. Magnesium Ribbon? Before these dates, women were not considered to be very important to Philosophy of Leadership Essay the community. Harvard Format? The only of Leadership major role they played was raising children and bringing food to the table . The settlers of the New England region were most likely driven to succeed in the New World because of how they had been treated in 1993 world trade bombing conspiracy England. They had been strictly persecuted for their religious beliefs, and of Leadership Essay, God was a major part of their lives.

This is . Harvard Format? The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 The Alien and Sedition Acts were not merely intended for immigrants who spoke out against the government but more to detain the growth of the Democratic - Republican Party. These four Acts coercively lessoned the . The path of the revolution endured from about the 1610's to Philosophy Essay the 1780's. Here is where our founding fathers, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, etc. made adjustments to several documents, like the U.S Constitution and lead up to . During the Essay vs Happiness in America, early 1800s, two parties were developed having different perspectives on government and the Constitution. The Democratic Republicans, led by Philosophy Essay, Thomas Jefferson and reference, James Madison, were always characterized by following the strict construction of . Many colonists held a stronger loyalty to their American Colonies than to England by the eve of the Revolution. The battles and trials that they endured gave them an identity and a unity, they had survived through many hardships and any group that does . Wilson's Ineptitude Stubbornness 1991 Dbq Ap History. President Wilson's own ineptitude and stubbornness is of Leadership what led to the Senate's defeat of the The Significance of Art in Chopin's The Awakening Essay, Treaty of Versailles, rather than the of Leadership Essay, strength of the opposing forces. Even Wilson's closest and most trusted advisors could not sway his stance. . Between 1781 and 1789, the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an ineffective government, Although there were flaws, strong steps were taken in the attempt to try and Essay on Consumerism in America, make the United States a better country.

The Articles set up a . During the early 1800's France and Britain were at war and for many years America remained neutral. But, Great Britain began seizing American ships and impressing the Americans into the British Navy. In addition, Great Britain was supplying the Philosophy, . Western Expansion DBQ Throughout the first half of .

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Developing an outputs management plan. We expect the researchers we fund to manage their research outputs in Philosophy of Leadership a way that will achieve the greatest health benefit. These guidelines provide an magnesium ribbon overview of things to consider as you develop your outputs management plan, in line with our policy on data, software and materials management and sharing and Philosophy of Leadership Essay our policy on formulation of intellectual property and patenting. Which research outputs are included. Your outputs management plan should set out your approach for maximising the value of the following types of of Leadership Essay, outputs: datasets generated by your research original software created in the course of your research new materials you create like antibodies, cell lines and reagents intellectual property (IP) such as patents, copyright, design rights and confidential know-how. Research papers and scholarly monographs must be published in is the process of line with our open access policy. These dont need to be addressed in your outputs management plan.

An outputs management plan is required when your proposed research is likely to create significant research outputs that are of Philosophy, value to other researchers and in Chopin's The Awakening users. Significant research outputs are those that hold clear value as a resource for other researchers and users. As a general rule, the effort needed to Essay share or commercialise the outputs is small compared with the potential value unlocked by doing so. proposals where the world trade bombing main goal is to of Leadership Essay create a database resource, a new software tool, or a material or material collection of use to The Awakening example the wider research community research that generates significant datasets, software or materials that could be used to address research questions other than those it was created for research that is expected to generate significant IP. You will be asked to of Leadership submit your plan as part of your grant application.

If your application form refers only to data and software management and sharing, you should complete the in America plan using this guidance, but focus just on data and software. Examples of of Leadership, applications that require an outputs management plan. studies producing whole genome/exome sequence data, whole genome genotype or other omics datasets generated at scale genome-wide or large-scale functional genomic studies in a specific organism longitudinal studies of patient and The Significance in Chopin's The Awakening population cohorts clinical trials large-scale neuro-imaging studies development of Philosophy Essay, viewers and 1993 trade center bombing conspiracy annotation tools that allow visualisation and analysis of DNA, cells and other biological components computational models and simulations of of Leadership Essay, neurological, physiological or other biological systems creation or development of a database, materials collection or other research resource. An outputs management plan is The Significance not usually required for studies that only generate small-scale or limited datasets that are unlikely to be of clear value to other users, and Essay no other significant software, materials or intellectual property. These studies are still expected to make such data, and any underpinning software or materials required to replicate the analysis, available to other researchers upon vs Happiness in America, publication and, wherever possible, to deposit the Philosophy Essay data in a recognised community repository.

You dont need to winter dreams supply a plan if you apply to our Public Engagement schemes. But if we fund your grant we expect you to Philosophy of Leadership Essay make outputs of wider value available to potential users in a timely and appropriate manner. Choosing the on Consumerism vs Happiness in America right route: output sharing or IP and commercialisation. Outputs may be shared with end-users (openly or otherwise) or be made available commercially by of Leadership, licensing for a fee. Your outputs management plan should set out which approach is harvard reference format most likely to maximise the adoption and use of the output by the wider research community and the resulting health benefit. For example, if creating a new software tool, an open approach might be appropriate if others could make immediate and Philosophy of Leadership Essay sustained use of it, (for example under a GNU General Public Licence or other licence approved by the Open Source Initiative). However, a commercial approach might be better if you need further funding or a commercial partner to develop, market, distribute or support the ongoing use of the software. You should also consider whether the vs Happiness in America output would have greater value to the research community if it was incorporated into Philosophy of Leadership Essay, an existing commercial product or an 1993 world trade center bombing conspiracy existing open resource, rather than making it available as a standalone product.

Your plan should be: clear and concise . Essay? Dont repeat methodological detail included elsewhere in your grant application proportionate to harvard reference the scale of the outputs generated and their likely level of of Leadership Essay, value to researchers and other users focused specifically on how outputs will be identified, managed and reference used to Philosophy of Leadership advance potential health benefits structured to address the key issues outlined below. You should have a flexible and dynamic approach to outputs management. You should review and adapt your plan as your research progresses so your outputs deliver the greatest health benefit. Timely publication of 1993 world trade center bombing conspiracy, results in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at conferences are important forms of dissemination, but they are not equivalent to outputs sharing. An intention to publish does not constitute an Essay acceptable outputs management plan. If your proposed research is likely to result in significant outputs, we will not consider your application further if it either: doesnt include an outputs management plan, or includes a plan limited to saying that outputs will be published in a journal, presented at meetings, or made available to others on request.

If your plan relates to more than one type of output, please identify the different types it covers. Your plan should address the following, where relevant: The data and software outputs your research will generate. Consider and briefly describe: the types of data and software the proposed research will generate which data and software will have value to other research users and could be shared the world trade center formats and quality standards that will be applied to enable the data and software to Philosophy of Leadership be shared effectively. We recognise that in some cases it may not be appropriate for researchers to share data and software outputs (eg for ethical or commercial reasons). If you dont intend to magnesium ribbon share significant outputs, you must justify your reasons. Data should be shared in line with recognised data standards, where these exist, and in a way that maximises opportunities for data linkage and interoperability. BioSharing is one directory of Philosophy, available data standards. provide sufficient metadata to allow the dataset to be discovered, interpreted and used by harvard reference, others adopt agreed best practice standards for metadata provision, where these are in place. Software should be shared in a way that allows it to be used effectively, and Philosophy of Leadership we encourage you to provide appropriate and proportionate documentation for the likely user community. We encourage you to share null and negative findings and data, as well as data supporting new findings, where this may have value to the community.

This helps to avoid unnecessary waste and duplication. You must specify the timescale for sharing datasets and software, using any recognised standards of good practice in your research field. Researchers have the right to a reasonable (but not unlimited) period of exclusive use of the research data and software they produce. As a minimum, you should make the data and software underpinning research articles available to other researchers at the time of winter dreams, publication , providing this is Philosophy of Leadership consistent with: any ethics approvals and consents that cover the data reasonable limitations required for the appropriate management and harvard exploitation of IP. Where research data relates to Philosophy of Leadership a public health emergency, quality-controlled data must be shared as rapidly and openly as possible. This is in line with the statement on data sharing in harvard reference format public health emergencies and principles for data sharing in public health emergencies. We encourage researchers to consider opportunities for Philosophy Essay timely and responsible pre-publication sharing of datasets and software. Where appropriate, you may use publication moratoria to winter dreams enable pre-publication sharing with other researchers, while protecting your right to first publication.

Any restrictions on data and of Leadership Essay software use should be reasonable, transparent and in line with established best practice in harvard reference format the respective field. You should deposit data in recognised data repositories for Philosophy of Leadership particular data types where they exist, unless theres a compelling reason not to conspiracy do so. The BioSharing and Re3Data resources provide lists of data resources, and Wellcome Open Research maintains a curated list of approved repositories suitable for Wellcome-funded research. Where there is no recognised subject area repository available, we encourage researchers to Philosophy use general community repositories and resources, such as Dryad, FigShare, the Open Science Framework or Zenodo. If you intend to create a tailored database resource or to store data locally, you should ensure that you have the resources and systems in place to curate, secure and share the data in a way that maximises its value and guards against any associated risks. You need to world trade center conspiracy consider how data held in this way can be effectively linked to and integrated with other datasets to enhance its value to users. For software outputs, use a hosting solution that exposes them to Philosophy of Leadership the widest possible number of users. GitHub allows revision control and collaborative hosting of project code for software development, with associated archiving of each release in winter dreams Zenodo. Philosophy Essay? A suitable revision control system and issue tracker should be in place before programming work begins. Harvard Reference Format? This should be available for all members of the research team. Your plan should set out clearly: how potential users will be able to Philosophy Essay discover, access and re-use data or software outputs any associated terms or conditions.

Where a data or software resource is being developed as part of a funded activity, you should take reasonable steps to ensure that potential users are: made aware of its availability updated on significant revisions and releases. Your plan should outline your approach for maximising the discoverability of strategy formulation process of, your data or software. Where a managed data access process is required eg where a study involves identifiable data about research participants the access mechanisms should be proportionate to of Leadership the risks associated with the data. They must not unduly restrict or delay access. You must describe any managed access procedures in of Art Essay your outputs management plan. It should be consistent and transparent and documented clearly on your study website.

Depending on Philosophy of Leadership the study, you may want to establish a graded access procedure where less sensitive data eg anonymised and aggregate data is made readily available, and more sensitive datasets have a more stringent assessment. Where a Data Access Committee is needed to assess data access requests, the committee should include individuals with appropriate expertise who are independent of the project. The Expert Advisory Group on Data Access has set out key principles for developing data access and governance mechanisms, to The Significance of Art in Chopin's Essay example which applicants should refer. We encourage all researchers to Essay use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or other persistent identifiers for their data and software outputs, to enable their re-use to be cited and tracked. The DataCite initiative provides a key route through which DOIs are assigned to datasets. Many repositories assign DOIs on deposition. Where appropriate, you may also publish an article describing dataset or software output to help users discover, access and 1993 world conspiracy reference the resource. You can use venues such as Scientific Data, Giga Science and Essay Wellcome Open Research. Open software and 1993 world trade center bombing database licences. If youre sharing your output through a repository, the terms by which you do so are likely to be set by the repository itself. If youre sharing directly with the research community, you need to consider the most appropriate way to do so, for example by Philosophy of Leadership, an appropriate open licence or public domain dedication.

For data, we recommend Creative Commons licences such as CC0 or CC BY. For software, the Open Source Initiative provides access to a range of open software licences, such as the on Consumerism vs Happiness GNU General Public Licence, Apache Licence, and the MIT Licence. Where possible, you should select one of these standard licences (rather than using a bespoke licence). You must make sure its clear which licence has been applied, so that users can see whether the of Leadership data or software is accessible and on what terms. For some research, delays or limits on data sharing may be necessary to safeguard research participants or to ensure you can gain IP protection. Restrictions should be minimised as much as possible and set out clearly in your outputs management plans, if required. Safeguarding research participants. For research involving human subjects, data must be managed and shared in a way thats fully consistent with the terms of the consent under which samples and data were provided by the research participants.

For prospective studies, consent procedures should include provision for vs Happiness data sharing in a way that maximises the value of the data for wider research use, while providing adequate safeguards for participants. Philosophy Essay? Procedures for data sharing should be set out of Art The Awakening Essay example, clearly, and Philosophy of Leadership current and potential future risks explained to The Significance participants. When designing studies, you must make sure that you protect the confidentiality and security of human subjects, including through appropriate anonymisation procedures and Philosophy of Leadership managed access processes. Delays or restrictions on data or software sharing may be appropriate to protect and use IP in line with our policy on intellectual property and patenting. On Consumerism Vs Happiness? If this applies, you should only share data or software when it no longer jeopardises your IP position or commercialisation plans. Your proposed approach for identifying, protecting and using IP should be set out as described in the IP section of this guidance below. You need to consider how datasets and software that have long-term value will be preserved and curated beyond the lifetime of your grant. If your proposal is to create a bespoke data or software resource, or to store data or software locally rather than to use a recognised repository, your plan should state how you expect to preserve and share the dataset or software when your funding ends.

What materials your research will produce and how these will be made available. Your plan should identify any significant materials you expect to develop using Wellcome funding, which could be of Essay, potential value as a resource to ribbon other researchers. You should identify in your plan how the Essay materials will be made available to potential users. For example, by: depositing in harvard a recognised collection such as ECACC licensing to a reputable life science business partner who can handle advertising, manufacture, storage and Philosophy of Leadership distribution. If the material is highly specialised and the potential number of users is so small that commercial partners cannot be found, distributing samples yourself to other researchers who have asked for them, may be an acceptable plan. However, where possible, you should find a more sustainable long-term solution that doesnt put an undue burden on you or your institution. When dealing with commercial entities, you should retain the winter dreams right to Philosophy of Leadership Essay produce the research materials yourself, and to winter dreams license others to Philosophy of Leadership Essay do so, if your chosen commercial partner is unable or unwilling to continue supplying them to the research community. Whilst your institution may generate reasonable revenue from commercialising research materials, the primary driver should not be revenue generation. Magnesium Formula? You should ensure that your research materials are made available to the wider research community and thereby advance the development of of Leadership, health benefits. What IP your research will generate. Your plan should describe any significant IP that is harvard reference likely to arise during your research.

You should identify what processes you have in of Leadership place to trade conspiracy identify and capture this IP, as well as any unanticipated discoveries or inventions that result from your work. You should describe if and how you will protect significant Wellcome-funded IP. For example, if youre registering a patent or design, you should briefly outline the territories in which youll do this. Publication of details relating to an invention can limit or entirely destroy the potential to patent and commercialise the invention in the future. If you think that patentable Wellcome-funded IP will arise (or when unanticipated IP has arisen), you should explain how youll make sure that publications dont affect your ability to of Leadership Essay secure and make suitable use of winter dreams, patent protection to Philosophy of Leadership Essay advance health benefits. Wellcome sees IP as a tool which can be used to advance health benefits. You should therefore focus on: the benefits your use of the IP will bring to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness the wider research community how this will benefit health. If your research output is particularly relevant to humanitarian or developing world issues, your plan should specifically address how: the output can best be made available for use internationally to Philosophy address those issues your IP strategy will allow this. Where Wellcome-funded IP comprises a patentable invention, we expect in most cases that it will be protected by of Art Essay example, filing a patent application. This should be done at a time which maximises the Philosophy of Leadership Essay prospects of achieving the desired health benefits, even if this requires a delay to publication. You should only publish details of a potentially patentable invention (without having first sought patent protection) where: a market assessment has been carried out and in Chopin's Essay example there is Philosophy no credible prospect of a patent for that invention being commercialised now or in the near future. a deliberate decision not to patent the harvard invention (and not to allow anyone else to Philosophy of Leadership patent) has been taken for harvard reference policy reasons.

Publication instead of patenting in this case should clearly benefit the wider research community and support the delivery of Philosophy of Leadership, health benefits. Discuss this with your institution if youre unsure. Contact Wellcome for advice before publication if youre still unsure. Revenue generation should only be a secondary consideration. The primary driver for any commercialisation must be to advance health benefit, even if your employer may generate revenue from commercialising Wellcome-funded IP.

You should consider what resources you may need to deliver your plan and outline where dedicated resources are required. Examples of ribbon, resources you can ask for include: support for one or more dedicated data manager or data scientist (full- or part-time) data and software management training for research or support staff that are needed to deliver the proposed research. We dont usually consider costs for occasional or routine support from institutional data managers or other support staff. any dedicated hardware or software that is Philosophy of Leadership Essay required to deliver your proposed research the cost of accessing a supercomputer or other shared facilities. We would usually expect costs associated with routine data storage to be met by the institution. We will only 1993 trade center bombing conspiracy consider storage costs associated with large or complex datasets which exceed standard institutional allowances. the reasonable costs of operating an access committee or other data access mechanism over the lifetime of the award the costs of preparing and sharing data, software or materials with users (and whether cost-recovery mechanisms will be used) the costs of ingesting secondary data, code or materials from users costs associated with accessing data, software or materials from others researchers that you need to take forward your proposed research.

ingestion or deposition costs to recognised subject repositories for data, code and materials the costs for data or code deposition in unstructured repositories (eg FigShare, Dryad and Zenodo) where no recognised subject repository exists. If no repository is Essay suitable, we may consider ingestion costs for institutional repositories. We dont usually consider estimated costs for curation and maintenance of data, code and materials that extend beyond the lifetime of the 1993 conspiracy award. But were willing to discuss how we can help support the long-term preservation of Philosophy of Leadership Essay, very high-value outputs on a case-by-case basis. FAIRsharing a curated and harvard format searchable portal of data standards, databases, and policies in the life sciences and other scientific disciplines. Digital Curation Centre the UK's leading centre of expertise in data curation. The DCC provides a range of Philosophy Essay, resources and training opportunities for the UK higher education sector, and has developed an ribbon formula online tool for developing data management plans in line with funder requirements. Medical Research Council guidance and resources the MRC has developed detailed practical guidance for researchers on data sharing. a global registry of research data repositories across different academic disciplines. Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? UK Data Archive an internationally recognised repository of Essay vs Happiness, digital research data in the social sciences and humanities, with associated guidance and services for researchers.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute data sharing guidance the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute has a policy setting out the Essay principles that underlie data sharing at magnesium formula the Institute, with associated guidance for researchers. Software Sustainability Institute the UKs leading source of expertise in research software sustainability. SSI offers training and Philosophy of Leadership advice targeting the specific concerns of research software, including a series of online guides on best practice in ribbon formula software development, licensing, repositories and Philosophy using a software management plan. Software Carpentry since 1998, Software Carpentry has been teaching basic software skills to winter dreams researchers in science, engineering, and Philosophy of Leadership Essay medicine. World Trade Center Conspiracy? They run a worldwide training programme, and provide open access material for self-instruction. myGrid myGrid host a suite of tools designed to support the creation of e-science laboratories. The tools have been adopted by a large variety of projects and institutions. Open Source Initiative OSI provide the definition for open source software and maintain a list of licences that comply with that definition. GitHub and of Leadership Essay SourceForge GitHub is the current preferred repository for software collaboration, code review, and code management for 1993 trade open source projects. SourceForge has also been heavily used within the research community for open source development in the past.

Public Health England is the custodian of four unique collections that consist of Philosophy of Leadership Essay, expertly preserved, authenticated cell lines and microbial strains of known provenance namely the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC), the National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC), the National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) and the National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCPF). For grant-related queries please contact our grants information desk or one of our grants advisers: