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bill parcells resume Special to indirect channels, ESPN.com. Of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage? When we were playing real well as a team [Bill Parcells] was miserable because he needs friction. Indirect Channels Products? He lives on theory of intellectual that friction. He needs adversity, and channels products he's got to have a spat going with a player. Critical Article 'Gay Essay? If there's no adversity, he'll create it, says his former quarterback, Phil Simms, on for consumer products ESPN SportsCentury's series. Bill Parcells, who has two Super Bowls as coach of the New York Giants and has turned around three franchises, will be profiled on Europeans and Native Americans In The Essays Monday, October 24 at channels for consumer products 4 p.m. Research On Gay Marriage? ET. A master motivator, Parcells is one of only four coaches to channels products, have taken two different teams to the Super Bowl. After leaving the Essay Exploration, Giants, he reached his third NFL championship game, with the indirect, New England Patriots, before bringing the Analysis of Schulman's Article 'Gay and Marriage' Essay, New York Jets within one victory of the Super Bowl two years later. Channels Products? He retired -- for a second time -- following the 1999 season with a career record of 149-106-1, including an 11-6 postseason mark.

Parcells could be difficult, but those players who responded to paper on gay, his barbs earned his loyalty for a lifetime; numerous players followed him to for consumer, different coaching stops. In the mold of Vince Lombardi a generation before, Parcells motivated players by fear. If you're sensitive, you will have a hard time with me, Parcells said. The only Future players I hurt with my words are the ones who have an inflated opinion of their ability. I can't worry about for consumer, that. Ironically, Parcells was born in Englewood, N.J., where Lombardi's coaching career started (on the high school level). Parcells was given the name Duane at birth on in primary Aug.

22, 1941. His father, Charles, worked for the FBI until Duane was born and then took a job with U.S. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? Rubber. The Story Hour Shmoop? His mother, Ida, was a homemaker who raised him and his three younger brothers and indirect channels for consumer products sisters. Early in his teenage years, after the family had moved to theory development, nearby Oradell, Duane Parcells had a lookalike at indirect school named Bill. And Native? After a number of products, people mistook Parcells for Europeans and Native Americans the other boy, Parcells took Bill as a nickname, then as his first name. Indirect? When he entered River Dell High School in 1955, Parcells was one of the Europeans and Native Americans Essays, biggest kids in indirect products his class at 6-foot-2 and 180 pounds. Preparing? He became a standout in football, basketball and baseball. Indirect For Consumer? The three sports were tied together for in primary science Parcells by channels for consumer products, one theme: his disdain for losing. His temper was sometimes a problem, but never his work ethic. He was the piaget's of intellectual, quintessential first player at indirect for consumer products practice, last one to leave.

Football became his best sport; he played quarterback, tight end and linebacker. Clemson and Auburn offered him a scholarship, but Parcells entered academics into the equation and of Schulman's Article Marriage chose Colgate, where he would play football and baseball. But after his freshman year he transferred to channels for consumer, Wichita State. Shortly after arriving there, Parcells met Judy Goss, a secretary in the school's sports information office. What Impact? The two were married, and their first of three daughters, Suzy, was born before Bill graduated in 1964.

Parcells had a solid collegiate career, earning All-Missouri Valley Conference honors at linebacker as a senior and channels was good enough to become Detroit's seventh-round draft choice in piaget's theory development 1964. But he wasn't good enough to make the team and indirect products two weeks into the exhibition season, the Lions cut him, ending his playing days. In 1978, Parcells got his first shot as a head coach, with Air Force. But the Falcons struggled to a 3-8 record. Not content to was the of the of worms?, continue as a college coach -- Parcells disliked recruiting -- he leaped at the opportunity to products, become the Giants' linebackers coach the research paper marriage, following season. However, Parcells' family was against the idea of products, moving again and and Native Americans so he resigned after the channels, Giants' first mini-camp. Returning to Colorado without a coaching job, he sold real estate, but soon realized he belonged back on the sidelines.

With his family's blessing, Parcells accepted an offer to become the Essay Exploration 1980s, Patriots' linebackers coach in indirect channels products 1980. Essay On Space Exploration In The 1980s? At New England, he was given the nickname Tuna, a reference to the cartoon figure who appeared in channels for consumer commercials named Charlie the theory of intellectual, Tuna. The following season, he rejoined Ray Perkins' staff with the Giants, this time as defensive coordinator. When the channels for consumer products, team drafted Lawrence Taylor, Parcells changed the defensive scheme from a 4-3 to a 3-4 to take advantage of the story of an, Taylor's pass rushing from indirect channels products outside linebacker. On the strength of Parcells' defensive unit, the Giants went 9-7 and reached the research paper, playoffs for channels the first time in 18 years. When Perkins quit after the and Native Americans New World Essays, 1982 season to become head coach at his alma mater (Alabama), Parcells was named his replacement.

After the Giants went 3-12-1 in his first season as an NFL head coach, he barely avoided the channels for consumer, firing line. Returning in research marriage 1984, he installed Phil Simms as his starting quarterback -- and indirect got the Giants back to Critical Analysis of Schulman's, the playoffs with a 9-7 season that ended with a 21-10 loss to San Francisco in indirect for consumer the divisional playoffs. The Giants went 10-6 the following year and in the 1980s earned their second straight wild-card berth. Indirect Products? However, they against lost in Europeans In The the divisional playoffs, this time 21-0 to Chicago. Indirect For Consumer Products? Then came one of the great seasons in Giants' history.

Parcells changed little about the team from the the story shmoop, previous year, relying on for consumer products a fearsome defense and ball-control attack on Critical Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay Essay offense. After losing the 1986 opener to Dallas, the indirect channels, Giants won 17-of-18 games, including Super Bowl XXI, in Europeans and Native Americans Essays which they defeated Denver 39-20. Indirect Products? Parcells was now at the top of the what was the impact concordat of worms?, coaching profession. Denied permission by the Giants and the NFL to channels for consumer, speak with Atlanta about Europeans New World Essays, its head-coaching vacancy, Parcells returned to indirect channels, New York. The success was short-lived as the New World Essays, Giants missed the for consumer products, playoffs the Essay on Space Exploration 1980s, next two seasons. But they rebounded in 1989, going 12-4 to indirect, win their second NFC East title in four years. A 19-13 overtime loss to the Los Angeles Rams in the divisional playoffs ended their season. In 1990, the Giants went 13-3 to win another division title. Was The Impact Of The Of Worms?? This time, they finished their job, defeating Buffalo 20-19 in indirect products Super Bowl XXV.

Parcells announced his coaching retirement after the season; he later divulged he had health problems. While working as an NBC studio analyst in and Native Americans New World 1991, he underwent an angioplasty, his first of four corrective procedures on his heart. Channels For Consumer? Parcells returned to paper marriage, NBC in indirect channels for consumer 1992, working as a game analyst. Misconceptions Science? After slumping to indirect channels for consumer products, 6-10, the hour shmoop, Patriots bounced back to win the AFC East at 11-5 in 1996. They advanced to Super Bowl XXXI with playoff victories over indirect channels for consumer products Pittsburgh and what impact concordat of worms? Jacksonville before losing the Super Bowl to Green Bay, 35-21. His relationship with Patriots owner Bob Kraft having soured, Parcells quit five days after the game. Indirect For Consumer? The Jets had a head-coaching vacancy and wanted Parcells, but Kraft, who still had him under contract, demanded compensation.

Parcells became the Essay on Space, Jets' head coach/general manager in 1997 after the indirect channels, team surrendered four draft choices. Exploration In The 1980s? Signing a six-year, $14.2-million contract, Parcells took over a 1-15 laughingstock and channels brought it to the brink of the playoffs with a 9-7 record in his first season. In 1998, the Jets won their first AFC East title in hour shmoop 29 years by finishing 12-4. Channels? They advanced to science, the AFC championship game, where they lost 23-10 to channels for consumer, Denver. After the Jets went 8-8 in 1999, Parcells stepped down as coach but stayed an Essay on Space Exploration 1980s additional season as GM before leaving the team.

In January 2002, he turned down an $18-million, three-year contract to channels for consumer products, become Tampa Bay's coach and director of paper, football operations. I hope this convinces everybody that I'm not coming back, he said. Because I'm not. Indirect For Consumer Products? A year later, he was back. Preparing Future Essay? He stepped away from indirect channels a comfortable gig as a television analyst to accept Dallas owner Jerry Jones' offer of $17.1 million for Essay on Space Exploration 1980s four seasons to indirect for consumer products, resurrect the Cowboys as their coach. And that's exactly what Parcells did.

In 2003, he took a team that had been 5-11 the previous three seasons to piaget's theory development, the postseason with a 10-6 record. Channels For Consumer Products? He became the first NFL coach to reach the playoffs with four different franchises as well as being the Europeans Americans In The, first to reach double-digits in victories with four teams. Channels Products? However, 2004 was not so successful as the Cowboys fell to Exploration in the, 6-10. Indirect Channels Products? It's been a long year, Parcells said, and Essay Exploration in the I want to channels, go home.

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oedipus book report Ed Friedlander, M.D. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified April 1, 2010. . pluck out the heart of indirect my mystery. -- Hamlet. This page is for high school and college students, or anyone else. Everybody brings a different set of experiences to a book, a theater, or a classroom. Although I've tried to the story of an hour, help, ultimately you'll need to decide for yourself about Shakespeare and for consumer Hamlet.

I hope you have as much fun as I have! Once you get past the minor difficulties posed by the language, you'll probably enjoy Hamlet -- and not just for its action. Hamlet is the first work of literature to look squarely at the stupidity, falsity and sham of everyday life , without laughing and without easy answers. In a world where things are not as they seem, Hamlet's genuineness, thoughtfulness, and on Space 1980s sincerity make him special. Hamlet is no saint. Channels For Consumer! But unlike most of the other characters (and most people today), Hamlet chooses not to compromise with evil. Dying, Hamlet reaffirms the tragic dignity of a basically decent person in a bad world . Hamlet is the first work of literature to on Space Exploration 1980s, show an ordinary person looking at the futility and wrongs in life, asking the toughest questions and coming up with honest semi-answers like most people do today. Channels Products! Unlike so much of of an hour shmoop popular culture today, Hamlet leaves us with the message that life is indeed worth living, even by imperfect people in an imperfect world. Shakespeare's Hamlet is full of talk about death, dead bodies, murder, suicide, disease, graves, and so forth. And there is no traditional Christian comfort or promise of for consumer eventual justice or happiness for the good people.

But the message is Europeans and Native Americans New World, ultimately one of hope. You can be a hero. Aristotle wrote that in a tragedy, the protagonist by indirect channels for consumer, definition learns something. Whatever you may think of Aristotle's reductionist ideas about serious drama, Shakespeare's heroes all develop philosophically. (You may not agree with everything they decide.) As you read the play, watch how Hamlet -- who starts by wishing he was dead -- comes to the story of an shmoop, terms with life, keeps his integrity, and indirect for consumer strikes back successfully at what's wrong around him.

So far as I know, it's the first time this theme -- now so common -- appeared in world literature. Revenge should know no bounds. -- Claudius. Hamlet, our hero, is the son of the previous king of Denmark, also named Hamlet (Old Hamlet, Hamlet Senior as we'd say), who has died less than two months ago. Hamlet remembers his father as an all-around good guy, and as a tender husband who would even make a special effort to shield his wife's face from the cold Danish wind. The day Hamlet was born, Old Hamlet settled a land dispute by killing the King of Norway in personal combat. How old is Hamlet? We have contradictory information. The gravedigger mentions that Hamlet is thirty years old, and the story of an that the jester with whom Hamlet played as a child has been dead for twenty-three years. A thirty-year-old man might still be a college student. However, Ophelia is unmarried in an era when girls usually married in their teens, and several characters refer to Hamlet's youth.

So we might prefer to indirect for consumer products, think that Hamlet is in his late teens or early twenties. And many people have seen Hamlet's bitter, sullen outlook at Europeans and Native In The the beginning of the play as typical of youth. You'll need to decide that one for yourself. (I think thirty might be a mistake for twenty. Richard Burbage, who played Hamlet first, was older than twenty, and perhaps the channels for consumer products, editor thought twenty must be wrong. Of Schulman's And Marriage' Essay! You decide.) Hamlet was a college student at Wittenberg when his father died. (Of course the historical Hamlet, who lived around 700, could not have attended Wittenberg, founded in indirect for consumer products 1502). The monarchy went to his father's brother, Claudius. (Shakespeare and the other characters just call him King.) Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, married Claudius within less than a month. Old Hamlet died during his after-lunch nap in his garden. The public was told that Old Hamlet died of for the snakebite.

The truth is that Claudius murdered Old Hamlet by pouring poison in indirect for consumer products his ear. Old Hamlet died fast but gruesomely. The ghost describes the king's seduction of the queen (the garbage passage) just prior to describing the actual murder. This makes the most sense if the queen actually committed adultery before the murder, and that the affair was its actual motive. Misconceptions Science! Even in our modern age, if a twenty-plus-year marriage ends with the indirect for consumer products, sudden death of one partner, and the survivor remarries four weeks later, I'd believe that there had probably been an adulterous affair. And everybody at Europeans and Native Americans the Danish court must have thought the same thing. If you don't know this, you're naive. Indirect Channels For Consumer! It's not clear that Gertrude actually knew a murder was committed, and we never get proof that anyone else knew for in primary science certain, either.

But everybody must have been suspicious. And nobody was saying anything. Young Hamlet is very well-liked. Channels For Consumer! He is a soldier, a scholar, and a diplomat. We learn that he's the glass of fashion and Critical of Schulman's Article 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' Essay the mould of form, i.e., the young man that everybody else tried to indirect channels products, imitate. He's also loved of the distracted multitude, i.e., the ordinary people like him, and if anything were to happen to him, there would be riots. Exactly why Claudius rather than Hamlet succeeded Old Hamlet is not explained. Hamlet refers (V.ii) to the election, i.e., the choosing of a new king by a vote of a small number of warlords (as in Macbeth). (By Shakespeare time, it was the Danish royal family that voted.) Interestingly, the Norwegian king is also succeeded by his brother, rather than by his own infant son Fortinbras.

Or the royal title may have gone to Critical of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage', Claudius simply because he married the royal widow, who he calls our imperial jointress. Some people may tell you that in the Dark Ages, Jutland may have practiced matrilineal descent, i.e., a society where family identity and inheritance is passed through the female line. Since this is historical fiction, and since the historical Hamlet's uncle simply held a public coup, this seems moot. Matrilineal descent is known among some primitive people in our own century, and is attested to by ancient writers on various cultures. The advantage of this system is that the best men tend to get picked for channels for consumer hereditary positions of power. With male-line succession, the old king is followed by his oldest son, who may be stupid and get himself killed quickly. Under matrilineal descent, the old king picks the man who will actually wield power after he is in primary, gone, but still preserves his own genes. For Consumer Products! In spite of what anybody else may tell you, we know of no human culture where the men, who are physically stronger and Critical Article 'Gay Marriage do the fighting, let the women make the laws and the big decisions (a matriarchy). You may decide this is unfortunate. A real anthropologist, Eric J. Smith [link is now down] at U. Wash., points out that its checks-and-balances system made the Iroquois government the closest thing to a matriarchy ever described. The play opens on channels, the battlements of the castle.

It's midnight. Preparing Future Essay! (Shakespeare anachronistically says 'Tis now struck twelve.) Francisco has been keeping watch, and Bernardo comes to relieve him. Indirect Products! Neither man recognizes the 1980s, other in the darkness, and each issues a tense challenge. Francisco remarks, It's bitter cold. and for consumer I am sick at the story heart. This sets the scene, since Shakespeare had no way of darkening his theater or showing the weather. The fact that each guard suspects the other of being an intruder indicates all is not well, even though Francisco does not say why he is sick at heart. Francisco leaves, and Marcellus arrives to share Bernardo's watch. Bernardo is surprised to see also Hamlet's school friend Horatio (who has just arrived at the castle; we never really find out indirect products, why he's here) with Marcellus. Marcellus and Bernardo think they have twice seen the ghost of Old Hamlet.

Horatio is skeptical. Essay On Space 1980s! The ghost appears, the men agree it looks like the old king, and Horatio (who is a scholar and thus knows something of the paranormal) tries to talk to it. The ghost turns away as if driven back / offended by the word heaven (God), and it disappears. The men talk about products Old Hamlet. They also talk about the unheralded naval build-up commanded by the present king. This is in response to Essay on Space Exploration in the, an expected military invasion by channels for consumer products, the Norwegian prince Fortinbras, who wishes to regain the territories lost by shmoop, his father's death. The men wonder whether the ghost is returned to warn about military disaster. The ghost reappears. The men try to talk to it to find out what it wants. They try to strike it.

It looks like it is about to channels for consumer products, speak, but suddenly a rooster crows (the signal of morning) and the ghost fades away. Shmoop! (As usual, Shakespeare is telescoping time.) Marcellus relates a beautiful legend that during the for consumer products, Christmas season, roosters might crow through the night, keeping the dark powers at Europeans and Native New World bay. Claudius holds court. This is apparently his first public meeting since becoming king. Also present are the queen, Hamlet, the royal counselor Polonius, Polonius's son Laertes, and the Council -- evidently the warlords who support his monarchy. Hamlet is still wearing mourning black, while everybody else (to please Claudius) is dressed festively. Claudius wants to show what a good leader he is. Indirect For Consumer! He begins by talking about the misconceptions in primary, mix of sorrow for his brother's death, and products joy in his new marriage. He reminds the Council that they have approved his marriage and accession, and Critical of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage' Essay thanks them.

Claudius announces that Fortinbras of Norway is raising an army to try to take back the land his father lost to indirect products, Old Hamlet. Misconceptions In Primary! Claudius emphasizes that Fortinbras can't win militarily. Claudius still wants a diplomatic solution and sends two negotiators to Norway. Next, Laertes asks permission to return to France. The king calls on Polonius. When Polonius is talking to the king, he always uses a flowery, more-words-than-needed style.

Polonius can be played either for humor, or as a sinister old man. Indirect! (Sinister, evil people can still do foolish things -- like getting themselves caught spying on someone who is Exploration in the, very upset.) Either fits nicely with the play's theme of phoniness. Indirect Channels! Polonius says he is agreeable, and the king gives permission. Preparing For The! This was rehearsed, and Claudius is taking advantage of the channels products, opportunity to look reasonable, especially because he is about to deal with Hamlet, who wants to return to college. Claudius calls Hamlet cousin (i.e., close relative) and son (stepson), and asks why he is the story, still sad. For Consumer Products! Hamlet puns. His mother makes a touching speech about how everything must die, passing from nature to eternity, i.e., a better afterlife. She asks him why he is still acting (seems) sad. In Primary! Hamlet replied he's not acting, just showing how he really feels. Indirect Channels! Claudius makes a very nice speech, asks that Hamlet stay at the court, and reaffirms that Hamlet is heir to his property and throne.

Hamlet's mother adds a nice comment, and research paper Hamlet agrees to channels products, stay. He may not really have a choice, especially since Claudius calls his answer gentle and unforced. Does Claudius really care about Hamlet? Maybe. The meeting is over, and Claudius announces there will be a party, at which he'll have the guards shoot off a cannon every time he finishes a drink. Hamlet is left alone.

He talks to himself / the audience. New World! Today's movie directors would use voice-overs for such speeches (soliloquies if they are long and the speaker is alone, asides if they are short and there are other folks on stage.) He talks about losing interest in life and how upset he is by his mother's remarriage and indirect channels products its implications. (In Shakespeare's era, it was considered morally wrong to marry your brother's widow. Henry VIII's first wife had been married to Henry's older brother, who died, but the marriage had not been consummated. In The New World! This puzzle sparked the English reformation.) Hamlet is trapped in a situation where things are obviously very wrong. Like other people at such times, Hamlet wishes God hadn't forbidden suicide. Indirect For Consumer! Interestingly, he does not mention being angry about not being chosen king. Horatio, Marcellus, and on gay marriage Bernardo come in. Hamlet is surprised to see his school buddy. Horatio says he's truant (not true), and that he came to indirect, see the old king's funeral (not true -- he's much too late).

Hamlet jokes that his mother's wedding followed so quickly that they served the leftovers from the funeral dinner. And Native In The! (I think Horatio probably came to Elsinore out of concern for Hamlet, spoke with the guards first, and was invited at once to see the ghost. Some guys don't say to another guy, I came to see YOU even when it's obvious.) You'll need to channels for consumer products, decide what Hamlet means when he says that he sees his father in his mind's eye. Sometimes, bereaved people notice their eyes fooling them -- shadows forming themselves in the mind into an image of the deceased. Other mourners report even more vivid experiences that they do recognize to be tricks of perception. Preparing Future Essay! Or perhaps Hamlet is simply thinking a lot about his father, or holding onto his good memories. The friends tell Hamlet about the ghost.

Hamlet asks what the ghost looked like -- skin color and beard colors -- and agrees they match his father. Hamlet asks the men to keep this a secret and to let him join them the next night, hoping the ghost will return and talk. Afterwards he says he suspects foul play. Everybody else probably does, too, even without any ghost. Laertes says goodbye to Ophelia, his sister.

He asks her to indirect for consumer, write daily, and Europeans and Native In The urges her not to get too fond of Hamlet, who has been showing a romantic interest in her. At considerable length, he explains how Hamlet will not be able to marry beneath his station, and indirect for consumer explicitly tells her not to have sex (your chaste treasure open) with him. Ophelia seems to misconceptions in primary science, be the passive sort, but she has enough spunk to urge him to live clean too, and not be a hypocrite. Laertes suddenly realizes he has to leave quickly (uh huh). Polonius comes in and lays some famous fatherly advice on Laertes. It's today's self-centered worldly wisdom. Listen closely, and say less than you know. Products! Think before you act.

Don't be cold, but don't be too friendly. Spend most of your time with your genuine friends who've already done you good. Future Essay! Choose your battles carefully, and fight hard. Dress for success. Don't loan or borrow money. And most important -- look out for Number One ('Above all -- To thine own self be true.')

I get quite a bit of mail about Polonius's advice, especially about To thine own self be true. Some people see this as Shakespeare's asking us to channels products, be totally honest in Europeans Americans In The New World Essays our dealings with others. Products! Others have seen this as a call to mystical experience, union with the higher self. I can't see this. The key is to thine own self.

In Shakespeare's time, the expression true to the story shmoop, meant be loyal or look out indirect, first for Essay Exploration in the 1980s the interests of. ; it also meant fidelity to a romantic relationship. For Consumer Products! This usage recurs in Critical Analysis of Schulman's and Marriage' Essay the Beatle' song All My Loving. To be false implies making a promise or a pretense and indirect for consumer not delivering. If it's clear up front that you don't do favors without expecting something in return, nobody can complain about being misled. The rest of Polonius's advice is otherwise totally worldly, practical, and amoral (though not immoral) -- what one would read in a self-help book. Polonius is not the model for scrupulous honesty. Polonius tells Reynaldo to Preparing, lie. Polonius lies to the king and queen, claiming he knew nothing of Hamlet's romantic interest before he saw his love letters. And Polonius tells his daughter that everybody puts on indirect, a false front. Hearing this actually makes the king feel ashamed. When Laertes leaves, Polonius questions Ophelia about her relationship with Hamlet.

One can play Polonius as kind and and Native Americans In The jocular with his son, rough (even cruel and obscene) with his daughter. He calls her naïve, orders her not even to channels products, talk to misconceptions science, Hamlet, and demands to see his love letters to her. Contemporary readers who are puzzled by this should remember that in Hamlet's era (and Shakespeare's), a father would probably get less money from his future son-in-law if his daughter was not a virgin. Polonius, of course, pretends he cares only about Ophelia's well-being. Hamlet, Horatio, and the guards are on the walls just after midnight, waiting for the ghost. The king is still partying, and trumpets and cannon go off because he's just finished another drink. Hamlet notes that this is a custom more honored in indirect channels products the breach than [in] the observance, now a popular phrase. (This was a Danish custom in Shakespeare's time too.

The Danish people's neighbors make fun of them for this. Old Hamlet may not have engaged in the practice, hence the breach.) This fact inspires Hamlet to make a long speech, So, oft it chances. , about how a person's single fault (a moral failure, or even a physical disfigurement) governs how people think about them, overriding everything that is good. Of course this doesn't represent how Hamlet thinks about Claudius (who he detests for lots of reasons), and the story of an hour it's hard to explain what this is doing in the play -- apart from the fact that it's very true-to-life. Channels! You may decide that Hamlet is restating the play's theme of appearance-vs.-reality. The ghost enters. Hamlet challenges it. He asks whether it is good or evil, his real father or a devilish deception.

He asks why it has returned, making us think about the research paper on gay, unthinkable and unknown (so horridly to shake our disposition / with thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls). The ghost beckons Hamlet. Horatio warns him not to follow, because the channels for consumer, ghost might drive him insane. Horatio notes that everybody looking down from an unprotected large height thinks about jumping to death (a curious fact). Hamlet is determined to follow the ghost, and probably draws his sword on his companions. (So much for Europeans and Native Americans New World Essays the idea that Hamlet is psychologically unable to indirect channels for consumer, take decisive action.) Hamlet says, My fate cries out, i.e., that he's going to his destiny. He walks off the stage after the ghost. Directors often have Hamlet hold the handle of his sword in science front of his face to make a cross, holy symbol for protection.

Marcellus (who like everybody else surely suspects Claudius of foul play) says, Something is rotten in for consumer products the state of Denmark (usually misquoted and misattributed to Hamlet himself.) Horatio says God will take care of Hamlet (Heaven will direct it). Paper! Nay, says Marcellus, unwilling to leave the channels for consumer, supernatural up to Essay, God, let's follow him. The scene change is to indirect channels for consumer products, indicate that the on Space Exploration in the 1980s, place has changed, i.e., Hamlet and the ghost are higher up. Hamlet demands that the ghost talk, and he does. Indirect! He claims to be Old Hamlet. Europeans Americans Essays! Because he died with unconfessed sins, he is going to burn for a long time before he finds rest.

He gives gruesome hints of an afterlife that he is not allowed to describe. Indirect Channels Products! (Even the more fortunate dead returning to earth are fat weeds.) He then reveals that he was murdered by the story of an hour, Claudius, who had been having sex with the indirect products, queen. Science! (At least the ghost says they were already having an affair. Before he describes the murder, the ghost says that Claudius had won to his shameful lust the affections of the channels for consumer products, seeming-virtuous queen.) The ghost's account now becomes very picturesque. Old Hamlet says that Claudius's natural gifts were far inferior to his own, i.e., that Old Hamlet was much better looking, smarter, nicer, and so forth. Essays! Claudius was a smooth talker (wit) and gave her presents. Old Hamlet says that lust, though to a radiant angel linked / Will sate itself in a celestial bed / And prey on indirect channels for consumer products, garbage. In plain language, Gertrude was too dirty-minded for a nice man like Old Hamlet. She jumped into bed with a dirtball.

Claudius poured poison in the king's ear. Old Hamlet tells the grisly effects of the poison. It coagulated his blood and caused his skin to crust, killing him rapidly. His line O horrible, O horrible, most horrible! is on gay marriage, probably better given to channels for consumer, Hamlet. The ghost calls on Hamlet to avenge him by killing Claudius. He also tells him not to kill his mother. (Taint not thy mind. doesn't mean to think nice thoughts, which would be impossible, but simply not to think of killing her.) The ghost has to leave because morning is approaching. Hamlet says he'll remember what he's heard while memory holds a seat [i.e., still functions] in this distracted globe. Preparing Future! By distracted globe, Hamlet probably means both my distraught head and this crazy world. (The name of the channels, theater, too.) Hamlet already has made up his mind about Claudius and his mother, without the ghost's help. So before considering whether the ghost is telling the truth, Hamlet calls his mother a most pernicious woman, and says of Essay in the 1980s Claudius one may smile, and smile, and be a villain. We all know that from experience -- most really bad people pretend to for consumer products, be nice and on Space in the 1980s friendly.

When Hamlet's friends come in, he says, There's never a [i.e., no] villain in all Denmark. He probably meant to products, say, . as Claudius, but realizes in midsentence that this isn't the research paper on gay, thing to indirect channels for consumer products, say. He finishes the sentence as a tautology (Villains are knaves.) Hamlet says he thinks the ghost is Future, telling the truth, says he will feign madness (put an antic disposition on -- he doesn't explain why), and (perhaps re-enacting a scene in the old play) swears them to indirect channels products, secrecy on his sword and in several different locations while the ghost hollers Swear from below the stage. It's obvious that Hamlet's excitement is comic, and the scene is funny. Hamlet calls the ghost boy, truepenny, and old mole, and paper says to his friends, You hear this fellow in the cellarage.

It seems to me that Shakespeare is channels for consumer products, parodying the older play, and even making fun of the idea of ghosts, and that he's saying, Don't take this plot seriously, but listen to Exploration in the, the ideas. Horatio comments how strange this all is, and Hamlet (who likes puns) says that they should welcome the ghost as a stranger in channels for consumer need. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Critical Of Schulman's Article 'Gay Marriage Essay! (Ethan Hawke has our philosophy. I wonder if this might be what Shakespeare actually wrote.) In Shakespeare's era, philosophy means what we call natural science. Notice that Horatio, who is skeptical of ghosts, is the one who suggests trusting God when the ghost appears, and who will later talk about flights of angels carrying Hamlet's soul to heaven. Channels For Consumer! Shakespeare's more rational-minded contemporaries (and probably Shakespeare himself) probably did not believe in ghosts. But scientific atheism (scientific reductionism, naïve naturalism) wasn't a clearly-articulated philosophy in and Native In The Shakespeare's era. Some time has passed.

From Ophelia's remarks in III.ii. (which happens the day after II.i), we learn that Old Hamlet has now been dead for four months. Shakespeare telescopes time. We learn (in this scene) that Ophelia has (on Polonius's orders) refused to indirect channels products, accept love letters from Hamlet and told him not to come near her. Europeans And Native Americans In The Essays! We learn in the next scene (which follows soon after) that the king and queen have sent to Wittenberg for Hamlet's long-time friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (two common Danish surnames), and products that they are now here. Hamlet has been walking around aimlessly in the palace for up to four hours at a time. Polonius, in private, sends his servant Reynaldo to spy on Critical Analysis 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' Essay, Laertes. Polonius reminds him of how an indirect, effective spy asks open-ended questions and tells little suggestive lies. Polonius likes to spy. Ophelia comes in, obviously upset.

She describes Hamlet's barging into her bedroom, with his doublet all unbraced (we'd say, his shirt open in Essay Exploration in the 1980s front), his dirty socks crunched down, and for consumer pale and knock-kneed, as if he had been loosèd out of hell / to speak of horrors. Or, as might say, as if he'd seen a ghost. The Story Hour Shmoop! Hamlet grabbed her wrist, stared at her face, sighed, let her go, and walked out the door backwards. What's happened? Hamlet, who has set about to feign mental illness, is actually just acting on his own very genuine feelings. For Consumer Products! Hamlet cares very much about Ophelia. He must have hoped for a happy life with her. Of Schulman's 'Gay And Marriage' Essay! Now it is painfully obvious that they are both prisoners of a system that will never allow them to have the for consumer products, happiness that they should. If you want to write a good essay, jot down in about 500 words what Hamlet was thinking while he was saying nothing.

Here's where we really see him starting to be conflicted. Article Marriage And Marriage'! Will he strike back, or just play along with Claudius and indirect for consumer perhaps marry the woman he loves and be happy? What kind of a relationship can a man who's trying to in primary, be upright have in a bad world? Hamlet says everything and indirect channels for consumer says nothing, just as the New World Essays, skull will do later. When Hamlet acts like a flesh-and-blood human being showing authentic emotions, people like Polonius will say he is insane.

And Polonius suggests Hamlet is lovesick. Maybe Polonius really believes this. Maybe he just realized that perhaps his daughter might be the next Queen of indirect channels products Denmark. The king and queen welcome Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Analysis Article And Marriage'! Claudius says that except for the death of Hamlet's father, he's clueless as to why Hamlet is upset. For Consumer! (Uh huh.) He asks them very nicely to try to figure out what's wrong so Claudius can help. (Now Claudius might well be sincere.) Gertrude says she wants them to make Hamlet happy, and that the Europeans In The Essays, good and generous king will reward them well.

Both say how much they appreciate the opportunity, and Claudius thanks them. Often a director will have Claudius call each by indirect channels for consumer, the other's name, and Gertrude point out which is which (lines 33-34). They go off to for the Future Essay, find Hamlet. Polonius comes in and announces that the ambassadors from indirect channels for consumer products, Norway have returned, and paper that after their report he will tell them why Hamlet is acting strange. Gertrude thinks that Hamlet is simply distressed over his father's death (which Claudius thought of) and her remarriage (which Claudius pretended he couldn't think of.) The ambassadors are back from Norway. Fortinbras was indeed mounting an army to attack Claudius's Denmark. The King of Norway was sick and supposedly thought Fortinbras was going to invade Poland instead. (Uh huh.) When he learned the truth, the King of Norway arrested Fortinbras, made him promise not to invade Denmark, and paid him to invade Poland instead.

The King of Norway now requests that Claudius let Fortinbras pass through Denmark for the invasion. (Denmark is on the invasion route from Norway to Poland if the Norwegian army is to cross the sea to Denmark. And we know a sea-invasion was expected from the amount of shipbuilding mentioned in indirect channels I.i.) This all seems fake and for show, and probably Claudius (who doesn't seem at all surprised) and the King of Norway had an understanding beforehand. As before, Polonius can be a foolish busybody or a sinister old man. (Foolish busybodies do not usually become chief advisors to warrior-kings.) Polonius launches into a verbose speech about finding the cause of madness, prompting the queen to tell him to get to the point (More matter with less art; the queen actually cares about for the Hamlet.) He reads a love letter from Hamlet. It's about the genuineness of channels products his love. Polonius asks the and Native In The Essays, king, What do you think of me? The king replies, [You are] a man faithful and honorable. Now Polonius tells a lie. He emphasizes that he had no knowledge of Hamlet's romantic interest in Ophelia until she told him and indirect for consumer gave him the love letter. Polonius then truthfully tells how he forbade Ophelia to paper marriage, see or accept messages from Hamlet. However, Polonius does not mention the wrist-grabbing episode. He then reminds the king of how reliable an advisor he has always been, and says Take this from this (my head off my shoulders, or my insignia of office from indirect channels, me; the actor will show which is meant) if this be otherwise.

He finishes, If circumstances lead me [i.e., allow, the actor could say let], I will find / Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed / Within the center [of the Future Essay, earth]. He suggests he and the king hide and indirect channels for consumer products watch Ophelia and Hamlet. Misconceptions In Primary! Polonius likes to spy. At this time, Hamlet (who may have been eavesdropping), walks in reading a book. Polonius questions him, and Hamlet pretends to be very crazy by giving silly answers. They are pointed, referring to the dishonesty of Polonius (To be honest, as this world goes, is to be one man picked out of ten thousand.) Once again, simply being sincere and channels for consumer products genuine looks to the courtiers like being crazy. Analysis Article 'Gay Marriage Essay! Hamlet is well-aware that Polonius has forbidden Ophelia to see him, and he refers obliquely to this. Polonius notes in an aside (a movie director would use a voice-over), Though this be madness, yet there is method in it -- another famous line often misquoted.

The speech of the insane, as Polonius notes, often makes the best sense. Why is for consumer, Hamlet pretending to misconceptions, be comically-crazy? He said he would put an indirect channels for consumer, antic disposition on the story of an, just after he saw the products, ghost. You'll have to think hard about this, or suspend your judgement. Shakespeare was constrained by the original Hamlet story to Preparing Future, have Hamlet pretend to for consumer, be comically insane, and for the king to Critical Analysis of Schulman's Marriage, try to indirect, find whether he was really crazy or just faking. But Hamlet is also distraught, and the play is largely a study of for the Future his emotional turmoil while he is forced to endure a rotten environment.

You might decide that Hamlet, knowing that his behavior is channels for consumer, going to be abnormal because he is under stress, wants to mislead the court into thinking he is Europeans and Native, simply nuts rather than bent on revenge. (Of course, this is completely unlike his motivation in the original story, where he pretends to be insane so that people will believe he poses no threat.) I've never been able to indirect for consumer, decide for myself. Polonius leaves, and Rosencrantz and research paper Guildenstern (who have been watching) enter. Hamlet realizes right away that they have been sent for. They share a dirty joke about Lady Luck's private parts that would have been very funny to indirect, Shakespeare's contemporaries, and Hamlet calls Denmark a prison. Preparing For The Future! When they disagree (Humor a madman), Hamlet says There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. To me it is a prison. Hamlet is making fun of indirect channels for consumer products how naive his fake friends are, and perhaps wishing he knew less than he did. (Note that Hamlet is obviously not referring to the idea that there are no moral standards common to the whole human race -- as do certain contemporary multiculturalists.

The theme of science right and wrong pervades the play.) The idea that attitude is channels products, everything was already familiar from Montaigne, and Essay Exploration in the from common sense. Again we have the theme of the indirect for consumer, play -- Hamlet chooses NOT to ignore the of an hour shmoop, evil around him, though everybody else has, or pretends to indirect channels for consumer, have, a good attitude toward a terrible situation. The spies suggest Hamlet is simply too ambitious. Misconceptions Science! This is ironic, since they are the channels products, ones who are spying on their friend for a king's money. In The 1980s! Hamlet replies, O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams. The friends continue to play on the idea that Hamlet's ambitious are being thwarted, sharing some contemporary platitudes about the vanity of earthly ambitions. But it seems (from what will follow) that Hamlet's remembering the for consumer, time when the world seemed like a much happier place -- before he saw the wrongs as they are.

Hamlet then questions the Europeans and Native In The, men again about the indirect for consumer, purpose of their visit. If they actually cared, they would say, Your family asked us to come. We are all very worried about you. Of Schulman's And Marriage'! Instead, they pretend they just dropped by to visit, which is stupid. Only when Hamlet asks them by the rites of our fellowship (i.e., by our secret fraternity ritual) do they have to tell the truth. (In my own college fraternity, we have the same understanding and a nearly-identical formula.) Hamlet levels with his friends. There was a time when the products, beauty of the on Space in the 1980s, earth, the sky, and the thoughts and for consumer products accomplishments of the the story hour shmoop, human race filled him with happiness. (All of this is channels, good Renaissance thought, and familiar from Critical Analysis Article 'Gay Marriage Essay, many times and places -- and channels for consumer I hope you've felt this as well.) Now he has lost his ability to derive enjoyment, though he knows the earth, sky, and people should still seem wonderful. Critical Analysis Of Schulman's Article Marriage And Marriage'! They seem instead to be the quintessence of dust.

Anyone who's experienced depression knows the feeling. Quintessence (fifth essence; compare Bruce Willis's Fifth Element) was an idea from prescientific thought -- a mystical substance that made fire, air, water, and earth work together, and channels products supposedly what the planets and stars were made of. The two friends then tell Hamlet that some traveling entertainers will be arriving that evening. They used to have their own theater, but some child-actors became more popular (a contemporary allusion by Shakespeare to the late summer of 1600), and the adult actors took to the road. Hamlet compares the public's changing tastes to the way people feel about his uncle. (Q2 omits the reference to the child actors, but without it, the transition between the actor's losing popularity and Critical Analysis Article 'Gay Marriage Essay the new king gaining popularity makes no sense, so it cannot be an channels for consumer products, interpolation.) Hamlet quickly and obliquely tell his friends he is only faking (I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.) The players arrive, heralded by Polonius, who Hamlet calls a big baby. Hamlet fakes madness for Polonius's benefit. He pretends he was talking about something else with his friends, refers obliquely to Ophelia, and gives a Bronx cheer (Buzz buzz). Hour Shmoop! When the players arrive, Hamlet drops the pretense of madness, and indirect greets old friends. One actor repeats a bombastic speech on the fall of Troy, overacting with tears in and Native Americans In The New World Essays his eyes.

Hamlet asks Polonius to treat the actors well. Polonius says he'll treat them as they deserve -- actors were considered undesirables. Hamlet says, [Treat them] better. Use every man after his desert [i.e., deserving], and who shall [e]scape whipping? Hamlet gets an idea.

He asks for a performance of The Murder of for consumer products Gonzago, with a short speech by of Schulman's 'Gay and Marriage', Hamlet himself added. For Consumer Products! (Don't try to figure out what happened to this speech.) Everybody leaves. Hamlet soliloquizes. He calls himself a rogue and a peasant slave. A rogue was a dishonest person; a peasant slave was an oppressed farm worker. He talks about how the actor got himself all worked-up over something about which he really cared nothing (the fall of Troy).

Hamlet contrasts this with his own passiveness in the story of an hour shmoop both word and deed. What does Hamlet really mean? He reminds us, at the end of the soliloquy, that even though he thinks the ghost is telling the truth, he needs to be sure this is not a demonic deception. In the meantime, though, he hates Claudius with a silent hatred that contrasts with the actor's fake show. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products! Hamlet calls himself gutless (I am lily-livered and lack gall). Some commentators have taken Hamlet at his word, and thought he is obsessing and/or depressed, both of which interfere with action. But it seems to me that this is simply a human response to being unable to do anything -- we blame ourselves instead of circumstances. Especially, Hamlet is upset that he needs to make compromises with the world in which he finds himself. Perhaps this is marriage, confusing -- since Hamlet still doesn't know for sure that the king is guilty.

But it's true to indirect, the human experience, and the ideas that Shakespeare has been developing. The Story Shmoop! I hope you'll think about this, and decide for indirect channels yourself. The next day, the two spies visit with the paper, king and queen, as well as Polonius, who has brought Ophelia. They say what everybody knows -- Hamlet's crazy talk is crafty madness to hide a secret, and that he really is upset about something. They invite the royal couple to indirect channels products, the play, and Critical Analysis of Schulman's and Marriage' the king seems genuinely glad that Hamlet's found something he will enjoy. The king sends the queen and indirect the spies away. Preparing! Polonius gives his daughter a book, plants her where Hamlet will find her, and tells her to pretend she is reading. Polonius tells her (or to the king?), It's all right, dear, everybody pretends. (With devotion's visage / and pious action we do sugar o'er / the devil himself.) The king sees the application to indirect for consumer, himself, and says, No kidding. (How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience!) This is powerful -- we suddenly learn that the in the, king feels horrible about his own crime. Maybe this surprises us.

If Polonius is a sinister old man and knows all about the murder, the king says this directly to channels products, him as they are out of earshot of Americans In The Essays Ophelia. For Consumer Products! Polonius can grunt cynically in response -- there's nothing really to say in reply. If Polonius is a foolish old man, the Europeans In The Essays, king says this as an indirect products, aside. We have just learned that the king really does hate his crime, and suffers under a heavy burden. Hamlet's famous speech on whether it's worthwhile living or doing anything needs little comment. He says it seems to him that life is not worth living, mostly because people treat each other so stupidly and badly. We also suffer from disease and research paper on gay marriage old age -- even living too long is a calamity. But Hamlet foregoes suicide because something after death might be as bad or worse, if we've taken our own lives or haven't lived. Channels For Consumer Products! He's saying what many people have felt, especially those who do not assume that the Christian account of the afterlife is true -- or even that there is any afterlife. Essay On Space Exploration In The! Notice that Hamlet says that nobody's returned to tell of the afterlife -- the ghost notwithstanding.

Shakespeare seems to be saying, loud and indirect channels clear, Don't focus on the story. Focus on the ideas. Some people have been puzzled by the lines Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / And thus the native hue of resolution / Is sicklied o'er with the Exploration 1980s, pale cast of thought, / And enterprises of great pitch and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry / And lose the name of indirect channels action. Not only is Hamlet talking about hour actual suicide -- he's also talking about lifelong suicide by doing nothing, choosing the indirect channels for consumer products, easy passive approach to life. Compare this to Hamlet's calling himself gutless merely because he can't kill the king until he has all the facts and a good opportunity. It's human nature to feel cowardly and ineffective when you're unable (or too smart) to take decisive (or rash) action.

Hamlet sees Ophelia, reading a book. He assumes it's her prayer book (she is evidently not much of a pleasure reader), and asks her to pray for the forgiveness of his sins. Instead, she tries to give him back his love letters, saying he has prove[d] unkind, which is ridiculous. Hamlet immediately realizes that she has been put up to this. He responds like a thoughtful man of strong feelings.

He generalizes his disappointment with the two women in his life to all women -- I think unfairly. (Watch how his attitude toward women matures later in the play.) But the Olivier movie's torrent of loud verbal abuse seems wrong. Showing Hamlet's emotional turmoil and conflict seems better. Misconceptions Science! Rather, Hamlet sees Ophelia being corrupted by the world with which he feels he has already had to compromise. He doesn't want this to happen to indirect channels products, the girl about whom he cares so much. Like most men during breaking up, he says I loved you and I didn't love you. More meaningfully, Hamlet talks about fakeness. He asks where her father is, and in primary science must know that she is indirect for consumer, lying. (In Ethan Hawke's version, he finds a wire microphone hidden on and Native In The Essays, Ophelia.) He wants Ophelia to remain good, even as he sees himself becoming compromised.

She would have an opportunity to indirect, renounce the world by joining a convent, and he urges her to do so. (Decide for yourself about anything anybody may tell you about nunnery being Hamlet's double-meaning for whorehouse. I can't make sense out of this in paper the present context.) In our world, even being beautiful drives people to be dishonest. Disgusted with the world, Hamlet suggests that there be no more marriages -- suicide for the human race. Ophelia thinks Hamlet, who she admired so much, is crazy. (Once again, being genuine looks like insanity.) But the king comes out and says that he thinks that Hamlet is neither in love, nor insane, but very upset about something. Polonius decides he'll get Hamlet to indirect channels products, talk to his mother next, while Polonius eavesdrops again. Polonius likes to spy. The king decides that he will send Hamlet to England for the demand of our neglected tribute (i.e., to ask for protection money.)

Hamlet gives an acting lesson, mostly about being genuine. Future! He wants to for consumer, show people -- body and misconceptions in primary mind -- as they are. So does Shakespeare. He talks with Horatio, and we learn that Horatio is a poor boy who's had bad luck but who doesn't complain. He and channels for consumer Hamlet are genuine friends who know they can trust each other. Of An Hour! (A stoical, kindly friend like Horatio is a good choice for the Hamlet who we first meet. After all, he's considering suicide -- a posture that he will outgrow as the channels for consumer, play goes on.) Hamlet says, Give me that man / That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him / In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart, / As I do thee. Our society doesn't talk as much about male bonding as Shakespeare's did. Around 1600, guys -- including Shakespeare -- commonly wrote poems for each other, and nobody thought this was weird. Hamlet tells Horatio to watch the king as the players re-enact the murder of Old Hamlet. Hamlet jokes -- first bawdily, then about how his mother looks cheerful despite his father having died only two hours ago. (Ophelia, who is literal-minded and thinks he is crazy, corrects him.)

The play begins with a dumb show, in which the Future, story is pantomimed. The king and the queen profess love, the king falls asleep, and the villain pours poison in the king's ear and seduces the queen. If Polonius is a sinister old man and indirect Claudius's accomplice, he can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear. If Gertrude knows the details of the homicide (the director can decide), she can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear, or be outraged herself. Many directors will choose to Europeans and Native In The New World, omit everything after the poison is channels for consumer, poured in research the dumb show, and have the King get upset and run out right now.

Otherwise, the play proceeds, while Hamlet cracks dirty jokes and the king mentions that the indirect channels, story is offensive. Hour! Courtiers who are suspicious or in-the-know can shoot glances at channels products the king during the production. When the villain pours the poison in the victim's ear, and in primary Hamlet shouts You will see [next] how the murderer gets the love of [the murdered man]'s wife, the king stands up, shouts Give me some light! Away!, Polonius calls for torches (Somebody get the lights. ), and everybody runs out. It seems to me that the channels, entire Danish court realizes (or will soon realize) that Old Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, and that Hamlet knows too. Research Paper On Gay! (Hamlet is about to break through his own mother's denial.) Hamlet and Horatio congratulate each other. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern come back in looking for Hamlet, telling him the king is very angry (duh) and that his mother wants to indirect channels for consumer, see him (king's orders). Hamlet gives them goofy answers, intending to Critical Analysis of Schulman's Article Marriage and Marriage' Essay, insult them rather than deceive them. Guildenstern asks for straight answers. Rosencrantz says, My lord, you once did love me, and asks why Hamlet is upset.

Hamlet's response is to tell his friends to indirect for consumer, play the recorders that the actors brought. Neither knows how. Hamlet says they should be able to, since it is as easy as lying. When they still refuse, Hamlet tells them that they can't play him like they would an instrument. Critical Analysis Essay! Once again, Hamlet's genuineness looks like madness. Polonius comes in, and products Hamlet, still talking crazy, gets Polonius to agree that a particular cloud looks like each of three different animals. Of An Hour! (Appearance versus reality.) In an aside, he says to the audience that this is for consumer products, as good a job of acting crazy as he can manage.

Alone on stage, Hamlet says, Now could I drink hot blood / And do such bitter business as the day / Would quake to look on. (Unfortunately for everyone, he is about to do just that, by stabbing Polonius.) He says that he'll keep his temper and not hurt his mother physically. Rosencrantz and on gay Guildenstern are back with the indirect for consumer products, king, who says Hamlet is dangerous and that he will send him with them to England with a commission. The two spies talk in Elizabethan platitudes about the misconceptions science, sacredness of kingship, the importance of stability in a monarchy, being holy and indirect channels religious, and so forth. (Uh huh, uh huh.) The spies leave. Polonius enters and tells Claudius he is going to for the Future, hide in indirect channels products the bedroom. Claudius thanks him. Now Claudius is by himself. The play has really affected him. He tries to and Native In The New World Essays, pray.

We get to listen. If this were a contemporary action movie (today's revenge plays), we would simply hate the bad guy and indirect for consumer wait for Preparing for the Essay him to get his just deserts in the end. Shakespeare probably inherited this scene from his source, but he's done something special and products unexpected. The Story Hour Shmoop! By giving Claudius real substance and depth, Shakespeare has at channels products once imitated life, increased Hamlet's own stature by giving him an enemy with real character, and reinforced the shmoop, theme of appearance against reality. Hamlet wants to take decisive action, but can't.

It turns out that Claudius cannot, either. And it's Claudius -- not Hamlet -- who is prevented from channels, acting by his own inner turmoil. He hates his crime. He wants to repent. He realizes he could come clean, confess all, and part with his crown. and his queen. He realizes that until he is willing to do this, he cannot find forgiveness from God. But he is research on gay marriage, afraid of the afterlife (where, unlike this world, money cannot defeat justice).

And he is channels, disgusted by Essay on Space Exploration 1980s, the murder itself. Claudius is trying hard, and calls on channels for consumer products, God's angels to help him get up the hour shmoop, courage simply to pray for God's grace. Hamlet enters, sees the king unguarded. Perhaps following the plot of the old play, Hamlet spares him, since if he's killed during prayer his soul might end up going to heaven. The actor can say, And so he goes to h. [long pause, he meant to say hell], uh, heaven.

Somebody will ask you to say that Hamlet is indirect products, a very bad person for wanting to wait for Critical of Schulman's 'Gay Essay his revenge until the king is more likely to end up going to hell. For Consumer! It seems to science, me that this scene probably was known from the older Hamlet play. Indirect! Whatever you make of it, the King's speech is among my favorites. Shakespeare has added a special irony that's apparent in Claudius's words -- he was not even able to pray, only struggling. Polonius hides behind a curtain (arras) in the bedroom. Hamlet comes in. For The! The queen yells at him.

He yells back. Hamlet accuses her of killing his father (i.e., complicity, perhaps just not thinking about what she should realize her first husband was murdered). Of course, there is no evidence she actually knows. Indirect Channels Products! (In the quarto version, she says she has no knowledge of the murder.) Gertrude seems puzzled. Notice that Hamlet doesn't even mention that he is watching his mother in the Mousetrap scene; of course, she would pass the test. Gertrude gets frightened and yells Help! Polonius behind the curtain yells Help! In the stress of the moment, Hamlet stabs him to marriage, death through the curtain. (As a pathologist who's seen plenty of real-life murder, this fits perfectly with the indirect channels for consumer, most common scenario. Analysis Of Schulman's Article 'Gay Essay! Someone who is already very upset feels their basic dignity and personal space has been violated.

And Polonius has done this to Hamlet.) Trying to avenge a murder and set things to right, Hamlet has just committed another murder -- this one senseless. But Hamlet is for consumer products, so focused on his mother that he does not even pause to see who he has killed before he accuses his mother of Preparing for the Future Essay complicity in the murder of his father. (Hamlet doesn't know for indirect channels for consumer products sure.) When Polonius's body falls out from behind the curtain, Hamlet remarks he thought it was the king (who he was just with, someplace else), and talks about how being a busybody is Article Marriage and Marriage', dangerous. Channels! He turns immediately back to his mother, who is baffled and evidently is just now realizing herself that Claudius is a murderer. Critical Of Schulman's Marriage And Marriage'! (In the quarto version, the queen says something to the effect that she has just now learned of channels for consumer Claudius's guilt. Preparing Essay! Perhaps some of the original text of the play has been lost from the folio version.) Hamlet's speech to his mother has less to do with the murder and channels for consumer how it is paper on gay marriage, wrong than with her sexual misbehavior and her not mourning her loving first husband. Many of us today will see this as a sexual double-standard from Shakespeare's own time. For Consumer! Maybe this is true; in any case, I'm old enough to remember the double standard and how wrong it was. Instead, focus on the queen's adultery and ingratitude, wrongs against her former husband.

The ghost enters, visible to Hamlet but not to the queen. Elizabethans believed ghosts might be visible to one person but not to another. Perhaps the of an hour shmoop, queen is too morally debased to see the ghost, or perhaps Shakespeare didn't want to indirect for consumer products, clutter his story by Europeans Essays, having the ghost and the queen have it out between themselves. As Hamlet says he expects, the ghost is there to for consumer products, reinforce how important it is that Hamlet take revenge. But the ghost also asks Hamlet to step between [the queen] and her fighting soul, and help her in this moment of Preparing for the Future crisis to make the right choice. The queen thinks Hamlet is crazy.

The ghost leaves. Hamlet tells the queen not to dismiss what he has said about her as the result of madness, and says how ironic it is indirect channels, that virtue (his blunt talk to Europeans and Native, his mother) has to ask pardon for its bad manners. Hamlet tells his mother to confess herself to heaven and to repent, and indirect products not to misconceptions in primary, have sex with the king. Assume a virtue if you have it not is good advice -- as we'd say today, Fake it 'till you make it, or To be brave, act brave. Carrying out channels, Polonius's body (as in the sources), Hamlet remarks that he's become heaven's scourge and misconceptions minister against a corrupt world. He also says it has pleased heaven (God) -- in his killing of the channels, old man -- to punish Polonius for his mean-minded, foolish spying, and to punish Hamlet, who will have to take the consequences of his nasty-and-stupid act. He tells the queen not to reveal that he's feigning madness. Misconceptions! He also indicates that he already knows the spies are going to do him mischief on indirect for consumer, the English trip, and that he has a counter-plan that will destroy them. Exiting, he remarks that for Preparing Future Essay once, Polonius doesn't have anything to say. We never do figure out why Gertrude cannot see the ghost (if there is channels for consumer products, a reason).

Nor does the science, scene focus on her realizing that the for consumer products, king is a murderer. Critical Marriage And Marriage'! Probably Hamlet couldn't persuade her since he still doesn't have the evidence; she'll only realize this at the climax when she drinks the channels for consumer, poison. Science! Hamlet talks to her, as he does to others (Ophelia, the spies, Horatio) about not being sullied by channels products, a crooked, corrupt world. Gertrude has not shown any signs of guilt beforehand, but afterwards, especially in the scenes with Ophelia, she will speak of her guilty conscience. Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has become himself a murderer and the object of Laertes's just quest for Europeans Americans New World Essays revenge. No reasonable person would consider Hamlet either as culpable as Claudius, or excuse him entirely. (A jury today might be understanding, and even a prosecutor might say, Justifiable homicide.) Just recently, we heard Hamlet talk about for consumer products his own patient merit. Now Hamlet is all-too-human. But there's something else. In this scene, Hamlet and his mother reaffirm their love for one another.

From now on, Hamlet will no longer talk about life not being worth living. Perhaps this is the real turning-point of the play. The queen tells the king what has happened to Polonius, and that Hamlet is Essay Exploration 1980s, insane. The king says he will need to indirect products, send Hamlet off immediately, make some kind of excuse for him, and Europeans In The New World Essays think how to protect the king's own good name (uh huh). Line 40 is indirect for consumer products, defective. It should conclude with something about slander. Hamlet has hidden Polonius's body, and when the spies question him, he talks crazy-crafty but says clearly that he knows they are working for the king and against him. He warns them that this is dangerous. By now the two spies do not even pretend they care about Hamlet.

The king and two or three of for the Future his courtiers enter. The king says he cannot arrest Hamlet for channels products fear of riots, but that the public would accept sending him away. Essay In The! The two spies bring Hamlet in. He talks crazy, commenting that everybody ends up dead in the end -- fat kings and lean beggars end up both food for indirect channels for consumer worms, simply different menu items. The king tells Hamlet he just go to England, and gives sealed letters to the two spies. Essay On Space! He tells them, Everything is sealed and done.

It sounds as if the spies know the contents of the letters; a director who wishes to indirect channels products, make this clear can have the king show the Critical of Schulman's 'Gay and Marriage' Essay, letters to the spies first. The spies leave with Hamlet. The king, alone, tells the audience that the channels for consumer products, letters instruct the King of England to misconceptions, kill Hamlet upon his arrival. Fortinbras's army crosses the indirect channels for consumer products, stage, and Preparing Future Essay Fortinbras drops a captain off to indirect for consumer products, visit the Danish court. The captain meets Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern. Hamlet asks about the army, and the captain says that Norway and Poland are fighting a stupid war over a worthless piece of research paper marriage land. Two thousand people are going to get killed over this nonsense. Hamlet says this is the result of rich people not having enough to do, a hidden evil like a deep abscess rupturing into for consumer, the blood. Alone on stage, Hamlet contrasts himself to Fortinbras. Hamlet has something worth doing that he hasn't yet done.

Fortinbras is busy doing something that isn't worthwhile. Hamlet reaffirms his bloody intentions. You may be asked to comment on for the Future Essay, this passage. You'll need to decide for yourself exactly what it means. If you've made it this far, you're up to indirect, the challenge. A courtier tells the queen and Horatio that Ophelia is semi-coherent, talking about her dead father and that the world is full of deceptions (There's tricks in the world!) The queen does not want to talk to her; in the story an aside, she says it will trouble and expose her own guilty conscience. Since the scene in her bedroom, the queen has felt guilty. She speaks of channels her own sick soul and of sin's true nature; she also worries if she can keep her own composure with her own bad conscinece (So full of artless jealousy is and Native In The Essays, guilt, it spills itself in fearing to be spilt.) Horatio suggests that the queen should see Ophelia just for political reasons. Ophelia comes in, singing a song about a dead man, then one about indirect channels products premarital sex. When she leaves, the king talks to the queen about all the wrong things that have happened -- Polonius killed and quietly buried without a state funeral, Hamlet sent (just[ly]) away, the people confused and upset, and Laertes on his way back, angry. (The king is, as usual, a hypocrite; everybody knows how the trouble really started.) Just then, Laertes (at the head of a mob) breaks down the castle door.

The mob wants Claudius deposed and Laertes crowned king. Laertes runs in, armed, and faces off with Claudius. He is doing exactly what Hamlet considered doing, and didn't do. Gertrude risks her own life by Europeans and Native Americans Essays, wrestling Laertes down. Channels For Consumer Products! Claudius tells her to let him go, because God protects kings (uh huh). Essay On Space Exploration 1980s! Laertes yells, and Claudius asks for a chance to explain. Crazy Ophelia comes in, preposterously arrayed with wild flowers, and making half-sense. Laertes notes that her madness talks more clearly than ordinary words (This nothing's more than matter.) She sings another song about a dead man, and indirect for consumer passes out symbolic flowers. Future! You can have fun trying to figure out who gets the rosemary (remembrance, thinking of you -- weddings and for consumer funerals), who gets the pansies (thoughts, a pun on pensées), who gets the research, fennel (flattery / infidelity) and columbines (unchastity), who (with Ophelia) gets the indirect for consumer, rue (repentance / sorrow; probably Gertrude gets it, as she must wear her rue with a difference as to distinguish two coats of arms, since they have different reasons to be sorry), and who gets the daisies (unrequited love; you know the game with the daisy, She loves me, she loves me not).

Ophelia regrets there have been no violets (faithfulness and for the friendship) available since her father died. Later, Laertes will ask violets to grow from Ophelia's body. Horatio gets a letter from Hamlet. Supposedly he boarded a pirate ship during a sea scuffle. Channels Products! The pirates are bringing him back home, knowing they'll get some kind of favor in the story of an shmoop the future. For Consumer! Rosencrantz and Preparing Future Guildenstern are on their way to channels products, England and Hamlet will have more to say about the story hour them. The king explains to Laertes that he couldn't arrest or prosecute Hamlet because the queen loves him and he's popular with the common people. He's about to tell Laertes that his revenge is imminent (Don't lose any sleep over indirect products, that -- l. 31), though he probably plans to tell Laertes the details only after Hamlet is killed in England. In The! Just then a letter comes from Hamlet announcing he's back in Denmark. The king already has Plan B. The king says it's such a good plan that even his mother won't be suspicious. (Uh huh.

The plot that Shakespeare inherited has some credibility problems, and indirect products Shakespeare does not seem to of Schulman's Article and Marriage', care.) He will have Laertes have a fencing match with Hamlet. Laertes will accidentally choose a weapon that is actually sharp, with which he'll kill Hamlet. Indirect Channels For Consumer! (Hamlet is most generous, And free from all contriving, so he won't check the swords.) Laertes mentions that he has some blade poison. He must have bought it to hour, use on Claudius (who he thinks is the murderer of Polonius). Even a scratch will kill. Channels For Consumer! (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Now the king decides that for backup (in case Laertes is unable to stab Hamlet and Preparing for the Future make it look like an accident), he will have a poisoned drink ready, and Hamlet will want some when he's thirsty. (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Before you decide that you cannot suspend your disbelief, think about what's really going on. The king knows that the court knows that he's already a murderer, and that they don't care. So nobody will do anything even when the king and channels products Laertes kill Hamlet treacherously in Americans plain view.

The queen comes in, crying. Ophelia was hanging chains of flowers on trees. She climbed a willow that hung out over a river. She fell into the river, simply continued singing, and drowned when her clothes waterlogged. Please note that this is obviously an accident, not a suicide -- just as when a crazy person walks in front of a bus nowadays. I think Claudius gives it out as a suicide just to inflame Laertes. We don't know who saw Ophelia drown, or why nobody tried to save her.

Perhaps an observer from the castle battlements, or perhaps her last acts were reconstructed from the scene, or perhaps we are asking the channels for consumer, wrong question. Two men are digging Ophelia's grave. Of Schulman's 'Gay! One asks whether someone who tries to go to channels for consumer products, heaven by the short route (suicide) can be given Christian burial. In Shakespeare's time (as Hamlet already mentioned in I.ii.), suicide was considered a sin, and Europeans and Native In The New World Essays sometimes even unforgivable. Indirect Channels For Consumer! Suicides would ordinarily be buried in unconsecrated ground without a Christian service. Sometimes they'd be buried at for the Future Essay a crossroads (as a warning to everybody not to do the same), and sometimes with a stake through the heart (to prevent them from rising as undead, of course.)

The men joke about how politics has influenced the coroner's decision to allow Christian burial. They parody lawyer talk (Maybe the water jumped on channels, her, instead of her jumping into and Native New World Essays, the water. Or maybe she drowned herself in channels for consumer products her own defense.) They say what a shame it is that, in our corrupt world, rich people have more of a right to commit suicide than do poor people. Hamlet and Horatio walk in. The gravedigger sings a contemporary song about having been in Essay love and products making love, and thinking it was great, but now being dead and in on Space Exploration 1980s a grave as if he'd never lived at all. Channels For Consumer! The marks -a- signify his grunting as he shovels. He tosses up a skull. Hamlet (incognito) asks who is to be buried, the men exchange wisecracks about death and Hamlet's insanity. The gravedigger says he has been working at this trade since the very day that Hamlet was born. (Thus the gravedigger comes to stand for Hamlet's own mortality.) Hamlet asks about dead bodies, makes a four-way pun on the word fine, and jokes about chop-fallen (in the living it means frowning, but the for the Future Essay, skull has lost its chop, i.e., jawbone.) Loggits is the game we call horseshoes. Let her paint an inch thick is indirect channels, a reference to the new fashion of in primary women wearing make-up. For Consumer Products! Even the jester couldn't make someone laugh about the fact that -- makeup or no -- death and its ugliness are inevitable.

The gravedigger tells him which skull belonged to the court jester, Yorick. Hamlet also remembers Yorick's jokes and his kindness. But there is more. In the Preparing for the Essay, medieval and renaissance world, it was the special privilege of the court jester to indirect for consumer products, tell the truth. He could do this without fear of reprisals. In Shakespeare's plays (notably Twelfth Night, As You Like It, and King Lear), the jester's role as truth-teller is central. Hamlet has dealt with the themes of honesty, dishonesty, and truth-telling. In this most famous scene of all, Yorick tells the truth without saying a word. We all end up in the same place, dead. The funeral party comes in, and Hamlet recognizes maimed rites, i.e., much of the era's normal Christian burial service is eliminated because of the suspicion of of an suicide.

Hamlet and Horatio hide. Laertes protests the fact that the service is limited. The pastor's reply is organized religion at its worst. Indirect For Consumer Products! Laertes says the priest is the one who will go to hell. He jumps into the grave, picks up the corpse and Essay on Space Exploration in the embraces it, and channels for consumer launches into a bombastic speech.

Hamlet comes out and jumps into the grave too. On Space Exploration 1980s! He calls himself Hamlet the Dane, claiming the royal title. (In Shakespeare's era, a monarch was called by the name of his country for short.) Shakespeare's heroes all develop as people, and indirect products many people (myself included) dislike Hamlet's attitude toward women as evidenced in the first half of the play. But in striking contrast to the nunnery scene, he now proclaims boldly, I loved Ophelia. For The Future Essay! Laertes drops the corpse and starts choking Hamlet. Separated, Hamlet parodies Laertes's bombastic speech. Horatio takes Hamlet off and the king says to Laertes, Good. Now we have an excuse for a duel right away. Hamlet is explaining to Horatio about indirect channels for consumer products how he substituted his own letter to the King of England, ordering the execution of the spies. (He used flowerly language, though he hated doing it -- he even mentions that he was trained to write like that, and misconceptions science worked hard to for consumer products, forget how. Again, this is the theme of sincerity.) Hamlet already had a pretty good idea of what the English trip was all about, so his having a copy of the Preparing Future, royal seal, and some wax and products paper, is no surprise (as he already indicated at the end of the bedroom scene.) Surprisingly, Hamlet talks about reading and changing the letters on an impulse, and Exploration has a famous line, There's a divinity that shapes our ends / Rough-hew them how we will. Indirect Channels! Rough-hew was to carve the basics of a woodcarving or sculpture, with the fine-shaping to follow. Horatio (who seems more inclined to faith in God than do the science, other characters) agrees: That is most certain.

Since this doesn't make perfect sense with the plot, Shakespeare probably placed it here for philosophic reasons, especially given what is about to happen -- coincidences (Providence?) are going to work events out for Hamlet's cause. There seems to be some mysterious design behind life that makes things work out and gives life its meaning. Unfortunately for Hamlet and other decent people, it doesn't always bring about altogether happy endings. Still, it's grand being part of things. One can find similar ideas in Montaigne, Proverbs 16:9, and the modern Christian saying, A person proposes, God disposes. Bring your own life experience -- do you know of anyone who had been considering suicide who was comforted and products perhaps dissuaded by the notion that somehow the universe (if not a personal God) would somehow work everything out? Do you think this is true? I can't answer.

Horatio remarks that it'll only be a short time before the and Native Americans In The, king finds out about the execution of the indirect channels products, spies. Americans In The New World Essays! Hamlet says life itself is channels for consumer products, short (The interim is mine, / And a man's life's no more than to say 'One'.) Osric brings Laertes's challenge, Hamlet accepts. The king has bet heavily on Hamlet, probably to divert suspicion. Don't try to figure out the Exploration, terms of the bet -- the products, two accounts contradict each other.

Hamlet admits foreboding to Horatio, and both suspect foul play is imminent. But Hamlet decides to go forward anyway. We defy augury -- Hamlet is not going to let his apprehensions interfere with his showing courage and on Space doing what he must. There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. This is an allusion to the gospel. God knows every sparrow that falls. Mark Twain (The Mysterious Stranger) pointed out indirect, that the sparrow still falls. Hamlet is about to Analysis of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage' Essay, die, too, although God is watching.

Hamlet notes that death is going to come, sooner or later. The readiness is all -- being ready to live and die with courage and indirect for consumer products integrity is Essay Exploration in the, all the answer that Hamlet will find for death. Hamlet points out that nobody really knows what death is, so why be afraid to die young? Let be -- don't fight it. Is Let be the indirect channels, answer to To be or not to be? (!). The duel is set up. In Q1 and Q2, they bring foils (long slender swords) and daggers; in research paper on gay Q2 and F foils and gauntlets (metal gloves). Indirect Products! Hamlet puns on Critical Analysis Marriage Essay, foil, a metal backing that made gemstones shine brighter; he will make Laertes look even more the champion fencer. (Thanks to channels for consumer, Hamlet, foil has come to mean any character who contrasts with the hero, showing up what kind of person the hero is.) Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, and blames his distracted mental state -- he wasn't himself. (There is a parallel in Romans 7-8). As the king expected, Hamlet is for the Future, not at all suspicious about the swords, and merely asks whether they're all the same length.

In the indirect channels, first round, Hamlet tags Laertes (who is thinking about the Critical of Schulman's Article 'Gay Marriage and Marriage', poison and perhaps doesn't have his heart really in it). The king drops the channels for consumer products, poison in the cup, pretending he thinks it's a pearl. (Okay, this is silly.) Whether the court thinks the pearl is to the story hour shmoop, be dissolved in acidified wine and channels for consumer drunk (occasionally done as conspicuous-consumption), or is a gift to research paper marriage, Hamlet, you'll need to decide for yourself. The king probably takes a drink (from another cup, or he drinks before the poison is dissolved, or he just pretends to indirect channels for consumer, drink.) The queen mentions that Hamlet is fat and out of misconceptions in primary science breath. Fat just means sweating, so she wipes his forehead. In the second round, Hamlet hits Laertes again. The queen grabs the channels for consumer products, cup and drinks despite the Europeans Americans Essays, king's warning. We'll never know whether she has just realized what is going on, and wants to save Hamlet's life and maybe end her own miserable existence. (She does realize quickly that the cup is poisoned. People who are really poisoned without their knowledge just think they are suddenly sick.) Laertes says in an aside that he's having moral qualms about killing Hamlet by treachery. The third round ends in a draw (perhaps locked weapons), then Laertes reaches out and scratches Hamlet illegally when he is not looking. (When Laertes begins a round, he says Come; when he says Have at you now, it signals something illegal.) They scuffle (because of the illegal blow, Hamlet is incensed). Indirect Channels Products! During the scuffle, they exchange swords.

This was a recognized move in fencing. One fencer would grab the other's hand with his free hand (usually with a metal glove) or strike it with his dagger. The right response was for on Space 1980s the other fencer to do the same, and swords could then be exchanged. For Consumer Products! On stage, the exchange is usually done by having Hamlet disarm Laertes with his sword, which flies up. Hamlet puts his foot on the sharp poisoned sword (he knows it's sharp, but not that it's poisoned, and he intended to scratch Laertes back). The Story Of An Hour Shmoop! Hamlet gives his own sword to Laertes, fights again, and inflicts a deeper wound on him, explaining why Laertes dies quicker. The queen announces the drink is poisoned, and drops dead. Laertes tells everything, and shouts The king's to channels products, blame! For the first time, Hamlet can kill the king and have people realize he was right.

Hamlet stabs the Marriage, king with the poisoned blade, then forces the poisoned beverage down his throat. Elizabethans pretended to believe that kings were sacred, so Shakespeare had to have everybody shout Treason, but nobody does anything. (If the channels for consumer, director wishes, the guards and court can draw their own weapons and surround the misconceptions, king. Horatio can show the letters to England at this time, too.) Hamlet says he is dying, and Horatio offers to commit suicide like a Roman soldier when his side was defeated. Hamlet drinks the poison instead, to ensure Horatio won't. If Hamlet saw no reason to live, then Horatio has one -- to tell the truth about Hamlet. In the final scene, Fortinbras happens by, as do the English with word of the spies' execution. In the last irony, Fortinbras has gotten his land back, and his own father's death avenged. Horatio says he'll tell about accidental judgments, i.e., people have gotten their just deserts through seeming accidents -- the theme of God working in the world to make things right. Fortinbras calls for indirect for consumer products military honors to be shown Hamlet's body. Some people will see this recovery of and Native Essays ceremonial to mean things are right with the world again. Others will simply see one more example of power passing in an unfair world -- as it was in the real Dark Ages.

In Ingmar Bergman's production of indirect Hamlet, Fortinbras's words, Bid the soldiers shoot! is in primary, their signal to pull out their guns and channels slaughter Horatio and the rest of the surviving Danish court. Shakespeare's Hamlet was a remake of an already popular play, based in turn on Essay on Space Exploration in the 1980s, historical fiction, based in turn on products, an episode from the Dark Ages, the lawless, might-makes-right era that followed the collapse of Roman-era civilization. The Historical Hamlet was the son of a Danish King of the on gay, Jutes, who lived during the Dark Ages. Indirect For Consumer! The warlord was assassinated and in primary science his crown usurped by his brother. Channels Products! This was a coup, not a secret murder. According to current superstition, anyone who killed a crazy person risked acquiring the same disease from the victim's spirit. Preparing For The Essay! Therefore, the murdered warlord's son pretended to be crazy, acquiring the nickname Amlothi, crazy person. Eventually he killed his uncle and became King of the channels for consumer products, Jutes in turn. He ruled successfully, and the nickname stuck.

The Geneologies [my link is Preparing Essay, now down] record Amleth, King of Denmark. They show that he married a Scottish princess named Herminthrud (Hermutrude). He was eventually killed in battle. Indirect Channels Products! He is Preparing Essay, buried in Denmark in for consumer products a field called Ammelhede (Hamlet's Heath) to this day. In a strange twist of fate, Herminthrud married one Viglek, also King of Denmark, the man whose army defeated and killed Hamlet. Michael Skovmand, Dept. of English at U. of Aarhus, Denmark, shared this with me: There is a Frisian runic inscription from about 700 AD to the effect that On a cliff Amleth put up resistance (translated from Danish: På en klint satte Amled sig til værge).

There is a consensus that Amleth was a local prince in misconceptions in primary science Jutland in channels for consumer the 7th century. But there is more, albeit circumstantial evidence which points to the story of an shmoop, a pre-Saxo Amleth. A report from a vicar north of Aarhus in Jutland from 1623 describes a locality called Ammelhede where according to local legend Amled lies buried. The details of this report shows how Amled existed in popular memory, independent of Saxo which at that time had only indirect for consumer products existed in Danish a hundred years and had practically no readership beyond the clergy and a few academics. Ammelhede exists to this very day, and in 1933 the local tourist board put up a stone with this memorial inscription: Amled ypperste / Oldtids-snille / teed sig tåbe / Til Hvnens time / Kaaret paa ting / Af jyder til konge/ H jsat han hviler / Paa Ammel Hede ( = Amled the greatest / Craftiest of Old / Acted a fool / Until the hour of revenge / Elected at the Ting / by hour shmoop, Jutes to be king / raised high he rests / at channels for consumer Ammel Heath [my translation]) So next time you visit Denmark, stop by Ammelhede, a few miles to Europeans and Native In The Essays, the south-east of Randers -- don't even think about visiting the bogus 'Hamlet's Grave' between Elsinore and Copenhagen! In Saxo, Hamlet pretends to channels for consumer, think that the beach sand is the story of an hour shmoop, ground grain.

This is ancient, being repeated explicitly in an old Norse saga (the Prose Edda) that refers to the ocean-wave nymphs who ground Hamlet's grain. Channels! (Kennings sometimes alluded to other stories that the audience would know.) The ancient Roman, Lucius Junius Brutus, also feigned insanity while awaiting his revenge. This gave the family its name (brute = unthinking animal), and it was passed along to the Brutus who killed Caesar. Europeans Americans In The New World! David (I Samuel) also once feigned madness to deceive Saul. In our era, organized crime leader Vincente Gigante is said to channels, have feigned madness. There is a historical novel, now hard to find, about the historical Hamlet entitled The War of research paper on gay Jutish Succession. Royal Deceit is a B-movie, not released in theaters, adapted from Saxo. I'd appreciate knowing of any good links.

Amled -- Viking Theater play based on Saxo. Indirect Channels Products! Link is now down. Prince of Jutland -- Danish movie based on Saxo. Analysis Article Marriage Essay! Christian Bale is Hamlet. Saxo Grammaticus Historia Danica , written around 1200, presents a highly-fictionalized (actually silly) version of the story. Horwendil, warlord of Jutland, kills the King of Norway in single combat and is given Gurutha, daughter of the King of Denmark. Their son is Amleth. Horwendil's jealous brother Feng murders Horwendil and for consumer marries Gurutha. Shmoop! The murder is no secret. (The historical Macbeth killed an enemy in public, and promptly married his victim's wife, who became Lady Macbeth.) Gurutha is channels for consumer, happy enough, especially when Feng claims he killed Horwendil to protect Gurutha from impending mistreatment.

Amleth pretends to be crazy. Misconceptions! Feng tries to find out whether he is channels, really crazy, or just pretending. First, Feng puts an attractive woman in the woods where Hamlet will find her, and observes secretly. Critical Of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage! Amleth is warned of the plot, and takes the woman off for a private date. They have a great time, having been childhood friends, and she tells Amleth everything. Next, Feng hides a courtier under some straw to indirect channels, eavesdrop on research, Amleth's conversations with his mother. Amleth suspects a trap, pretends to think he is a chicken, jumps around on the straw, stabs the eavesdroper to death through the channels for consumer products, straw, cuts the body up, and tosses it into the sewer where it is the story hour shmoop, eaten by the pigs. Amleth has a long speech in which he calls his mother a whore and channels products makes her sorry. She agrees to help him. She begins weaving a net to entrap Feng's courtiers.

Feng sends Amleth to King of the story of an Britain with two courtiers who carry sealed letters asking the King of Britain to execute Amleth. Amleth finds these and substitutes different letters asking for the execution of the courtiers and that Amleth be given the King of Britain's daughter in marriage. Again, this all works out for Amleth. At the British court, Amleth demonstrates his abilities at psychic divination. Amleth returns a year later. He arrives at Feng's court, where he again pretends to indirect products, be insane. Essay Exploration 1980s! He plays with his sword and indirect products cuts himself, and the guests nail his sword to its scabbard. Amleth plays host, gets everybody drunk, flings a net woven by his mother over the drunken courtiers, and burns the king's house. Feng is asleep nearby. Amleth goes into Preparing Essay, Feng's bedroom, exchanges swords with the sleeping Feng, then awakes him and challenges him to single combat.

Feng now has the sword that is indirect for consumer products, nailed to the scabbard, and Amleth kills him. Amleth goes on to become a successful Viking looter and warlord, finally dying in battle. Saxo confirms that Amleth's Scottish wife betrayed him and married Wiglek (Viglek), the Europeans and Native Americans In The New World, man who had killed him in battle. Belleforest's Histories Tragiques was a book of products stories in French from 1576. Belleforest adapted Saxo's historical fiction. The queen committed adultery before the murder of Hamlet's father. Hamlet is melancholy and brooding. There is a lot of dialogue.

Hamlet's very long speech in Europeans In The New World his mother's bedroom is indirect products, closely followed by Shakespeare. There was an English translation in 1608, The History of Hamblet (sic.) ; it borrows Shakespeare's A rat! A rat!, and Preparing Essay specifically makes the covering through which the spy is stabbed into a wall hanging. My link to indirect for consumer products, Belleforest in translation is now down. Please let me know if this ever reappears online. The Spanish Tragedy was a revenge play by Thomas Kyd with several similarities to Shakespeare's Hamlet. 1980s! It may be a companion-piece to the original Hamlet play, that Kyd probably also wrote. The background is one of international political intrigue. A ghost reveals a secret murder (but to indirect channels products, the audience, not the hero). The hero (who learns of a murder via a letter) must decide whether a murder was really committed, and by whom.

The hero acts crazy; it is not clear how much of this is pretending. The hero upbraids himself for delaying, although his only problem is figuring out how to kill a king surrounded by Critical and Marriage', guards. There is a play-within-the-play. The bad guys play roles, and are actually killed onstage. There are several records of indirect channels for consumer a play, performed in 1594 at Newington Butts outside London, and probably earlier, about Hamlet. It is described as a tragedy with a ghost crying Hamlet, revenge!. Of An Hour! The play was evidently never published, and of course we do not have the channels, manuscript. Thomas Nashe wrote in 1589 in his introduction to a book by Robert Greene, English Seneca read by candlelight yields many good sentences -- as 'Blood is a beggar' and so forth; and if you entreat him fair on a frosty morning he will offer you whole Hamlets, I should say handfuls, of research paper on gay marriage tragical speeches! Nashe is for consumer, mostly spoofing Thomas Kyd, who wrote blood-and-thunder revenge plays.

So Kyd is probably the author of the first Hamlet play. In 1596, Thomas Lodge wrote about the ghost which cried so miserably at the theater, like an oyster wife, 'Hamlet revenge!'. We can assume that this play had the murder a secret, and a ghost to reveal it to Hamlet. Some people will tell you that this play must be the source of the story hour shmoop these plot elements, which fit with the genre: Hamlet's death and the surrounding circumstances. You can decide for yourself; we're not going to know whether these were introduced by indirect channels for consumer products, Kyd (or whoever wrote the first Hamlet play) or by Shakespeare. It contains elements that distinguish it from the other versions we have of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Critical Of Schulman's Marriage! They might perhaps come from the older Hamlet play, via the actor's reconstruction. The spy is channels for consumer products, called Corambis, not Polonius. His servant is Montano, not Reynaldo. The queen assures Hamlet she knew nothing of the the story of an hour, murder -- but Hamlet hasn't even told her about it.

The queen promises to conceal, consent, and channels for consumer products do her best to aid Hamlet in his revenge against the king. The queen warns Hamlet, via Horatio, of a plot. Whenever there is disagreement between Q1 and Q2 or F, Q1 is inferior -- making less sense, or not sounding so good. Some of the stage directions tell us things that we wouldn't know from other sources. The ghost comes into the story of an hour, the queen's bedroom in his pajamas (night gown); Ophelia plays the indirect, lute (an early kind of guitar) when she's crazy. When Hamlet and Laertes fight, they catch one another's rapiers. Here is Hamlet's most famous speech as it appears in the Bad Quarto.

To be, or not to Americans In The, be, aye, there's the point, To die, to sleep, is that all? Aye, all. No, to sleep, to dream, aye merry, there it goes, For in that dream of indirect channels death, when we awake, And borne before an everlasting Judge, From whence no passenger ever returned, The undiscovered country, at those sight. The happy smile, and the accursed damned.

But for this, the science, joyful hope of this, Who'd bear the scorns and flattery of the world, Scorned by the right rich, the rich cursed of the poor? The widow being oppressed, the orphan wronged, The taste of hunger, or a tyrant's reign, And thousand more calamities besides, To grunt and sweat under this weary life, When that he may his full quietus make, With a bare bodkin? Who would this endure,

But for channels for consumer products a hope fo something after death? Which puzzles the brain, and doth confound the sense, Which makes us rather bear those evils we have, Than fly to others that we know not of. Aye that, oh this conscience makes cowards of us all. First Quarto (1603) -- visit here to see just how bad the bad quarto is. Warning: This link crashed my IE browser twice. Antonio's Revenge by John Marston, is mentioned by a contemporary source as 1601, and has a very similar plot to Shakespeare's Hamlet.

The murdered man's wife marries his murderer, and the murdered man's ghost calls his son to paper marriage, revenge. The son pretends to be insane, and is melancholy. For Consumer! He walks around in black reading a book. There is a play-within-a-play for no reason. The son foregoes an on gay marriage, opportunity to kill the murderer in hopes of a better revenge later. The ghost speaks from beneath the stage, and for consumer products reappears in Americans New World the mother's bedroom. The son's girlfriend dies of a broken heart. Probably Marston was using Shakespeare's plot, since Shakespeare has a literary source and Marston doesn't. Der Bestrafte Brudermord (Fratricide Punished) is indirect channels products, a German play that is obviously an and Native Americans New World Essays, adaptation of channels for consumer products Shakespeare's Hamlet, which it resembles in contradistinction to Belleforest.

A ghost appears to Francisco, Horatio, and Preparing for the Future the other guards at the beginning. Hamlet says he is sick at heart over his father's death and his mother's remarriage. Hamlet wants to channels for consumer products, go back to and Native Americans Essays, Wittenberg but the king asks him to stay in Denmark. Corambus's son Leonhardus goes to France. The king gets drunk, as is his habit. The ghost tells how he was killed by having hebona poured in indirect channels for consumer products his ear. Hamlet makes Horatio and the guards promise not to tell what they have seen. They swear in several locations. The ghost calls on them to the story of an, swear from below ground.

Hamlet begins acting crazy. Corambus remembers his own youth, and suggests that Hamlet is in for consumer products love. Hamlet tells Ophelia to go to a nunnery. Hamlet stages a play-within-a-play. The king's guilt is revealed by his reaction when poison is poured into and Native Americans In The New World, the player-king's ear. Hamlet comes upon the king at prayer, but spares him so that his soul will not go to indirect channels products, heaven. Hamlet kills Corambus by stabbing him through a tapestry. Hamlet talks to his mother and is visited again by the ghost, who says nothing. Ophelia goes crazy and commits suicide by jumping off a cliff. The two spies take Hamlet to of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage', an island off Dover, where they reveal their intention to shoot him. They stand on either side and let him give the signal.

He ducks and they shoot each other. Hamlet finds that they carried letters instructing the English king to execute him if their plot fails. Hamlet, the indirect channels, king, the queen, and New World Essays Leonhardus all die in the same ways as in Shakespeare's play. The king uses diamond dust as poison. (That won't work. -- Ed the Pathology Guy.). What's more, the scenes and narrative proceed in products the same order as in Shakespeare's play. Somebody will tell you that the old man's name being Corambus is New World, proof that Der Bestrafte Brudermord must therefore derive from the older Hamlet play. This seems silly to channels, me. Marriage! I'd conclude, rather, that in the first run of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Polonius and Reynaldo were named Corambis and Montano, and indirect channels products that Shakespeare changed their names for some reason.

Der Bestrafte Brudermord has some other points of agreement with Q1 against Q2, but even more with Q2 against Q1. So both seem to be adaptations of Shakespeare's original. So what did Shakespeare add? Shakespeare was constrained by Europeans and Native Americans Essays, his plot and indirect for consumer products genre to have Hamlet's revenge delayed, and to have Hamlet talk about being frustrated. Belleforest provided the essential plot. The old Hamlet play, which we do not have, must have contributed other elements. Shakespeare adds more. The play is very long, and must have been trimmed for production. Science! So Shakespeare must have written much of it to indirect for consumer, please himself.

We also have another hint that Hamlet is misconceptions in primary, Shakespeare's mouthpiece -- Shakespeare named his own son Hamnet. His neighbors in Stratford were Hamnet and Judith Sadler, and Hamlet's name was sometimes spelled Hamlet. Hamnet Shakespeare died in August 1596. To discern an author's intent, look for material that does not specifically advance the plot, typify the genre, or have strong mass-audience appeal. Here is what Shakespeare added. Hamlet considers suicide, and talks about it in words to which most of us can relate. Mostly, it's people's stupid mistreatment of other people that makes him think life is not worth living.

The one extended reference to Christianity (the rooster crows all night in channels the Christmas season) is a beautiful legend that is obviously not true. Hamlet's father, who he remembers so fondly, is burning in the afterlife for his sins. Either Hamlet's father was not such a fine person as Hamlet says, or the afterlife itself is as unfair as our own world. (Of course Shakespeare could not talk about this possibility openly.) Speaking of the in primary science, afterlife. Hamlet, considering suicide, mentions that no one has ever returned from the afterlife with any details. This is despite the channels for consumer, fact that we just saw him talking to Preparing for the Essay, a ghost. I think Shakespeare is indirect, saying, This story is fiction. The ideas Hamlet talks about are basic to human experience. The girl who is used as a spy on Hamlet is one about whom he cares very much, and research paper marriage who may be pregnant by him. In the original, the spy who gets killed in the bedroom is a nobody, a throw-away person killed as casually as in a bad action movie. Channels For Consumer! The spy who Hamlet kills in his mother's bedroom is not only somebody we have gotten to know -- he is the misconceptions in primary science, father of the woman Hamlet loves.

Hamlet stabs him just because he is distraught and not thinking clearly. Hamlet -- who lives in a bad world -- himself becomes culpable. Shakespeare does not allow us to overlook this. The two spies who Hamlet sends to their deaths are his college fraternity brothers. It is not absolutely certain that they actually intend Hamlet any harm.

It's just conceivable that they are too stupid to indirect channels, realize what's going on. Hamlet is the story of an hour, interested in acting, and channels products coaches actors. Research Paper On Gay! One player over-acts, and Hamlet reflects on how people pay more attention to make-believe than to real life. In the prayer scene, Shakespeare lets us listen to the King as he tries to repent his crime, and fails. The king gains much stature and some sympathy.

Hamlet talks to a foot soldier who knows that the war is stupid and that he is channels for consumer, likely to die for no good reason. Hamlet reflects that this dumb war is the result of rich people having nothing to do. The gravediggers crack jokes about misconceptions in primary death and suicide, remarking on how a politics and money allowed the girl to indirect products, receive a minimal Christian burial. Preparing! The priest's remarks to Laertes show organized dogmatism at its most heartless. (In fact, this pathologist thinks Ophelia probably died accidentally.) Hamlet handles Yorick the beloved jester's skull and meditates on how everybody ends up dead in the end. Hamlet likes the indirect channels, man with whom he fights his duel. Hamlet has wronged Laertes as Claudius has wronged Hamlet, and Hamlet knows it.

Hamlet tells Horatio he think that perhaps there's a divinity that shapes our ends and this made him board the pirate ship. From time to the story shmoop, time, Hamlet talks about a sense that he is God's agent, with his steps guided by divine providence. But the death-scene itself is explicitly without any Christian comfort. For Consumer! In Q1 (recalled by the actor either from the earlier play, or from Preparing Future Essay, what a good-guy hero might be expected to indirect channels for consumer, say), Hamlet's last words were, Heaven receive my soul. Instead, Shakespeare's Hamlet speaks cryptic last words: The rest is on Space Exploration 1980s, silence. Generally, Hamlet talks a great deal about death and disease, without any suggestion of an orthodox religious faith to make it meaningful or bearable. Almost all readers and viewers come away from Hamlet liking the prince very much. He is indirect channels products, a thinker, and he is funny. We see into his own mind, and discover him to be genuine and sincere. Misconceptions In Primary! We admire him for resisting the evil around him. But Hamlet is both stupid and mean when he kills Polonius.

And it is hard to like his nasty, bitter outlook on life in the first half of the play. Especially, if you do not like everything about today's teenaged Goth culture (wearing black, being clever and disrespectful, playing with people's feelings, complaining that life seems meaningless and empty), you won't like everything about the Hamlet who we meet at the beginning. If this were an action-movie or something by one of Shakespeare's contemporaries, the indirect channels products, prince might be entirely sympathetic, and his enemies altogether despicable. It's characteristic of research on gay marriage Shakespeare's later tragedies that our sympathies are always divided. Some of the most powerful serious movies (Shane, Unforgiven, Hoodlum -- all are revenge plays) have the same moral ambiguity. You can find examples from indirect products, classical tragedy as well (Agamemnon, Medea, many more).

In Hamlet, Shakespeare explains why he writes in this way -- he intends to hold a mirror up to nature, to show us ourselves. I know not 'seems'. Misconceptions Science! -- Hamlet. I'd already noticed when I was formally taught it in indirect channels products my medical school psychiatry course. For most twenty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, What has happened to most forty-year-olds that caused them to lose the ideals and the authenticity of youth? For most forty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, How did I lose the ideals and authenticity that made me who I was when I was twenty?

It's no coincidence that college Greeks profess high ideals. It's what makes them work. for people not yet corrupted by the world. Teenaged Holden Caulfield (Catcher in for the Future the Rye) described the shams of the phony society of the wealthy, and heard Hamlet had talked about the same theme. He plans to read the play eventually. Indirect Products! In the 1970's, it was usual for people to call each other phony if they thought differently about something, and there was no defending against it. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn uses another young person to comment on the falsity of Critical Analysis of Schulman's Article adult society. Channels For Consumer! Huck lives fairly well, as Hamlet does. Huck speaks only by his actions, without Hamlet's eloquence.

Mark Twain uses humor and irony to show how much finer Huck is than his betters. The king holds a ceremonious first-public-meeting in I.ii. Polonius is buried without ceremony. Ophelia gets a limited ceremony. At the end, Fortinbras holds a ceremonial memorial for Hamlet. In Macbeth, we are treated to a spectacle from the same era of Article and Marriage' Essay warlords that gives the setting for Hamlet. Everybody knows Macbeth killed Duncan, and nobody intends to do anything to bring him to justice, preferring the stability provided by another capable leader. In Hamlet's court, everybody (not just Hamlet, and probably even his mother) must suspect Claudius to be a murderer. After the play-within-the-play, it's obvious. Son: Dad, what's the difference between ignorance and apathy? Dad: Son, I don't know and I don't care. -- Contemporary.

At the for consumer, end, Hamlet's fideism, a vague faith in God's ability to sort out the mess of this world without any more specific religious dogma, is the kind of faith that many honest, thinking people have reached in our own day. Essay On Space In The 1980s! Elizabethans talked of God's general providence (the goodness and intelligence that created and sustains the world) and God's special providence (God guiding events subtly to make things work out for the right.) You will need to decide for yourself whether special providence is at work in our own world, or whether Shakespeare actually believed so. But Hamlet thinks it does. Hamlet sees himself as God's agent, and he tells this to his friends (O cursed spite. ) and his mother (scourge and indirect channels products minister). Hamlet reflects on Essay Exploration in the 1980s, God's providence (fall of a sparrow) after his life is indirect, saved from the spies. Laertes sees his own death as God's judgment, and Hamlet as God's avenger. What is telling, though, is that this does not enable Hamlet to hope for, or expect, a better afterlife. Is Life Worth Living? If his chief good and market of research paper on gay his time. Is but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. -- Hamlet.

Pathologists joke, Is life worth living? It depends on the liver!. Seriously, we've all asked this question. Shakespeare offers no pat answer, only Hamlet's courage and dignity in accepting the human condition, saying No! to corruption, and in meeting his own task and his own death. In the noir genre of hard-boiled detective fiction, the hero gradually learns about both public and private corruption. Nothing is channels products, as it seems. The hero strikes back, but the ending is never completely happy. Hamlet is called to his revenge by heaven and hell, i.e., something that Shakespeare thought of as more fundamental than the struggle between good and Critical of Schulman's 'Gay Essay evil.

Hamlet talks a great deal about the nature of human beings, characterizes himself as indifferent[ly] honest and could accuse himself of things for which it would have been better if he hadn't been born. Indirect For Consumer! We are left to wonder what these are, but soon Hamlet becomes the villain in a revenge story that mirrors his own. Old Hamlet, supposedly a good man, is burning for a while in purgatory for unconfessed sins of the kind that ordinary folks commit. Claudius, who Hamlet considers a very bad man, shows us his true mind twice, and we see a struggle between his hunger for divine grace and his need to keep his wife's love. The morality plays that preceded Shakespeare showed examples of good and bad people, and heroes that had a clear choice and made it. Shakespeare seems to be telling us in Hamlet that we can and misconceptions in primary science should try to live well, but that both good and indirect channels bad are inherent in for the the human condition. Growing up, we must come to terms with our inability to live up to our own ideals. (You may have trouble finding much on life's gray areas in English literature before Shakespeare. Indirect Products! Even Chaucer published a pious deathbed retraction for his freethinking.)

Today we hear a lot about the in primary science, usual five stages of indirect coming to for the Future, terms with death (impact, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.) As a physician, I've noticed that the sequence often happens as described, though it's by no means invariable. (People with a living, mature religious faith often -- but by no means always -- simply accept.) At the end, Hamlet is indirect for consumer, no longer depressed, but accepts the human condition. Whether he's right to do so is on Space 1980s, something you'll need to decide. But it's a common experience for people growing up. Indirect For Consumer! And Shakespeare's shown it to us in Hamlet. If you find yourself wondering whether it's worth going on living in a world full of sham and wrong. perhaps you will find your own answers in unselfish love rather than in stoical acceptance. And perhaps you, too, can be a hero. Shakespeare was constrained by his plot. to have Hamlet pretend to be delusional; and.

to have Hamlet kill the Preparing, spy in his mother's bedroom. The principal scene in which Hamlet pretends to be crazy (puts [his] antic disposition on) is the one in which he teases Polonius, calling him a fishmonger (compare fleshmoner, or pimp. remember that Polonius wants money for his virgin daughter.) In the other scenes, Hamlet acts genuine and other people think he's crazy. Ophelia describes Hamlet's silent visit and Polonius thinks it's craziness. Ophelia hears Hamlet telling her to indirect for consumer products, get out of of an hour a bad world, and she thinks he's lost his reason.

Hamlet's mother thinks Hamlet is channels for consumer, crazy after becoming distraught at the end of the closet scene. After the play-within-the-play, the king knows Hamlet isn't crazy, but tells the rest of the court that he must be sent away to paper, England because of indirect channels products his mental illness. Notice how Shakespeare adds a new theme -- be yourself, be genuine, and a fake world will consider you to be deviant. Shakespeare's Hamlet is already distraught, and in times of emotional distress, we do wrong things without thinking. Afterwards, Hamlet (who is indifferent honest), blames his madness for the killing of Polonius. In Primary! The delusions are fake (as Claudius, and anybody familiar with real mental illness, will recognize). The irrational striking-out in a moment of emotional turmoil is very real. Shakespeare's play focused on the mind of a man who's profoundly distraught and channels for consumer products who is asking himself whether life is Preparing for the Essay, worth living. Having Hamlet also pretend to be insane was central to the old story, but not to Shakespeare's play. Hamlet uses his feigned madness to point out to those around him how crazy and false the sane world is.

There are themes and real controversies that you can explore further, based on channels for consumer, your own experience of and Native In The New World Essays life. T.S. Eliot, asked whether the madness of Hamlet was real or feigned, asked, Is the madness of Hamlet's critics real or feigned? This sums it up for me. The nonsense about Hamlet being unable to indirect channels products, make up his mind begins with his own speeches after hearing the Player King's speech on Hecuba (he berates himself for hesitating), and research paper especially after talking to Fortinbras's soldier (thinking too precisely on the event -- i.e., people who obsess a lot are the ones who do the least). Obsessive-compulsive personality and neurosis are well-known, and mild variants have affected most bright people occasionally.

Bradley points out that Hamlet seems depressed (melancholy) and indirect channels that this will slow a person down; early 20th century writers influenced by psychoanalysis talked about a mother-fixation causing the depression. But the on Space in the, truth is that Hamlet has no opportunity to kill the king and then justify his action, until the final disaster, when Laertes reveals The king's to blame. In the for consumer products, case, providence provides the opportunity. Hamlet really does not delay his revenge any more than do Robocop or Nevada Smith. Preparing Future! Heroes of earlier revenge plays soliloquize about having to delay, and indirect for consumer criticize themselves for it. But revenge plays require that the revenge take time and the story of an hour shmoop planning -- or there would be no play. Sam Coleridge (an obsessive who blamed the failure of his grandiose projects on his opium habit) talked about channels products Hamlet thinking too hard. Coleridge identified with this Hamlet, but this isn't Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Schlegel called Hamlet thought-sick. Goethe found Hamlet lovely, sensitive and research marriage without strength of nerve. Now, when Hamlet expresses regrets that he's not completed his revenge, he compares himself unfavorably to the Player King (who has just recited a ridiculous, bombastic speech) and to Fortinbras (who is getting thousands of people killed for no good reason at indirect for consumer all -- I first became interested in Shakespeare during the Future Essay, Vietnam war). It is no coincidence that both the Player King and for consumer Fortinbras are pursuing stupid, vain goals. What is Shakespeare trying to tell us? Hamlet's revenge isn't so much simply the killing of the king, as it is the Analysis Article Marriage and Marriage' Essay, purging of all the rottenness in the Danish court. And although it costs him his life, he succeeds.

At some time, we all consider how much wrong there is in for consumer products the world. Hamlet gives us a chance to watch an on gay marriage, ordinary person consciously choose to say No! to the world's wrongness and phoniness, and to for consumer products, strike back with intelligence and power. Europeans And Native Americans New World Essays! From the bare-bones of an channels products, old revenge story, Shakespeare has held up the mirror to something in us that is precious. I hear Hamlet saying, So many people put so much effort into doing things that are not worthwhile. It's a bad world, and I am far from a perfect human being. And we all end up dead in the end. But I am going to of Schulman's Article and Marriage', do something worthwhile, and do it right. More on whether Hamlet has a tragic flaw. I believe that the whole there has to be a tragic flaw business was dreamed up by Aristotle, who got paid to tell young people that if they were really good, then bad things couldn't happen to them, and that people went to sad shows just to have a good cry (purge the emotions of pity and fear). If it is helpful, point out the obvious.

Aristotle said that a tragic hero should have character flaws so that we wouldn't see bad things happening to indirect channels for consumer, totally-good people. Maybe the Essay on Space Exploration in the, heroes of Shakespeare's tragedies are not all-virtuous because Shakespeare wants to show us life as it really is. Since Sophocles's ultra-coldblooded Electra, revenge plays have been among the favorite genre for theater and movies. Why? First, a revenge play presumes that to indirect for consumer products, right a wrong, somebody is forced to take the law into his or her own hands. This showcases one of the most important and serious of Essay human concerns -- how do we maintain good law (i.e., a government that really protects its people's lives and opportunities)?

It's the central question of civilization. Indirect Channels! (The conclusion of Electra is chilling -- read Sophocles's answer.) Second, the revenger must overcome obstacles to revenge. The lead character has a strong purpose with which we can identify, and we can share his or her feelings and thoughts. There is a satisfaction when revenge is finally won. Shakespeare's philosophy? You decide! One may find ideas similar to those in Article Marriage Essay Hamlet in Montaigne's essays (here's a top-flight college paper for an eager student), in for consumer products Ecclesiastes (Old Testament, of course) and in the following famous twentieth-century piece (sometimes stated to be much older).

Go placidly amid the noise and of Schulman's and Marriage' Essay haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and listen to others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons; they are vexations to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself.

Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in your own career, however humble, it's a real possession in the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in indirect channels products your business affairs, for the world is full of trickery. But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and everywhere life is full of Analysis Article Marriage Essay heroism. Be yourself. Especially do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about love; for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment, it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the indirect for consumer, things of youth.

Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. Misconceptions! But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Many fears are born of fatigue and channels for consumer products loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. Critical Analysis 'Gay Marriage Essay! You are a child of the indirect for consumer, universe no less than the trees and the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive him to Critical Analysis 'Gay and Marriage' Essay, be. Products! And whatever your labors and marriage aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life, keep peace in your soul. With all its sham, drudgery and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be cheerful.

Strive to be happy. Contrast this with Polonius's advice to Laertes. Somebody will remind you that according to channels for consumer, the Christian ethics of Shakespeare's era, revenge was considered wrong. Research On Gay Marriage! A saint would forgive and channels for consumer bring about reconciliation. Europeans And Native In The New World Essays! (As a Christian, I have discovered that this is possible more often than we might think.) Even ordinary people were not supposed to take the law into their own hands. It's hard, though, to see this as a major theme of channels for consumer products this revenge play.

Somebody will tell you that Hamlet is about how it's difficult to Essay on Space in the, know the for consumer, right thing to do -- whether it's killing the king, how to deal with an impossible home situation, or whether life is worth living. Somebody else will tell you that the real tragedy is that Hamlet kills the hour shmoop, king, rather than forgiving him and living in love and harmony. In Hamlet's era, without effective birth control or stable democracy, bloody conflict was a fact of life. Indirect For Consumer! In an era of warlords, the best for which anyone could hope was a temporary truce and some justice. Despite their individual virtues and their politically correct apologists, all real-life primitive societies are like this. Hamlet was fundamentally correct -- the world, by its very nature, is misconceptions in primary science, full of unpleasantness and wrong. How does Hamlet's attitude toward women change during the indirect for consumer products, play? Is this a major theme? (I think so -- it's not mentioned that often. You decide.) Hamlet starts off very upset and claiming he wishes he was dead because of his mother's faithless to his good father's memory.

He urges Ophelia to withdraw from a rotten world full of rotten women. Later, at the end of the closet scene, he reaffirms his love for his mother despite her faults, and in the graveyard scene affirms he loves Ophelia. If life has taught me anything, it's that people are to on Space Exploration, be loved along with (not just in spite of) their imperfections. Perhaps you believe this as well. Eric Jones MD came up with an idea in Hamlet and Oedipus. Hamlet cannot kill Claudius because he unconsciously identifies with him, due to Hamlet's old Oedpius complex, when he wanted to have his mother incestuously. Jones notes that Shakespeare's own dad died around the time the play was written. Nowadays, almost all psychiatrists will tell you that Freud's psychoanalysis is of historical interest, having shown very limited ability to predict the thoughts and actions of patients or to effect recovery. One of my own medical school psychiatry professors said, There's no 'Oedipus complex.' You can decide for yourself about Jones's claims. Is Ophelia pregnant with Hamlet's baby?

Hamlet was romantically interested in Ophelia, and she in him, and they lived in the same castle. Hamlet jokes with Polonius about channels for consumer products how his daughter might become pregnant, a pregnant rich girl might be sent for secrecy's sake to a convent (nunnery) and Europeans and Native In The Essays the child given for adoption, and indirect for consumer products Ophelia sings about lost virginity. We aren't going to know. Supposedly there were two drownings in Shakespeare's community when he was younger. A lady named Alice suicided by jumping down a well when her family didn't approve of the man she loved. Another lady (Katherine Hamlet) accidentally fell into the river (she was carrying buckets).

How these events may have affected Shakespeare's decision to have Ophelia drown must remain speculative. You've already noticed that Shakespeare follows a rule from his era -- the highest-ranking person on stage gets the first and Preparing last lines in each scene. An easy high-school paper can focus on how different characters approach the questions posted in the To Be or Not To Be soliloquy. Ophelia is mostly passive. For Consumer! People who go on to become schizophrenic are often quiet, passive people (schizoid).

Shakespeare probably noticed this. Laertes is bold, forceful, and spouts lines from a bad Elizabethan revenge tragedy (I don't care if I go to hell -- contrast Hamlet's and Claudius's fear of damnation.) Fortinbras bides his time, and Preparing Future grabs the opportunity. Horatio is a classic stoic with a Roman's sense of honor and a Christian trust in God's power to help. Polonius is for consumer, a manipulator. From Shakespeare's Era.

If you are interested in the English religious controveries of Shakespeare's era, you may decide that some are reflected in research paper marriage Hamlet. People who held to the Roman tradition might believe in products Purgatory, a place of Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay suffering where sins committed in life were burned away, and indirect channels for consumer where sufferings could be eased by purchasing the ministry of the church. Europeans In The! Before the Reformation, this had helped make the channels for consumer products, relgious orders wealthy, and also sparked the marriage, founding of schools and hospitals where the beneficiaries were asked to pray for the sould of their benefactors. People who still believed in the Roman doctrine of purgatory feared especially dying without the sacraments of the church, because the time in purgatory would be prolonged. The English government church forbidden even praying for the dead. Probably many people didn't like this. On the other hand, the Puritans pressured for indirect channels products religious rituals to be even further curtailed. In an era without religious freedom, this had generated a lot of bad feeling.

Stories of the story of an hour shmoop ghosts returning from purgatory, which had been popular before the Reformation, were dismissed as diabolical deceptions. For purposes of the plot, there is really no reason for Old Hamlet to talk about his being in torment or having died with all his imperfections on his head (i.e., unconfessed sins). Channels Products! Hamlet swears by Saint Patrick, who is sometimes described as the patron saint of Purgatory. Of course, Old Hamlet is in purgatory, which according to the the official government church doesn't exist. Research! When Laertes complains about the limited burial service given to his sister, people in the audience would have thought about the contemporary controversies. You can find out on products, your own what evidence exists to the story hour, show that John Shakespeare, the author's father, was at least a Roman Catholic sympathizer who wanted prayers for his soul after he died. (Ask about documents found in Stratford centuries later.) But you'll need to indirect products, decide for Essay on Space Exploration in the yourself whether Shakespeare is using an old plot, or expressing his secret beliefs, or (my choice) showing us ourselves. More For Students.

Kronberg Castle, in Helsingor (Elsinore), near Copenhagen, is supposedly Hamlet's castle. Photo. Commentary: T.S. Eliot on Hamlet and his Problems G Wilson Knight's remarks on Hamlet seem to be off-line today. Shakespeare always divides our sympathies. Knight sees Hamlet as more the villain than Claudius is. Introduction to Hamlet Postmodernist. . or even perhaps to tell us that there is channels for consumer products, no truth, save for that truth given existence by a genius through theatrical devices, representation, illusion, and on gay marriage art. Uh?

No Fear -- text along with 21st-century English translation. Sixty-Second Shakespeare -- Bloodbath at Danish Court -- 'Mad' Prince Hamlet Was Right All Along Trysto Hamlet -- extremely abridged, could be performed by small children. Oor Hamlet -- mock Scots ballad, very funny. Shakespeare's Sonnets. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products! A remarkable sequence even by today's standards. The site author is, like me, committed to making Shakespeare available to everybody, at no cost. In The 1980s! Enjoy.

Duane Morin -- an e-book is in for consumer preparation. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.

The Undiscovered Country -- Hamlet site, promoting the author's e-book. Paper On Gay! Looks good. To the best of indirect channels products my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the of an hour, large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products! I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and Essay spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame.

This site will always remain free, to channels, help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. Great PerformancesDavid Tennant / Patrick Stewart -- watch the of an, entire NC-17 play. Laurence Olivier -- introduction for children, well done. Royal Shakespeare Company -- David Tennant / Patrick Stewart; watch the play; highly recommended. Star Wars -- Hamlet and Laertes trade weapons. Jude Law -- talks about his Hamlet. Coventry -- Patrick Stewart as Claudius. Sam West -- Royal Shakespeare Company 2000. Public Broadcasting System -- gets NC-17 rating.

Psychological thriller. Graphic violence. Scenes of a supernatural nature. In a time of conflict, a voice from the grave will take a vengeful man to a place beyond sanity where only indirect for consumer conspiracy and death await. Ethan Hawke's Hamlet is set in contemporary New York City. On Space Exploration In The! I liked it much better than most of the critics did. Bill Murry, who is always funny, plays Polonius and still shows up how cruelly he treats Ophelia. The popular movie Coraline quotes Hamlet's speech, What a piece of work. when the heroine, who is neglected by her parents, is tempted with false promises of a richer and indirect channels for consumer products more meaningful life. The theme of the book and movie, which surely explains their popularity, is in primary science, that if parents don't attend to their children's needs to grow emotionally and mentally, someone else will.

And it will probably be the indirect for consumer products, wrong people. Oedipus the King -- including something about the tragic hero business. If you are asked to write about Shakespeare's tragic heroes or their tragic flaw or whatever, help yourself to my skeptical notes on Aristotle. You may find it more rewarding to focus on something at once more obvious and more profound. Analysis Of Schulman's Marriage And Marriage'! Shakespeare (unlike Sophocles) is writing about indirect channels for consumer products real-life, flesh-and-blood people (tragic flaws -- nobody always acts smart) who live in marriage an imperfect world (tragic choices). In Shakespeare, our sympathies are usually divided among the indirect for consumer products, characters. For this reason, Aristotle's thoughts on tragedy (i.e., people are imperfect) really seem more useful in Essay discussing Shakespeare than in indirect for consumer products discussing Sophocles. In my pathology course and here, my advice is the same -- focus on the human beings, the real-life, individual situations. You may also decide there are some common theme elements (real vs. fake friendship; bad government is bad for the country; despite what has happened to you, you can still be a hero). If you decide that the philosophical Hakuna Matata (Everything is fine) song is ironic, then the in primary science, central theme of indirect channels for consumer The Lion King is the story hour, that life is by its nature full of troubles and wrongs, and you find its meaning in what you do about it this fact.

Of course, compare and indirect contrast papers are for beginners. (1) Look at the short story that provided the plot (click here. and notice how Shakespeare has portrayed racism as it really is in our world. Ordinary decent folks (i.e., the in primary, Venetian government) care only who a person is and what that person can do. They consider Brabantio a jerk for indirect accepting a person of another race as a friend but not as a son-in-law. Iago, who for whatever reason has a chip on his shoulder, spews racial venom for his own dark reasons. Desdemona is originally frightened by science, someone who looks different, but quickly learns to love that person so that race become indifferent. (2) It is very common for special-forces operatives who return to civilian life and/or who try to sustain a marriage to have terrible difficulties.

Those who are successful deserve our special admiration. Too many become terribly confused and end up in self-destructive behaviors, both loving and hating. It's one of our world's strangest ironies that romantic love is more treacherous and incomprehensible than war. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to indirect channels, my autopsy page, my notes on misconceptions in primary science, disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks and parentheses. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. In one of the Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten. To be or not to be: that is the indirect channels for consumer products, question; Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, and get out of abusive relationships by Europeans and Native, any means. Tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances or what feelings you really harbor -- get guidance from other adults if you need it, and remember Polonius's advice, which works often enough in our crazy world). Channels For Consumer Products! The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.

To include this page in a bibliography , you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Hamlet by William Shakespeare Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/hamlet.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Thanks for visiting. Health and Critical Analysis Article Marriage and Marriage' friendship. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Athar: Hamlet is post-Christian. Bleakers: Sigh. Hamlet didn't find meaning, because there isn't any, but he did find peace. Ciphers: Hamlet found out he could act instead of brood.

Doomguard: The court goes bad and everybody dies. Dust Folk: Hamlet finds peace in death. Free League: There are many meanings here. Godsfolk: Hamlet develops as a person. Guvnurs: Nowadays with good forensic pathology, we could have proved the case against indirect channels for consumer products Claudius without Hamlet having to take the law into his own hands.

Hardheads: See what happens when law and order break down. Mercykillers: We love a good revenge play. Revolutionaries: Authority corrupts. Sensates: Hamlet showcases powerful feelings. Signers: There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Takers: Hamlet learned to quit moping and got what he wanted. Xaositects: Crazy make sense people the most. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on research paper on gay, dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on indirect channels for consumer, drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, Is life worth living in a world full of wrong? And can I live well? -- then the answer is maybe that Shakespeare deals with basic human issues.

Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right. Thanks for the memories and for your friendship. Give me that man That is not passions slave, and I will wear him In my hearts core, ay, in my heart of heart.

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essay horror fiction Supernatural Horror in Literature. By H. P. Lovecraft. The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. These facts few psychologists will dispute, and their admitted truth must establish for all time the genuineness and dignity of the weirdly horrible tale as a literary form. Against it are discharged all the shafts of a materialistic sophistication which clings to frequently felt emotions and external events, and of a naively insipid idealism which deprecates the aesthetic motive and calls for a didactic literature to uplift the reader toward a suitable degree of smirking optimism. But in spite of all this opposition the weird tale has survived, developed, and attained remarkable heights of perfection; founded as it is on a profound and elementary principle whose appeal, if not always universal, must necessarily be poignant and permanent to minds of the requisite sensitiveness. The appeal of the spectrally macabre is generally narrow because it demands from the channels for consumer reader a certain degree of imagination and a capacity for detachment from every-day life. Relatively few are free enough from the spell of the daily routine to respond to rappings from outside, and tales of ordinary feelings and events, or of common sentimental distortions of such feelings and the story of an shmoop, events, will always take first place in the taste of the majority; rightly, perhaps, since of course these ordinary matters make up the greater part of human experience.

But the sensitive are always with us, and sometimes a curious streak of fancy invades an obscure corner of the channels products very hardest head; so that no amount of rationalisation, reform, or Freudian analysis can quite annul the misconceptions thrill of the chimney-corner whisper or the lonely wood. There is here involved a psychological pattern or tradition as real and as deeply grounded in indirect channels mental experience as any other pattern or tradition of Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay Essay mankind; coeval with the religious feeling and closely related to many aspects of indirect channels for consumer it, and too much a part of our inmost biological heritage to lose keen potency over a very important, though not numerically great, minority of our species. Man’s first instincts and emotions formed his response to the environment in which he found himself. Definite feelings based on pleasure and pain grew up around the phenomena whose causes and effects he understood, whilst around those which he did not understandand the universe teemed with them in the early dayswere naturally woven such personifications, marvellous interpretations, and sensations of the story hour shmoop awe and fear as would be hit upon by a race having few and simple ideas and limited experience. The unknown, being likewise the unpredictable, became for our primitive forefathers a terrible and omnipotent source of boons and calamities visited upon indirect mankind for cryptic and wholly extra-terrestrial reasons, and thus clearly belonging to and Native Americans New World Essays spheres of existence whereof we know nothing and wherein we have no part. The phenomenon of dreaming likewise helped to build up the notion of an indirect channels for consumer products unreal or spiritual world; and in of Schulman's Article Marriage and Marriage' Essay general, all the conditions of savage dawn-life so strongly conduced toward a feeling of the supernatural, that we need not wonder at the thoroughness with which man’s very hereditary essence has become saturated with religion and superstition. That saturation must, as a matter of plain scientific fact, be regarded as virtually permanent so far as the subconscious mind and inner instincts are concerned; for though the indirect channels area of the Europeans and Native Americans New World Essays unknown has been steadily contracting for thousands of years, an infinite reservoir of mystery still engulfs most of the outer cosmos, whilst a vast residuum of powerful inherited associations clings around all the objects and processes that were once mysterious, however well they may now be explained.

And more than this, there is an actual physiological fixation of the indirect for consumer old instincts in our nervous tissue, which would make them obscurely operative even were the conscious mind to be purged of all sources of paper on gay wonder. Because we remember pain and the menace of death more vividly than pleasure, and because our feelings toward the beneficent aspects of the unknown have from the first been captured and formalised by conventional religious rituals, it has fallen to the lot of the darker and more maleficent side of cosmic mystery to figure chiefly in our popular supernatural folklore. This tendency, too, is naturally enhanced by the fact that uncertainty and indirect for consumer products, danger are always closely allied; thus making any kind of an unknown world a world of peril and evil possibilities. When to this sense of fear and evil the inevitable fascination of wonder and curiosity is superadded, there is born a composite body of keen emotion and imaginative provocation whose vitality must of necessity endure as long as the human race itself. Children will always be afraid of the dark, and men with minds sensitive to hereditary impulse will always tremble at the thought of the on Space Exploration 1980s hidden and fathomless worlds of strange life which may pulsate in the gulfs beyond the indirect stars, or press hideously upon our own globe in unholy dimensions which only the dead and the moonstruck can glimpse. With this foundation, no one need wonder at the existence of a literature of cosmic fear. It has always existed, and always will exist; and no better evidence of its tenacious vigour can be cited than the impulse which now and then drives writers of totally opposite leanings to try their hands at misconceptions science it in isolated tales, as if to discharge from their minds certain phantasmal shapes which would otherwise haunt them. Thus Dickens wrote several eerie narratives; Browning, the hideous poem “Childe Roland”; Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; Dr. Holmes, the subtle novel Elsie Venner; F. Marion Crawford, “The Upper Berth” and a number of other examples; Mrs.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, social worker, “The Yellow Wall Paper”; whilst the humourist W. W. Jacobs produced that able melodramatic bit called “The Monkey’s Paw”. This type of fear-literature must not be confounded with a type externally similar but psychologically widely different; the literature of mere physical fear and the mundanely gruesome. Such writing, to indirect for consumer be sure, has its place, as has the conventional or even whimsical or humorous ghost story where formalism or the author’s knowing wink removes the true sense of the morbidly unnatural; but these things are not the literature of cosmic fear in its purest sense. The true weird tale has something more than secret murder, bloody bones, or a sheeted form clanking chains according to rule. A certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces must be present; and there must be a hint, expressed with a seriousness and portentousness becoming its subject, of that most terrible conception of the human braina malign and particular suspension or defeat of those fixed laws of Nature which are our only safeguard against the assaults of and Native Americans In The New World chaos and products, the daemons of unplumbed space. Naturally we cannot expect all weird tales to conform absolutely to any theoretical model. Europeans And Native Americans? Creative minds are uneven, and the best of fabrics have their dull spots. Indirect For Consumer? Moreover, much of the choicest weird work is unconscious; appearing in memorable fragments scattered through material whose massed effect may be of a very different cast. Atmosphere is the all-important thing, for the final criterion of authenticity is not the dovetailing of a plot but the creation of a given sensation. We may say, as a general thing, that a weird story whose intent is to in primary teach or produce a social effect, or one in which the horrors are finally explained away by natural means, is not a genuine tale of cosmic fear; but it remains a fact that such narratives often possess, in isolated sections, atmospheric touches which fulfil every condition of channels true supernatural horror-literature. Therefore we must judge a weird tale not by the author’s intent, or by the mere mechanics of the plot; but by the emotional level which it attains at its least mundane point.

If the proper sensations are excited, such a “high spot” must be admitted on its own merits as weird literature, no matter how prosaically it is later dragged down. The one test of the really weird is simply thiswhether or not there be excited in the reader a profound sense of dread, and and Native Americans In The Essays, of contact with unknown spheres and powers; a subtle attitude of awed listening, as if for the beating of black wings or the indirect scratching of outside shapes and entities on the known universe’s utmost rim. And of course, the more completely and unifiedly a story conveys this atmosphere, the better it is and Native In The New World Essays as a work of art in indirect products the given medium. As may naturally be expected of a form so closely connected with primal emotion, the horror-tale is marriage as old as human thought and indirect channels for consumer, speech themselves. Cosmic terror appears as an ingredient of the earliest folklore of all races, and is crystallised in the most archaic ballads, chronicles, and sacred writings. It was, indeed, a prominent feature of the elaborate ceremonial magic, with its rituals for the evocation of daemons and spectres, which flourished from prehistoric times, and Critical Analysis and Marriage' Essay, which reached its highest development in indirect channels products Egypt and the Semitic nations. Fragments like the Book of Enoch and the Claviculae of Solomon well illustrate the power of the weird over the ancient Eastern mind, and upon such things were based enduring systems and traditions whose echoes extend obscurely even to the present time. Touches of this transcendental fear are seen in classic literature, and there is evidence of Exploration its still greater emphasis in a ballad literature which paralleled the channels classic stream but vanished for lack of a written medium. The Middle Ages, steeped in fanciful darkness, gave it an enormous impulse toward expression; and East and West alike were busy preserving and amplifying the dark heritage, both of random folklore and of academically formulated magic and cabbalism, which had descended to them. Witch, werewolf, vampire, and ghoul brooded ominously on the lips of bard and grandam, and needed but little encouragement to take the final step across the boundary that divides the chanted tale or song from the formal literary composition. In the Orient, the weird tale tended to Article 'Gay assume a gorgeous colouring and sprightliness which almost transmuted it into sheer phantasy.

In the West, where the mystical Teuton had come down from his black Boreal forests and the Celt remembered strange sacrifices in for consumer Druidic groves, it assumed a terrible intensity and convincing seriousness of atmosphere which doubled the force of its half-told, half-hinted horrors. Much of the of an hour shmoop power of Western horror-lore was undoubtedly due to the hidden but often suspected presence of a hideous cult of nocturnal worshippers whose strange customsdescended from pre-Aryan and pre-agricultural times when a squat race of Mongoloids roved over Europe with their flocks and herdswere rooted in the most revolting fertility-rites of immemorial antiquity. This secret religion, stealthily handed down amongst peasants for thousands of years despite the outward reign of the Druidic, Graeco-Roman, and Christian faiths in the regions involved, was marked by wild “Witches’ Sabbaths” in indirect for consumer lonely woods and atop distant hills on Walpurgis-Night and Hallowe’en, the traditional breeding-seasons of the goats and sheep and cattle; and became the source of vast riches of sorcery-legend, besides provoking extensive witchcraft- prosecutions of which the research paper marriage Salem affair forms the chief American example. Akin to it in essence, and perhaps connected with it in fact, was the frightful secret system of indirect channels products inverted theology or Satan-worship which produced such horrors as the famous “Black Mass”; whilst operating toward the same end we may note the activities of those whose aims were somewhat more scientific or philosophicalthe astrologers, cabbalists, and alchemists of the Albertus Magnus or Raymond Lully type, with whom such rude ages invariably abound. The prevalence and depth of the mediaeval horror-spirit in Europe, intensified by the dark despair which waves of pestilence brought, may be fairly gauged by the grotesque carvings slyly introduced into much of the finest later Gothic ecclesiastical work of the time; the daemoniac gargoyles of Notre Dame and Mont St. Michel being among the most famous specimens. And throughout the period, it must be remembered, there existed amongst educated and of an hour shmoop, uneducated alike a most unquestioning faith in every form of the supernatural; from the gentlest of Christian doctrines to the most monstrous morbidities of witchcraft and black magic. Indirect Channels For Consumer? It was from no empty background that the Renaissance magicians and alchemistsNostradamus, Trithemius, Dr. Of An Hour? John Dee, Robert Fludd, and indirect for consumer, the likewere born. In this fertile soil were nourished types and characters of sombre myth and legend which persist in weird literature to this day, more or less disguised or altered by modern technique.

Many of them were taken from the and Native Americans earliest oral sources, and form part of mankind’s permanent heritage. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? The shade which appears and Essay on Space Exploration in the 1980s, demands the indirect channels products burial of its bones, the daemon lover who comes to bear away his still living bride, the death-fiend or psychopomp riding the night-wind, the Analysis of Schulman's and Marriage' Essay man-wolf, the sealed chamber, the deathless sorcererall these may be found in that curious body of mediaeval lore which the late Mr. Baring-Gould so effectively assembled in book form. Wherever the mystic Northern blood was strongest, the indirect for consumer products atmosphere of the popular tales became most intense; for on gay marriage in the Latin races there is a touch of basic rationality which denies to even their strangest superstitions many of the overtones of glamour so characteristic of our own forest-born and ice-fostered whisperings. Just as all fiction first found extensive embodiment in poetry, so is it in poetry that we first encounter the permanent entry of the channels weird into standard literature. Most of the ancient instances, curiously enough, are in prose; as the werewolf incident in Petronius, the gruesome passages in Apuleius, the Europeans and Native Americans In The brief but celebrated letter of Pliny the indirect channels Younger to Sura, and the odd compilation On Wonderful Events by Critical Marriage Essay, the Emperor Hadrian’s Greek freedman, Phlegon. It is in Phlegon that we first find that hideous tale of the corpse-bride, “Philinnion and Machates”, later related by Proclus and in modern times forming the inspiration of Goethe’s “Bride of Corinth” and Washington Irving’s “German Student”. But by the time the old Northern myths take literary form, and in that later time when the weird appears as a steady element in the literature of the day, we find it mostly in for consumer products metrical dress; as indeed we find the misconceptions in primary science greater part of the strictly imaginative writing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The Scandinavian Eddas and Sagas thunder with cosmic horror, and shake with the indirect for consumer products stark fear of misconceptions in primary science Ymir and for consumer products, his shapeless spawn; whilst our own Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and the later Continental Nibelung tales are full of research on gay marriage eldritch weirdness. Dante is a pioneer in the classic capture of macabre atmosphere, and in Spenser’s stately stanzas will be seen more than a few touches of fantastic terror in landscape, incident, and character. Prose literature gives us Malory’s Morte d’Arthur, in which are presented many ghastly situations taken from early ballad sourcesthe theft of the indirect channels for consumer sword and silk from the corpse in Chapel Perilous by Sir Launcelot, the ghost of Sir Gawaine, and the tomb-fiend seen by Sir Galahadwhilst other and cruder specimens were doubtless set forth in the cheap and Europeans In The, sensational “chapbooks” vulgarly hawked about and devoured by the ignorant.

In Elizabethan drama, with its Dr. Faustus, the witches in Macbeth, the ghost in Hamlet, and the horrible gruesomeness of Webster, we may easily discern the strong hold of the daemoniac on the public mind; a hold intensified by the very real fear of living witchcraft, whose terrors, first wildest on the Continent, begin to echo loudly in indirect for consumer products English ears as the witch-hunting crusades of James the First gain headway. To the lurking mystical prose of the ages is added a long line of treatises on witchcraft and daemonology which aid in exciting the imagination of the reading world. Through the seventeenth and into the eighteenth century we behold a growing mass of fugitive legendry and balladry of darksome cast; still, however, held down beneath the surface of polite and accepted literature. Misconceptions In Primary Science? Chapbooks of horror and weirdness multiplied, and we glimpse the eager interest of the people through fragments like Defoe’s “Apparition of Mrs. Veal”, a homely tale of a dead woman’s spectral visit to channels for consumer a distant friend, written to advertise covertly a badly selling theological disquisition on death. The upper orders of society were now losing faith in the supernatural, and Analysis of Schulman's Marriage, indulging in a period of classic rationalism.

Then, beginning with the translations of Eastern tales in Queen Anne’s reign and taking definite form toward the middle of the century, comes the for consumer revival of romantic feelingthe era of new joy in Nature, and in the radiance of past times, strange scenes, bold deeds, and incredible marvels. We feel it first in the poets, whose utterances take on Europeans Americans New World Essays new qualities of wonder, strangeness, and shuddering. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? And finally, after the timid appearance of on Space in the 1980s a few weird scenes in the novels of the indirect channels daysuch as Smollett’s Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom the the story hour released instinct precipitates itself in the birth of a new school of products writing; the “Gothic” school of horrible and fantastic prose fiction, long and short, whose literary posterity is destined to become so numerous, and in many cases so resplendent in artistic merit. It is, when one reflects upon it, genuinely remarkable that weird narration as a fixed and academically recognised literary form should have been so late of final birth. The impulse and atmosphere are as old as man, but the typical weird tale of standard literature is a child of the eighteenth century. The shadow-haunted landscapes of “Ossian”, the chaotic visions of William Blake, the grotesque witch-dances in Burns’s “Tam O’Shanter”, the sinister daemonism of Essay in the Coleridge’s Christabel and Ancient Mariner, the ghostly charm of indirect for consumer products James Hogg’s “Kilmeny” , and the more restrained approaches to cosmic horror in of an hour shmoop Lamia and channels for consumer products, many of Keats’s other poems, are typical British illustrations of the advent of the weird to on Space formal literature. Our Teutonic cousins of the Continent were equally receptive to the rising flood, and Bürger’s “Wild Huntsman” and the even more famous daemon-bridegroom ballad of “Lenore”both imitated in English by Scott, whose respect for the supernatural was always greatare only a taste of the for consumer products eerie wealth which German song had commenced to provide. Thomas Moore adapted from such sources the legend of the ghoulish statue-bride (later used by Prosper Mérimée in “The Venus of Ille”, and traceable back to great antiquity) which echoes so shiveringly in his ballad of in primary science “The Ring”; whilst Goethe’s deathless masterpiece Faust, crossing from indirect channels products, mere balladry into the classic, cosmic tragedy of the Essay in the 1980s ages, may be held as the indirect for consumer products ultimate height to which this German poetic impulse arose. But it remained for paper a very sprightly and worldly Englishmannone other than Horace Walpole himselfto give the growing impulse definite shape and become the actual founder of the literary horror-story as a permanent form. Fond of indirect channels for consumer products mediaeval romance and mystery as a dilettante’s diversion, and with a quaintly imitated Gothic castle as his abode at Strawberry Hill, Walpole in 1764 published The Castle of Otranto; a tale of the supernatural which, though thoroughly unconvincing and In The New World, mediocre in itself, was destined to exert an almost unparalleled influence on indirect for consumer products the literature of the weird. First venturing it only as a translation by one “William Marshal, Gent.” from the Italian of a mythical “Onuphrio Muralto”, the author later acknowledged his connexion with the book and took pleasure in its wide and instantaneous popularitya popularity which extended to for the Essay many editions, early dramatisation, and indirect channels, wholesale imitation both in Europeans New World Essays England and in indirect products Germany.

The storytedious, artificial, and melodramaticis further impaired by a brisk and prosaic style whose urbane sprightliness nowhere permits the creation of a truly weird atmosphere. The Story Hour Shmoop? It tells of Manfred, an unscrupulous and usurping prince determined to found a line, who after the mysterious sudden death of his only son Conrad on the latter’s bridal morn, attempts to put away his wife Hippolita and wed the lady destined for the unfortunate youththe lad, by the way, having been crushed by the preternatural fall of a gigantic helmet in the castle courtyard. Isabella, the widowed bride, flees from indirect channels, this design; and encounters in subterranean crypts beneath the castle a noble young preserver, Theodore, who seems to be a peasant yet strangely resembles the old lord Alfonso who ruled the domain before Manfred’s time. Shortly thereafter supernatural phenomena assail the castle in divers ways; fragments of gigantic armour being discovered here and there, a portrait walking out of misconceptions in primary its frame, a thunderclap destroying the edifice, and for consumer products, a colossal armoured spectre of Alfonso rising out of the ruins to ascend through parting clouds to the bosom of St. Nicholas. Theodore, having wooed Manfred’s daughter Matilda and lost her through deathfor she is slain by her father by mistakeis discovered to be the son of Alfonso and rightful heir to the estate. The Story Hour? He concludes the tale by products, wedding Isabella and preparing to Critical Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay and Marriage' Essay live happily ever after, whilst Manfredwhose usurpation was the cause of his son’s supernatural death and his own supernatural harassingsretires to a monastery for penitence; his saddened wife seeking asylum in a neighbouring convent.

Such is the for consumer tale; flat, stilted, and altogether devoid of the true cosmic horror which makes weird literature. Yet such was the thirst of the age for those touches of Exploration in the 1980s strangeness and spectral antiquity which it reflects, that it was seriously received by the soundest readers and raised in spite of its intrinsic ineptness to a pedestal of lofty importance in literary history. What it did above all else was to create a novel type of scene, puppet-characters, and incidents; which, handled to better advantage by writers more naturally adapted to weird creation, stimulated the growth of an channels products imitative Gothic school which in turn inspired the real weavers of cosmic terrorthe line of actual artists beginning with Poe. This novel dramatic paraphernalia consisted first of all of the Gothic castle, with its awesome antiquity, vast distances and ramblings, deserted or ruined wings, damp corridors, unwholesome hidden catacombs, and galaxy of ghosts and the story of an, appalling legends, as a nucleus of products suspense and daemoniac fright. In addition, it included the tyrannical and malevolent nobleman as villain; the saintly, longpersecuted, and generally insipid heroine who undergoes the major terrors and serves as a point of Critical of Schulman's Article 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' view and focus for the reader’s sympathies; the valorous and immaculate hero, always of high birth but often in humble disguise; the convention of high-sounding foreign names, mostly Italian, for the characters; and the infinite array of stage properties which includes strange lights, damp trap-doors, extinguished lamps, mouldy hidden manuscripts, creaking hinges, shaking arras, and the like. All this paraphernalia reappears with amusing sameness, yet sometimes with tremendous effect, throughout the history of the Gothic novel; and is by no means extinct even today, though subtler technique now forces it to assume a less naive and obvious form. An harmonious milieu for a new school had been found, and the writing world was not slow to grasp the opportunity. German romance at once responded to the Walpole influence, and soon became a byword for the weird and ghastly. In England one of the first imitators was the celebrated Mrs. Barbauld, then Miss Aikin, who in 1773 published an indirect channels products unfinished fragment called “Sir Bertrand”, in which the strings of genuine terror were truly touched with no clumsy hand.

A nobleman on a dark and lonely moor, attracted by a tolling bell and distant light, enters a strange and ancient turreted castle whose doors open and close and whose bluish will-o’-the-wisps lead up mysterious staircases toward dead hands and animated black statues. A coffin with a dead lady, whom Sir Bertrand kisses, is finally reached; and upon and Native In The New World Essays the kiss the scene dissolves to indirect channels for consumer give place to a splendid apartment where the lady, restored to life, holds a banquet in honour of Americans New World her rescuer. Walpole admired this tale, though he accorded less respect to indirect for consumer an even more prominent offspring of his Otranto The Old English Baron, by Clara Reeve, published in Essay in the 1777. Channels For Consumer? Truly enough, this tale lacks the real vibration to the note of outer darkness and mystery which distinguishes Mrs. Exploration 1980s? Barbauld’s fragment; and though less crude than Walpole’s novel, and more artistically economical of horror in channels for consumer products its possession of only one spectral figure, it is and Native nevertheless too definitely insipid for greatness. Here again we have the virtuous heir to the castle disguised as a peasant and restored to his heritage through the ghost of his father; and here again we have a case of wide popularity leading to indirect products many editions, dramatisation, and ultimate translation into French.

Miss Reeve wrote another weird novel, unfortunately unpublished and lost. The Gothic novel was now settled as a literary form, and instances multiply bewilderingly as the eighteenth century draws toward its close. The Recess, written in 1785 by Mrs. Sophia Lee, has the historic element, revolving round the twin daughters of Mary, Queen of Scots; and misconceptions in primary science, though devoid of the supernatural, employs the Walpole scenery and mechanism with great dexterity. Five years later, and channels for consumer, all existing lamps are paled by the rising of a fresh luminary of wholly superior orderMrs. Ann Radcliffe (17641823), whose famous novels made terror and suspense a fashion, and In The, who set new and indirect, higher standards in the domain of and Native Americans New World Essays macabre and fear-inspiring atmosphere despite a provoking custom of destroying her own phantoms at the last through laboured mechanical explanations.

To the familiar Gothic trappings of her predecessors Mrs. Radcliffe added a genuine sense of the indirect channels unearthly in scene and incident which closely approached genius; every touch of setting and action contributing artistically to the impression of illimitable frightfulness which she wished to convey. A few sinister details like a track of blood on on Space in the castle stairs, a groan from a distant vault, or a weird song in indirect channels for consumer products a nocturnal forest can with her conjure up the misconceptions science most powerful images of imminent horror; surpassing by far the indirect extravagant and toilsome elaborations of others. Nor are these images in themselves any the less potent because they are explained away before the end of the research paper on gay novel. Mrs. Radcliffe’s visual imagination was very strong, and for consumer products, appears as much in Preparing Essay her delightful landscape touchesalways in broad, glamorously pictorial outline, and never in close detailas in her weird phantasies.

Her prime weaknesses, aside from the channels habit of on Space Exploration 1980s prosaic disillusionment, are a tendency toward erroneous geography and history and a fatal predilection for bestrewing her novels with insipid little poems, attributed to one or another of the characters. Mrs. Radcliffe wrote six novels; The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne (1789), A Sicilian Romance (1790), The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of indirect products Udolpho (1794), The Italian (1797), and Gaston de Blondeville, composed in 1802 but first published posthumously in 1826. Of these Udolpho is by far the most famous, and may be taken as a type of the early Gothic tale at its best. It is the chronicle of Emily, a young Frenchwoman transplanted to an ancient and portentous castle in the Apennines through the death of her parents and the marriage of her aunt to the lord of the castlethe scheming nobleman Montoni. Mysterious sounds, opened doors, frightful legends, and a nameless horror in a niche behind a black veil all operate in in primary science quick succession to unnerve the heroine and her faithful attendant Annette; but finally, after the for consumer death of her aunt, she escapes with the aid of a fellow-prisoner whom she has discovered. On the way home she stops at a chateau filled with fresh horrorsthe abandoned wing where the departed chatelaine dwelt, and the bed of death with the black pallbut is finally restored to security and happiness with her lover Valancourt, after the clearing-up of a secret which seemed for on Space in the a time to involve her birth in mystery. Clearly, this is only the familiar material re-worked; but it is so well re-worked that Udolpho will always be a classic. Mrs.

Radcliffe’s characters are puppets, but they are less markedly so than those of her forerunners. And in atmospheric creation she stands preëminent among those of her time. Of Mrs. Radcliffe’s countless imitators, the American novelist Charles Brockden Brown stands the closest in spirit and channels for consumer, method. Like her, he injured his creations by natural explanations; but also like her, he had an uncanny atmospheric power which gives his horrors a frightful vitality as long as they remain unexplained. He differed from her in contemptuously discarding the external Gothic paraphernalia and properties and choosing modern American scenes for his mysteries; but this repudiation did not extend to the Gothic spirit and type of incident.

Brown’s novels involve some memorably frightful scenes, and research, excel even Mrs. Radcliffe’s in describing the channels operations of the perturbed mind. Edgar Huntly starts with a sleep-walker digging a grave, but is later impaired by touches of Godwinian didacticism. Ormond involves a member of a sinister secret brotherhood. That and Arthur Mervyn both describe the plague of yellow fever, which the author had witnessed in Philadelphia and New York.

But Brown’s most famous book is Wieland; or, The Transformation (1798), in which a Pennsylvania German, engulfed by a wave of religious fanaticism, hears voices and Preparing Essay, slays his wife and children as a sacrifice. His sister Clara, who tells the story, narrowly escapes. The scene, laid at the woodland estate of Mittingen on the Schuylkill’s remote reaches, is drawn with extreme vividness; and channels, the terrors of Clara, beset by spectral tones, gathering fears, and the sound of strange footsteps in the lonely house, are all shaped with truly artistic force. In the end a lame ventriloquial explanation is offered, but the atmosphere is genuine while it lasts. For The Future Essay? Carwin, the malign ventriloquist, is a typical villain of the Manfred or Montoni type.

Horror in literature attains a new malignity in the work of Matthew Gregory Lewis (17751818), whose novel The Monk (1796) achieved marvellous popularity and earned him the nickname of “Monk” Lewis. This young author, educated in indirect products Germany and saturated with a body of wild Teuton lore unknown to Mrs. Radcliffe, turned to terror in forms more violent than his gentle predecessor had ever dared to think of; and produced as a result a masterpiece of active nightmare whose general Gothic cast is spiced with added stores of ghoulishness. The story is one of a Spanish monk, Ambrosio, who from Critical Article 'Gay Essay, a state of overproud virtue is tempted to the very nadir of evil by a fiend in the guise of the maiden Matilda; and indirect channels for consumer, who is Essay on Space Exploration in the finally, when awaiting death at indirect products the Inquisition’s hands, induced to purchase escape at Essay on Space in the the price of indirect channels for consumer his soul from the Devil, because he deems both body and soul already lost. Forthwith the Americans New World Essays mocking Fiend snatches him to a lonely place, tells him he has sold his soul in indirect for consumer vain since both pardon and and Native Americans In The New World, a chance for salvation were approaching at the moment of his hideous bargain, and completes the sardonic betrayal by indirect for consumer products, rebuking him for his unnatural crimes, and casting his body down a precipice whilst his soul is borne off for ever to perdition. The novel contains some appalling descriptions such as the incantation in the vaults beneath the convent cemetery, the burning of the on Space in the convent, and indirect channels products, the final end of the wretched abbot. In the sub-plot where the Marquis de las Cisternas meets the spectre of his erring ancestress, The Bleeding Nun, there are many enormously potent strokes; notably the visit of the animated corpse to the Marquis’s bedside, and the cabbalistic ritual whereby the Wandering Jew helps him to fathom and banish his dead tormentor. Nevertheless The Monk drags sadly when read as a whole.

It is too long and too diffuse, and Critical Article, much of its potency is marred by flippancy and by an awkwardly excessive reaction against those canons of decorum which Lewis at first despised as prudish. One great thing may be said of the indirect channels author; that he never ruined his ghostly visions with a natural explanation. The Story Of An Shmoop? He succeeded in breaking up the Radcliffian tradition and expanding the field of the products Gothic novel. Lewis wrote much more than The Monk. His drama, The Castle Spectre, was produced in 1798, and he later found time to pen other fictions in of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' ballad form Tales of indirect channels Terror (1799), Tales of Europeans Americans In The New World Wonder (1801), and a succession of translations from the German.

Gothic romances, both English and German, now appeared in multitudinous and mediocre profusion. Most of them were merely ridiculous in the light of mature taste, and Miss Austen’s famous satire Northanger Abbey was by no means an unmerited rebuke to indirect channels products a school which had sunk far toward absurdity. This particular school was petering out, but before its final subordination there arose its last and greatest figure in the person of Charles Robert Maturin (17821824), an obscure and eccentric Irish clergyman. Out of an ample body of miscellaneous writing which includes one confused Radcliffian imitation called Fatal Revenge; or, The Family of Montorio (1807), Maturin at length evolved the vivid horror-masterpiece of Melmoth the Wanderer (1820), in which the Gothic tale climbed to altitudes of sheer spiritual fright which it had never known before. Melmoth is the tale of an Irish gentleman who, in the seventeenth century, obtained a preternaturally extended life from the Devil at the price of his soul. If he can persuade another to take the bargain off his hands, and assume his existing state, he can be saved; but this he can never manage to effect, no matter how assiduously he haunts those whom despair has made reckless and frantic. The framework of the story is very clumsy; involving tedious length, digressive episodes, narratives within narratives, and of an hour shmoop, laboured dovetailing and coincidences; but at various points in the endless rambling there is indirect felt a pulse of Preparing Essay power undiscoverable in any previous work of this kinda kinship to the essential truth of human nature, an understanding of the profoundest sources of actual cosmic fear, and a white heat of sympathetic passion on the writer’s part which makes the book a true document of aesthetic self-expression rather than a mere clever compound of artifice. No unbiassed reader can doubt that with Melmoth an enormous stride in the evolution of the horror-tale is represented.

Fear is taken out of the indirect channels products realm of the in primary conventional and exalted into a hideous cloud over mankind’s very destiny. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? Maturin’s shudders, the work of one capable of shuddering himself, are of the sort that convince. Mrs. Critical 'Gay And Marriage'? Radcliffe and Lewis are fair game for the parodist, but it would be difficult to find a false note in the feverishly intensified action and high atmospheric tension of the Irishman whose less sophisticated emotions and strain of Celtic mysticism gave him the indirect for consumer products finest possible natural equipment for his task. Without a doubt Maturin is Future Essay a man of authentic genius, and he was so recognised by Balzac, who grouped Melmoth with Molière’s Don Juan, Goethe’s Faust, and indirect channels products, Byron’s Manfred as the supreme allegorical figures of modern European literature, and wrote a whimsical piece called “Melmoth Reconciled”, in which the Wanderer succeeds in passing his infernal bargain on to a Parisian bank defaulter, who in turn hands it along a chain of science victims until a revelling gambler dies with it in his possession, and by his damnation ends the curse.

Scott, Rossetti, Thackeray, and Baudelaire are the channels for consumer products other titans who gave Maturin their unqualified admiration, and there is much significance in the fact that Oscar Wilde, after his disgrace and exile, chose for his last days in Paris the assumed name of “Sebastian Melmoth”. Melmoth contains scenes which even now have not lost their power to evoke dread. It begins with a deathbedan old miser is dying of sheer fright because of something he has seen, coupled with a manuscript he has read and a family portrait which hangs in an obscure closet of his centuried home in Preparing for the County Wicklow. He sends to Trinity College, Dublin, for his nephew John; and the latter upon arriving notes many uncanny things. The eyes of the portrait in the closet glow horribly, and twice a figure strangely resembling the portrait appears momentarily at the door.

Dread hangs over that house of the Melmoths, one of for consumer whose ancestors, “J. Melmoth, 1646”, the In The Essays portrait represents. The dying miser declares that this manat a date slightly before 1800is alive. Finally the miser dies, and indirect channels products, the nephew is told in the will to destroy both the portrait and a manuscript to be found in a certain drawer. Reading the manuscript, which was written late in the seventeenth century by an Englishman named Stanton, young John learns of the story of an hour shmoop a terrible incident in Spain in 1677, when the writer met a horrible fellow- countryman and was told of how he had stared to death a priest who tried to denounce him as one filled with fearsome evil. Later, after meeting the man again in London, Stanton is cast into a madhouse and visited by the stranger, whose approach is indirect for consumer products heralded by spectral music and whose eyes have a more than mortal glare. Melmoth the Wandererfor such is the malign visitoroffers the captive freedom if he will take over his bargain with the Devil; but like all others whom Melmoth has approached, Stanton is proof against temptation.

Melmoth’s description of the horrors of a life in a madhouse, used to tempt Stanton, is one of the most potent passages of the book. Stanton is at Analysis Essay length liberated, and spends the rest of his life tracking down Melmoth, whose family and ancestral abode he discovers. With the family he leaves the manuscript, which by young John’s time is sadly ruinous and fragmentary. John destroys both portrait and manuscript, but in sleep is visited by his horrible ancestor, who leaves a black and blue mark on his wrist. Young John soon afterward receives as a visitor a shipwrecked Spaniard, Alonzo de Monçada, who has escaped from compulsory monasticism and from the perils of the indirect for consumer Inquisition. He has suffered horriblyand the descriptions of his experiences under torment and in the vaults through which he once essays escape are classicbut had the strength to resist Melmoth the Wanderer when approached at his darkest hour in paper on gay marriage prison. Channels For Consumer? At the house of a Jew who sheltered him after his escape he discovers a wealth of manuscript relating other exploits of Melmoth including his wooing of an misconceptions science Indian island maiden, Immalee, who later comes to channels for consumer products her birthright in Spain and is known as Donna Isidora; and of his horrible marriage to her by the corpse of a dead anchorite at midnight in the ruined chapel of a shunned and abhorred monastery.

Monçada’s narrative to young John takes up the bulk of Maturin’s four-volume book; this disproportion being considered one of the chief technical faults of the composition. At last the colloquies of John and Monçada are interrupted by the entrance of Europeans and Native Americans In The New World Essays Melmoth the Wanderer himself, his piercing eyes now fading, and decrepitude swiftly overtaking him. The term of his bargain has approached its end, and he has come home after a century and a half to meet his fate. Warning all others from the room, no matter what sounds they may hear in the night, he awaits the end alone. Young John and Monçada hear frightful ululations, but do not intrude till silence comes toward morning. They then find the room empty.

Clayey footprints lead out a rear door to indirect a cliff overlooking the sea, and near the edge of the precipice is misconceptions science a track indicating the forcible dragging of some heavy body. For Consumer? The Wanderer’s scarf is found on a crag some distance below the brink, but nothing further is marriage ever seen or heard of him. Such is the story, and none can fail to notice the difference between this modulated, suggestive, and artistically moulded horror andto use the for consumer words of Future Professor George Saintsbury“the artful but rather jejune rationalism of Mrs. Radcliffe, and the too often puerile extravagance, the channels bad taste, and the sometimes slipshod style of Lewis.” Maturin’s style in itself deserves particular praise, for its forcible directness and vitality lift it altogether above the pompous artificialities of which his predecessors are guilty. In Primary? Professor Edith Birkhead, in her history of the Gothic novel, justly observes that with all his faults Maturin was the greatest as well as the last of the Goths. Melmoth was widely read and eventually dramatised, but its late date in indirect channels products the evolution of the Gothic tale deprived it of the tumultuous popularity of Udolpho and The Monk. Meanwhile other hands had not been idle, so that above the dreary plethora of trash like Marquis von Grosse’s Horrid Mysteries (1796), Mrs. Roche’s Children of the the story of an Abbey (1796), Miss Dacre’s Zofloya; or, The Moor (1806), and the poet Shelley’s schoolboy effusions Zastrozzi (1810) and indirect for consumer, St.

Irvyne (1811) (both imitations of Zofloya ) there arose many memorable weird works both in English and German. Classic in merit, and markedly different from its fellows because of its foundation in the Oriental tale rather than the Walpolesque Gothic novel, is the celebrated History of the Essay on Space Exploration in the Caliph Vathek by the wealthy dilettante William Beckford, first written in the French language but published in indirect an English translation before the appearance of the original. Eastern tales, introduced to European literature early in the eighteenth century through Galland’s French translation of the inexhaustibly opulent Arabian Nights, had become a reigning fashion; being used both for allegory and for amusement. Essay On Space In The 1980s? The sly humour which only the channels Eastern mind knows how to misconceptions mix with weirdness had captivated a sophisticated generation, till Bagdad and Damascus names became as freely strown through popular literature as dashing Italian and Spanish ones were soon to channels for consumer products be. Beckford, well read in Essay Exploration in the Eastern romance, caught the atmosphere with unusual receptivity; and in his fantastic volume reflected very potently the haughty luxury, sly disillusion, bland cruelty, urbane treachery, and for consumer, shadowy spectral horror of the Saracen spirit. His seasoning of the ridiculous seldom mars the force of his sinister theme, and the tale marches onward with a phantasmagoric pomp in which the laughter is that of skeletons feasting under Arabesque domes.

Vathek is a tale of the grandson of the Caliph Haroun, who, tormented by that ambition for super-terrestrial power, pleasure, and learning which animates the average Gothic villain or Byronic hero (essentially cognate types), is lured by an evil genius to seek the subterranean throne of the misconceptions in primary mighty and fabulous pre-Adamite sultans in channels products the fiery halls of Eblis, the Mahometan Devil. The descriptions of Vathek’s palaces and diversions, of his scheming sorceress-mother Carathis and her witch-tower with the fifty one-eyed negresses, of his pilgrimage to Europeans New World Essays the haunted ruins of Istakhar (Persepolis) and of the impish bride Nouronihar whom he treacherously acquired on the way, of Istakhar’s primordial towers and terraces in the burning moonlight of the waste, and of the terrible Cyclopean halls of Eblis, where, lured by indirect for consumer, glittering promises, each victim is compelled to wander in anguish for ever, his right hand upon Critical 'Gay Marriage Essay his blazingly ignited and eternally burning heart, are triumphs of weird colouring which raise the book to a permanent place in English letters. No less notable are the three Episodes of Vathek, intended for insertion in the tale as narratives of Vathek’s fellow-victims in Eblis’ infernal halls, which remained unpublished throughout the author’s lifetime and were discovered as recently as 1909 by channels for consumer products, the scholar Lewis Melville whilst collecting material for his Life and misconceptions in primary, Letters of William Beckford. Indirect Products? Beckford, however, lacks the essential mysticism which marks the acutest form of the weird; so that his tales have a certain knowing Latin hardness and clearness preclusive of misconceptions in primary science sheer panic fright. But Beckford remained alone in his devotion to the Orient. Other writers, closer to the Gothic tradition and to European life in general, were content to follow more faithfully in the lead of channels for consumer Walpole. Among the countless producers of terror-literature in these times may be mentioned the Utopian economic theorist William Godwin, who followed his famous but non-supernatural Caleb Williams (1794) with the the story hour intendedly weird St. Leon (1799), in for consumer products which the theme of the Future Essay elixir of life, as developed by the imaginary secret order of “Rosicrucians”, is handled with ingeniousness if not with atmospheric convincingness. Indirect? This element of Rosicrucianism, fostered by a wave of popular magical interest exemplified in the vogue of the charlatan Cagliostro and the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), a curious and misconceptions science, compendious treatise on occult principles and ceremonies, of for consumer products which a reprint was made as lately as 1896, figures in Bulwer-Lytton and in many late Gothic novels, especially that remote and enfeebled posterity which straggled far down into the nineteenth century and was represented by George W. M. Reynolds’ Faust and the Demon and Wagner, the Wehr-wolf.

Caleb Williams, though non-supernatural, has many authentic touches of terror. It is the and Native Americans New World tale of a servant persecuted by a master whom he has found guilty of murder, and displays an invention and skill which have kept it alive in a fashion to this day. It was dramatised as The Iron Chest, and in that form was almost equally celebrated. Indirect Channels? Godwin, however, was too much the conscious teacher and prosaic man of thought to create a genuine weird masterpiece. His daughter, the Critical of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage' wife of Shelley, was much more successful; and her inimitable Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is one of the horror-classics of all time. Composed in competition with her husband, Lord Byron, and Dr. John William Polidori in for consumer products an effort to prove supremacy in horror-making, Mrs. Shelley’s Frankenstein was the only one of the of an hour rival narratives to be brought to an elaborate completion; and indirect for consumer products, criticism has failed to prove that the best parts are due to Analysis Article and Marriage' Essay Shelley rather than to her. Products? The novel, somewhat tinged but scarcely marred by paper marriage, moral didacticism, tells of the channels for consumer products artificial human being moulded from and Native Americans In The, charnel fragments by Victor Frankenstein, a young Swiss medical student.

Created by its designer “in the mad pride of intellectuality”, the monster possesses full intelligence but owns a hideously loathsome form. It is rejected by mankind, becomes embittered, and at length begins the successive murder of indirect channels for consumer products all whom young Frankenstein loves best, friends and family. It demands that Frankenstein create a wife for it; and when the student finally refuses in horror lest the research paper on gay marriage world be populated with such monsters, it departs with a hideous threat ‘to be with him on indirect his wedding night’. Upon that night the bride is strangled, and from that time on Frankenstein hunts down the monster, even into the wastes of the Arctic. In the end, whilst seeking shelter on the ship of the man who tells the story, Frankenstein himself is killed by the shocking object of his search and creation of Exploration in the his presumptuous pride. Some of the scenes in Frankenstein are unforgettable, as when the newly animated monster enters its creator’s room, parts the curtains of his bed, and gazes at him in the yellow moonlight with watery eyes“if eyes they may be called”. Mrs. Shelley wrote other novels, including the fairly notable Last Man; but never duplicated the success of indirect for consumer products her first effort.

It has the true touch of cosmic fear, no matter how much the 'Gay Marriage movement may lag in places. Dr. Polidori developed his competing idea as a long short story, “The Vampyre”; in which we behold a suave villain of the true Gothic or Byronic type, and encounter some excellent passages of stark fright, including a terrible nocturnal experience in indirect a shunned Grecian wood. In this same period Sir Walter Scott frequently concerned himself with the weird, weaving it into many of his novels and poems, and 1980s, sometimes producing such independent bits of narration as “The Tapestried Chamber” or “Wandering Willie’s Tale” in Redgauntlet, in products the latter of which the force of the spectral and hour shmoop, the diabolic is enhanced by a grotesque homeliness of speech and atmosphere. In 1830 Scott published his Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, which still forms one of our best compendia of European witch-lore. Washington Irving is indirect channels products another famous figure not unconnected with the on Space Exploration weird; for though most of his ghosts are too whimsical and channels for consumer products, humorous to form genuinely spectral literature, a distinct inclination in this direction is to be noted in many of his productions. “The German Student” in in primary science Tales of a Traveller (1824) is a slyly concise and effective presentation of the old legend of the dead bride, whilst woven into indirect for consumer the comic tissue of “The Money-Diggers” in Essay Exploration the same volume is more than one hint of piratical apparitions in the realms which Captain Kidd once roamed.

Thomas Moore also joined the ranks of the channels products macabre artists in the poem Alciphron, which he later elaborated into the prose novel of The Epicurean (1827). Though merely relating the adventures of a young Athenian duped by the artifice of cunning Egyptian priests, Moore manages to infuse much genuine horror into his account of subterranean frights and wonders beneath the primordial temples of Memphis. Analysis 'Gay Marriage And Marriage'? De Quincey more than once revels in grotesque and arabesque terrors, though with a desultoriness and learned pomp which deny him the rank of specialist. This era likewise saw the rise of for consumer products William Harrison Ainsworth, whose romantic novels teem with the eerie and the gruesome. Capt. Marryat, besides writing such short tales as “The Werewolf”, made a memorable contribution in The Phantom Ship (1839), founded on the legend of the Flying Dutchman, whose spectral and Preparing for the, accursed vessel sails for ever near the Cape of Good Hope.

Dickens now rises with occasional weird bits like “The Signalman”, a tale of ghostly warning conforming to indirect channels a very common pattern and touched with a verisimilitude which allies it as much with the coming psychological school as with the dying Gothic school. At this time a wave of for the Future interest in spiritualistic charlatanry, mediumism, Hindoo theosophy, and such matters, much like that of the present day, was flourishing; so that the number of weird tales with a “psychic” or pseudo-scientific basis became very considerable. For a number of these the prolific and popular Lord Edward Bulwer-Lytton was responsible; and despite the large doses of turgid rhetoric and indirect, empty romanticism in his products, his success in the weaving of a certain kind of bizarre charm cannot be denied. “The House and the Brain”, which hints of Rosicrucianism and at a malign and deathless figure perhaps suggested by Louis XV’s mysterious courtier St. Germain, yet survives as one of the best short haunted-house tales ever written. The novel Zanoni (1842) contains similar elements more elaborately handled, and introduces a vast unknown sphere of being pressing on our own world and guarded by Critical of Schulman's Marriage, a horrible “Dweller of the Threshold” who haunts those who try to enter and fail. Here we have a benign brotherhood kept alive from age to age till finally reduced to a single member, and indirect products, as a hero an ancient Chaldaean sorcerer surviving in the pristine bloom of youth to perish on the guillotine of the French Revolution.

Though full of the conventional spirit of romance, marred by a ponderous network of Preparing symbolic and didactic meanings, and for consumer products, left unconvincing through lack of perfect atmospheric realisation of the situations hinging on the spectral world, Zanoni is really an excellent performance as a romantic novel; and can be read with genuine interest today by the not too sophisticated reader. It is amusing to note that in Europeans and Native Americans describing an attempted initiation into the ancient brotherhood the author cannot escape using the stock Gothic castle of Walpolian lineage. In A Strange Story (1862) Bulwer-Lytton shews a marked improvement in the creation of weird images and moods. The novel, despite enormous length, a highly artificial plot bolstered up by opportune coincidences, and an atmosphere of homiletic pseudo-science designed to please the matter-of-fact and purposeful Victorian reader, is exceedingly effective as a narrative; evoking instantaneous and unflagging interest, and furnishing many potentif somewhat melodramatictableaux and climaxes. Again we have the mysterious user of life’s elixir in indirect for consumer products the person of the soulless magician Margrave, whose dark exploits stand out with dramatic vividness against the modern background of a quiet English town and of the Australian bush; and again we have shadowy intimations of Preparing a vast spectral world of the unknown in the very air about usthis time handled with much greater power and vitality than in channels for consumer products Zanoni.

One of the two great incantation passages, where the hero is driven by a luminous evil spirit to rise at night in his sleep, take a strange Egyptian wand, and evoke nameless presences in the haunted and mausoleum-facing pavilion of a famous Renaissance alchemist, truly stands among the major terror scenes of literature. Just enough is suggested, and just little enough is told. Science? Unknown words are twice dictated to the sleep-walker, and as he repeats them the ground trembles, and all the dogs of the countryside begin to bay at half-seen amorphous shadows that stalk athwart the moonlight. Channels For Consumer? When a third set of unknown words is prompted, the sleep-walker’s spirit suddenly rebels at uttering them, as if the soul could recognise ultimate abysmal horrors concealed from the mind; and at last an apparition of an absent sweetheart and good angel breaks the malign spell. This fragment well illustrates how far Lord Lytton was capable of progressing beyond his usual pomp and stock romance toward that crystalline essence of artistic fear which belongs to the domain of poetry. In describing certain details of for the Essay incantations, Lytton was greatly indebted to his amusingly serious occult studies, in indirect for consumer the course of which he came in touch with that odd French scholar and cabbalist Alphonse-Louis Constant (“Eliphas Lévi”), who claimed to research possess the secrets of ancient magic, and to have evoked the spectre of the old Grecian wizard Apollonius of Tyana, who lived in Nero’s time.

The romantic, semi-Gothic, quasi-moral tradition here represented was carried far down the nineteenth century by such authors as Joseph Sheridan LeFanu, Thomas Preskett Prest with his famous Varney, the Vampyre (1847), Wilkie Collins, the late Sir H. Rider Haggard (whose She is really remarkably good), Sir A. Conan Doyle, H. G. Wells, and Robert Louis Stevensonthe latter of whom, despite an atrocious tendency toward jaunty mannerisms, created permanent classics in “Markheim”, “The Body-Snatcher”, and indirect channels for consumer, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Research On Gay? Indeed, we may say that this school still survives; for to it clearly belong such of our contemporary horror-tales as specialise in events rather than atmospheric details, address the intellect rather than the impressionistic imagination, cultivate a luminous glamour rather than a malign tensity or psychological verisimilitude, and take a definite stand in sympathy with mankind and its welfare. It has its undeniable strength, and because of its “human element” commands a wider audience than does the sheer artistic nightmare. If not quite so potent as the latter, it is because a diluted product can never achieve the intensity of a concentrated essence. Quite alone both as a novel and as a piece of indirect channels terror-literature stands the famous Wuthering Heights (1847) by Emily Brontë, with its mad vista of bleak, windswept Yorkshire moors and the violent, distorted lives they foster. Future Essay? Though primarily a tale of life, and of human passions in agony and conflict, its epically cosmic setting affords room for indirect products horror of the most spiritual sort.

Heathcliff, the modified Byronic villain-hero, is a strange dark waif found in the streets as a small child and in primary science, speaking only a strange gibberish till adopted by the family he ultimately ruins. That he is in truth a diabolic spirit rather than a human being is more than once suggested, and the unreal is further approached in the experience of the visitor who encounters a plaintive child-ghost at a bough-brushed upper window. Between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw is a tie deeper and more terrible than human love. After her death he twice disturbs her grave, and is haunted by an impalpable presence which can be nothing less than her spirit. The spirit enters his life more and for consumer products, more, and at last he becomes confident of some imminent mystical reunion. Essay On Space 1980s? He says he feels a strange change approaching, and ceases to take nourishment. At night he either walks abroad or opens the channels casement by his bed. In The New World? When he dies the casement is still swinging open to the pouring rain, and a queer smile pervades the stiffened face.

They bury him in a grave beside the mound he has haunted for eighteen years, and products, small shepherd boys say that he yet walks with his Catherine in the churchyard and on the moor when it rains. Essay On Space Exploration In The 1980s? Their faces, too, are sometimes seen on rainy nights behind that upper casement at Wuthering Heights. Miss Brontë’s eerie terror is no mere Gothic echo, but a tense expression of indirect man’s shuddering reaction to the story hour the unknown. In this respect, Wuthering Heights becomes the symbol of a literary transition, and marks the growth of a new and sounder school. On the Continent literary horror fared well.

The celebrated short tales and indirect for consumer, novels of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (17761822) are a byword for Preparing mellowness of background and indirect products, maturity of form, though they incline to levity and extravagance, and in primary, lack the exalted moments of stark, breathless terror which a less sophisticated writer might have achieved. Generally they convey the for consumer grotesque rather than the terrible. Most artistic of all the Continental weird tales is the German classic Undine (1811), by Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte Fouqué. In this story of a water-spirit who married a mortal and gained a human soul there is a delicate fineness of craftsmanship which makes it notable in any department of literature, and an easy naturalness which places it close to research marriage the genuine folk-myth. It is, in fact, derived from a tale told by the Renaissance physician and alchemist Paracelsus in his Treatise on Elemental Sprites. Undine, daughter of a powerful water-prince, was exchanged by her father as a small child for a fisherman’s daughter, in order that she might acquire a soul by for consumer products, wedding a human being. Meeting the on Space in the noble youth Huldbrand at the cottage of for consumer products her foster-father by the sea at the edge of hour shmoop a haunted wood, she soon marries him, and accompanies him to indirect channels for consumer his ancestral castle of Exploration in the 1980s Ringstetten. Huldbrand, however, eventually wearies of his wife’s supernatural affiliations, and especially of the appearances of her uncle, the malicious woodland waterfall-spirit Kühleborn; a weariness increased by his growing affection for Bertalda, who turns out to be the fisherman’s child for whom Undine was exchanged. At length, on a voyage down the Danube, he is provoked by some innocent act of his devoted wife to utter the angry words which consign her back to her supernatural element; from which she can, by the laws of her species, return only onceto kill him, whether she will or no, if ever he prove unfaithful to for consumer her memory.

Later, when Huldbrand is and Native Americans New World Essays about to be married to Bertalda, Undine returns for her sad duty, and bears his life away in tears. When he is buried among his fathers in the village churchyard a veiled, snow-white female figure appears among the mourners, but after the prayer is seen no more. In her place is seen a little silver spring, which murmurs its way almost completely around the for consumer new grave, and 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' Essay, empties into channels for consumer a neighbouring lake. The villagers shew it to this day, and say that Undine and her Huldbrand are thus united in death. The Story? Many passages and atmospheric touches in this tale reveal Fouqué as an accomplished artist in the field of the macabre; especially the descriptions of the haunted wood with its gigantic snow-white man and various unnamed terrors, which occur early in indirect channels for consumer the narrative. Not so well known as Undine, but remarkable for its convincing realism and freedom from Gothic stock devices, is the Amber Witch of Wilhelm Meinhold, another product of the German fantastic genius of the earlier nineteenth century.

This tale, which is laid in the time of the Americans In The Essays Thirty Years’ War, purports to be a clergyman’s manuscript found in an old church at Coserow, and centres round the writer’s daughter, Maria Schweidler, who is wrongly accused of witchcraft. She has found a deposit of amber which she keeps secret for channels products various reasons, and the unexplained wealth obtained from this lends colour to the accusation; an accusation instigated by the malice of the wolf-hunting nobleman Wittich Appelmann, who has vainly pursued her with ignoble designs. The deeds of a real witch, who afterward comes to a horrible supernatural end in prison, are glibly imputed to the hapless Maria; and after a typical witchcraft trial with forced confessions under torture she is Essay Exploration about to be burned at the stake when saved just in time by indirect channels for consumer, her lover, a noble youth from a neighbouring district. Meinhold’s great strength is in his air of casual and realistic verisimilitude, which intensifies our suspense and sense of the unseen by half persuading us that the menacing events must somehow be either the truth or very close to the truth. Indeed, so thorough is this realism that a popular magazine once published the main points of The Amber Witch as an actual occurrence of the seventeenth century! In the present generation German horror-fiction is most notably represented by Hanns Heinz Ewers, who brings to bear on his dark conceptions an effective knowledge of modern psychology. Novels like The Sorcerer’s Apprentice and Alraune, and on Space 1980s, short stories like “The Spider”, contain distinctive qualities which raise them to a classic level. But France as well as Germany has been active in the realm of indirect products weirdness. Victor Hugo, in such tales as Hans of Iceland, and Essay, Balzac, in The Wild Ass’s Skin, Séraphîta, and Louis Lambert, both employ supernaturalism to a greater or less extent; though generally only as a means to some more human end, and without the sincere and daemonic intensity which characterises the born artist in shadows.

It is in Théophile Gautier that we first seem to find an authentic French sense of the unreal world, and here there appears a spectral mastery which, though not continuously used, is recognisable at once as something alike genuine and profound. Short tales like “Avatar”, “The Foot of the Mummy”, and “Clarimonde” display glimpses of forbidden visits that allure, tantalise, and sometimes horrify; whilst the Egyptian visions evoked in “One of Cleopatra’s Nights” are of the keenest and indirect channels, most expressive potency. Gautier captured the inmost soul of aeon-weighted Egypt, with its cryptic life and Cyclopean architecture, and uttered once and for all the eternal horror of its nether world of catacombs, where to the end of on Space Exploration in the time millions of stiff, spiced corpses will stare up in the blackness with glassy eyes, awaiting some awesome and unrelatable summons. Gustave Flaubert ably continued the tradition of Gautier in orgies of poetic phantasy like The Temptation of St. Indirect For Consumer Products? Anthony, and but for a strong realistic bias might have been an arch-weaver of tapestried terrors. Later on we see the stream divide, producing strange poets and of an hour, fantaisistes of the Symbolist and indirect products, Decadent schools whose dark interests really centre more in abnormalities of human thought and instinct than in the actual supernatural, and subtle story-tellers whose thrills are quite directly derived from the night-black wells of for the cosmic unreality. Channels? Of the former class of “artists in sin” the illustrious poet Baudelaire, influenced vastly by Preparing for the Future Essay, Poe, is the supreme type; whilst the psychological novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, a true child of the indirect channels eighteen-nineties, is at once the summation and finale.

The latter and purely narrative class is continued by Prosper Mérimée, whose “Venus of Ille” presents in terse and convincing prose the same ancient statue-bride theme which Thomas Moore cast in ballad form in “The Ring”. The horror-tales of the powerful and cynical Guy de Maupassant, written as his final madness gradually overtook him, present individualities of their own; being rather the morbid outpourings of a realistic mind in a pathological state than the healthy imaginative products of Critical Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' Essay a vision naturally disposed toward phantasy and sensitive to the normal illusions of the unseen. Nevertheless they are of the keenest interest and poignancy; suggesting with marvellous force the imminence of nameless terrors, and the relentless dogging of an ill-starred individual by hideous and menacing representatives of the outer blackness. Of these stories “The Horla” is channels for consumer generally regarded as the masterpiece. Relating the advent to research paper on gay France of an invisible being who lives on water and milk, sways the minds of others, and seems to be the vanguard of a horde of indirect extra-terrestrial organisms arrived on earth to subjugate and overwhelm mankind, this tense narrative is perhaps without a peer in its particular department; notwithstanding its indebtedness to a tale by the American Fitz-James O’Brien for details in paper on gay describing the actual presence of the unseen monster. Other potently dark creations of de Maupassant are “Who Knows?”, “The Spectre”, “He?”, “The Diary of a Madman”, “The White Wolf”, “On the River”, and the grisly verses entitled “Horror”. The collaborators Erckmann-Chatrian enriched French literature with many spectral fancies like The Man-Wolf, in which a transmitted curse works toward its end in a traditional Gothic-castle setting. Their power of creating a shuddering midnight atmosphere was tremendous despite a tendency toward natural explanations and scientific wonders; and few short tales contain greater horror than “The Invisible Eye”, where a malignant old hag weaves nocturnal hypnotic spells which induce the successive occupants of a certain inn chamber to hang themselves on a cross-beam. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? “The Owl’s Ear” and “The Waters of Death” are full of engulfing darkness and on gay, mystery, the latter embodying the familiar overgrown-spider theme so frequently employed by weird fictionists. Villiers de l’Isle-Adam likewise followed the indirect for consumer products macabre school; his “Torture by Hope”, the tale of a stake-condemned prisoner permitted to escape in order to feel the pangs of recapture, being held by some to constitute the most harrowing short story in literature. This type, however, is less a part of the weird tradition than a class peculiar to itselfthe so-called conte cruel, in which the Americans In The Essays wrenching of the emotions is accomplished through dramatic tantalisations, frustrations, and gruesome physical horrors.

Almost wholly devoted to this form is the indirect products living writer Maurice Level, whose very brief episodes have lent themselves so readily to theatrical adaptation in the “thrillers” of the Grand Guignol. As a matter of fact, the French genius is on Space in the 1980s more naturally suited to this dark realism than to the suggestion of the unseen; since the latter process requires, for its best and most sympathetic development on a large scale, the inherent mysticism of the Northern mind. A very flourishing, though till recently quite hidden, branch of weird literature is that of the Jews, kept alive and nourished in obscurity by the sombre heritage of early Eastern magic, apocalyptic literature, and cabbalism. The Semitic mind, like the Celtic and Teutonic, seems to possess marked mystical inclinations; and the wealth of underground horror-lore surviving in ghettoes and channels for consumer, synagogues must be much more considerable than is generally imagined. Cabbalism itself, so prominent during the Middle Ages, is a system of philosophy explaining the universe as emanations of the Deity, and involving the existence of strange spiritual realms and beings apart from the visible world, of which dark glimpses may be obtained through certain secret incantations. Its ritual is bound up with mystical interpretations of the Old Testament, and the story of an, attributes an esoteric significance to each letter of the indirect for consumer Hebrew alphabeta circumstance which has imparted to Hebrew letters a sort of spectral glamour and potency in the popular literature of magic.

Jewish folklore has preserved much of the the story of an terror and indirect for consumer products, mystery of the past, and when more thoroughly studied is likely to exert considerable influence on weird fiction. The best examples of misconceptions in primary science its literary use so far are the German novel The Golem, by Gustav Meyrink, and the drama The Dybbuk, by the Jewish writer using the channels products pseudonym “Ansky”. The former, with its haunting shadowy suggestions of marvels and horrors just beyond reach, is laid in Prague, and describes with singular mastery that city’s ancient ghetto with its spectral, peaked gables. The name is derived from a fabulous artificial giant supposed to be made and animated by mediaeval rabbis according to a certain cryptic formula. The Dybbuk, translated and produced in America in 1925, and more recently produced as an misconceptions opera, describes with singular power the possession of a living body by the evil soul of a dead man.

Both golems and dybbuks are fixed types, and indirect for consumer products, serve as frequent ingredients of later Jewish tradition. In the eighteen-thirties occurred a literary dawn directly affecting not only the history of the weird tale, but that of short fiction as a whole; and indirectly moulding the trends and fortunes of a great European aesthetic school. It is our good fortune as Americans to be able to claim that dawn as our own, for it came in the person of our illustrious and unfortunate fellow-countryman Edgar Allan Poe. Poe’s fame has been subject to curious undulations, and Preparing for the Essay, it is now a fashion amongst the “advanced intelligentsia” to indirect for consumer minimise his importance both as an artist and as an influence; but it would be hard for any mature and reflective critic to of an deny the tremendous value of his work and the pervasive potency of his mind as an opener of channels products artistic vistas. True, his type of outlook may have been anticipated; but it was he who first realised its possibilities and gave it supreme form and Critical of Schulman's Article Marriage and Marriage', systematic expression. True also, that subsequent writers may have produced greater single tales than his; but again we must comprehend that it was only he who taught them by indirect products, example and precept the art which they, having the way cleared for them and given an explicit guide, were perhaps able to Essay Exploration in the 1980s carry to greater lengths. Whatever his limitations, Poe did that which no one else ever did or could have done; and to him we owe the indirect channels products modern horror-story in its final and perfected state. Before Poe the bulk of weird writers had worked largely in the dark; without an understanding of the psychological basis of the horror appeal, and hampered by more or less of conformity to certain empty literary conventions such as the happy ending, virtue rewarded, and in Essay on Space 1980s general a hollow moral didacticism, acceptance of popular standards and values, and for consumer products, striving of the author to obtrude his own emotions into the story and take sides with the partisans of the majority’s artificial ideas. Poe, on the other hand, perceived the essential impersonality of the real artist; and for the Future, knew that the function of creative fiction is merely to express and interpret events and sensations as they are, regardless of how they tend or what they provegood or evil, attractive or repulsive, stimulating or depressingwith the author always acting as a vivid and for consumer products, detached chronicler rather than as a teacher, sympathiser, or vendor of opinion.

He saw clearly that all phases of life and thought are equally eligible as subject-matter for the artist, and Europeans and Native In The, being inclined by temperament to strangeness and indirect, gloom, decided to be the interpreter of the story of an shmoop those powerful feeling, and frequent happenings which attend pain rather than pleasure, decay rather than growth, terror rather than tranquillity, and channels for consumer, which are fundamentally either adverse or indifferent to hour the tastes and indirect channels for consumer products, traditional outward sentiments of mankind, and to the health, sanity, and normal expansive welfare of the species. Poe’s spectres thus acquired a convincing malignity possessed by none of their predecessors, and established a new standard of realism in the annals of literary horror. The impersonal and artistic intent, moreover, was aided by a scientific attitude not often found before; whereby Poe studied the human mind rather than the usages of Gothic fiction, and worked with an misconceptions in primary science analytical knowledge of channels terror’s true sources which doubled the force of his narratives and emancipated him from all the Exploration in the 1980s absurdities inherent in merely conventional shudder-coining. This example having been set, later authors were naturally forced to indirect channels for consumer products conform to it in order to Europeans and Native Americans Essays compete at all; so that in indirect channels products this way a definite change began to affect the main stream of for the macabre writing. Poe, too, set a fashion in consummate craftsmanship; and indirect products, although today some of his own work seems slightly melodramatic and unsophisticated, we can constantly trace his influence in such things as the maintenance of a single mood and achievement of a single impression in Preparing for the Essay a tale, and the rigorous paring down of incidents to such as have a direct bearing on the plot and will figure prominently in the climax. Truly may it be said that Poe invented the short story in its present form. His elevation of disease, perversity, and decay to the level of artistically expressible themes was likewise infinitely far-reaching in for consumer products effect; for avidly seized, sponsored, and intensified by his eminent French admirer Charles Pierre Baudelaire, it became the Essay on Space Exploration in the 1980s nucleus of the principal aesthetic movements in France, thus making Poe in indirect for consumer products a sense the Critical Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay and Marriage' Essay father of the Decadents and the Symbolists.

Poet and critic by nature and supreme attainment, logician and philosopher by taste and mannerism, Poe was by no means immune from indirect for consumer, defects and affectations. His pretence to profound and obscure scholarship, his blundering ventures in stilted and laboured pseudo-humour, and research paper, his often vitriolic outbursts of products critical prejudice must all be recognised and forgiven. Beyond and above them, and dwarfing them to insignificance, was a master’s vision of the terror that stalks about and within us, and the worm that writhes and slavers in the hideously close abyss. Penetrating to every festering horror in the gaily painted mockery called existence, and in the solemn masquerade called human thought and feelings that vision had power to project itself in blackly magical crystallisations and transmutations; till there bloomed in the sterile America of the ’thirties and ’forties such a moon-nourished garden of gorgeous poison fungi as not even the Essay on Space Exploration nether slope of Saturn might boast. Verses and tales alike sustain the burthen of cosmic panic. The raven whose noisome beak pierces the heart, the ghouls that toll iron bells in pestilential steeples, the vault of Ulalume in the black October night, the shocking spires and domes under the for consumer sea, the “wild, weird clime that lieth, sublime, out of Spaceout of Time”all these things and more leer at us amidst maniacal rattlings in the seething nightmare of the poetry. And in the prose there yawn open for us the very jaws of the Preparing for the Future pitinconceivable abnormalities slyly hinted into a horrible half-knowledge by words whose innocence we scarcely doubt till the cracked tension of the speaker’s hollow voice bids us fear their nameless implications; daemoniac patterns and presences slumbering noxiously till waked for one phobic instant into a shrieking revelation that cackles itself to sudden madness or explodes in memorable and indirect channels products, cataclysmic echoes. A Witches’ Sabbath of horror flinging off decorous robes is flashed before usa sight the more monstrous because of the scientific skill with which every particular is marshalled and brought into paper on gay marriage an easy apparent relation to the known gruesomeness of material life.

Poe’s tales, of course, fall into several classes; some of which contain a purer essence of for consumer products spiritual horror than others. The tales of logic and ratiocination, forerunners of the modern detective story, are not to be included at all in Essay Exploration in the 1980s weird literature; whilst certain others, probably influenced considerably by products, Hoffmann, possess an extravagance which relegates them to the borderline of the grotesque. Still a third group deal with abnormal psychology and monomania in such a way as to express terror but not weirdness. A substantial residuum, however, represent the literature of supernatural horror in its acutest form; and Europeans and Native Essays, give their author a permanent and unassailable place as deity and fountain-head of all modern diabolic fiction. Who can forget the terrible swollen ship poised on the billow-chasm’s edge in “MS. Found in a Bottle”the dark intimations of her unhallowed age and monstrous growth, her sinister crew of unseeing greybeards, and her frightful southward rush under full sail through the ice of the Antarctic night, sucked onward by some resistless devil-current toward a vortex of eldritch enlightenment which must end in destruction? Then there is the unutterable “M.

Valdemar”, kept together by hypnotism for seven months after his death, and uttering frantic sounds but a moment before the breaking of the spell leaves him “a nearly liquid mass of loathsomeof detestable putrescence”. In the Narrative of A. Gordon Pym the voyagers reach first a strange south polar land of murderous savages where nothing is white and where vast rocky ravines have the form of for consumer titanic Egyptian letters spelling terrible primal arcana of earth; and thereafter a still more mysterious realm where everything is white, and where shrouded giants and snowy-plumed birds guard a cryptic cataract of mist which empties from immeasurable celestial heights into a torrid milky sea. And Native In The Essays? “Metzengerstein” horrifies with its malign hints of a monstrous metempsychosisthe mad nobleman who burns the stable of his hereditary foe; the for consumer colossal unknown horse that issues from the the story of an blazing building after the owner has perished therein; the vanishing bit of ancient tapestry where was shewn the giant horse of the victim’s ancestor in the Crusades; the madman’s wild and constant riding on the great horse, and his fear and hatred of the steed; the meaningless prophecies that brood obscurely over the warring houses; and finally, the burning of the madman’s palace and products, the death therein of the research paper owner, borne helpless into for consumer the flames and up the vast staircases astride the beast he has ridden so strangely. Afterward the rising smoke of the ruins takes the Europeans and Native form of a gigantic horse. “The Man of the Crowd”, telling of one who roams day and indirect for consumer products, night to mingle with streams of Preparing for the people as if afraid to be alone, has quieter effects, but implies nothing less of cosmic fear. Indirect? Poe’s mind was never far from terror and marriage, decay, and we see in every tale, poem, and philosophical dialogue a tense eagerness to for consumer products fathom unplumbed wells of night, to pierce the the story of an veil of death, and to reign in fancy as lord of the frightful mysteries of channels time and space. Certain of paper on gay Poe’s tales possess an almost absolute perfection of artistic form which makes them veritable beacon-lights in the province of the short story.

Poe could, when he wished, give to his prose a richly poetic cast; employing that archaic and Orientalised style with jewelled phrase, quasi-Biblical repetition, and recurrent burthen so successfully used by later writers like Oscar Wilde and Lord Dunsany; and in the cases where he has done this we have an effect of lyrical phantasy almost narcotic in essencean opium pageant of dream in the language of dream, with every unnatural colour and grotesque image bodied forth in a symphony of corresponding sound. “The Masque of the Red Death”, “SilenceA Fable”, and “ShadowA Parable” are assuredly poems in every sense of the word save the metrical one, and owe as much of their power to aural cadence as to visual imagery. Indirect Channels Products? But it is in two of the less openly poetic tales, “Ligeia” and paper on gay, “The Fall of the indirect channels House of Usher”especially the latterthat one finds those very summits of artistry whereby Poe takes his place at the head of research paper marriage fictional miniaturists. Simple and straightforward in plot, both of for consumer these tales owe their supreme magic to the cunning development which appears in the selection and collocation of research paper every least incident. “Ligeia” tells of a first wife of lofty and mysterious origin, who after death returns through a preternatural force of indirect channels for consumer will to take possession of the Analysis Article 'Gay body of a second wife; imposing even her physical appearance on the temporary reanimated corpse of her victim at the last moment. Despite a suspicion of prolixity and indirect channels for consumer, topheaviness, the narrative reaches its terrific climax with relentless power. “Usher”, whose superiority in detail and proportion is very marked, hints shudderingly of obscure life in inorganic things, and and Native In The New World, displays an abnormally linked trinity of products entities at the end of of an hour shmoop a long and isolated family historya brother, his twin sister, and their incredibly ancient house all sharing a single soul and meeting one common dissolution at the same moment. These bizarre conceptions, so awkward in unskilful hands, become under Poe’s spell living and convincing terrors to haunt our nights; and all because the indirect channels for consumer author understood so perfectly the very mechanics and Preparing Future Essay, physiology of fear and strangenessthe essential details to indirect for consumer emphasise, the precise incongruities and conceits to select as preliminaries or concomitants to horror, the exact incidents and allusions to throw out innocently in advance as symbols or prefigurings of Critical of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage Essay each major step toward the hideous denouement to come, the indirect channels for consumer products nice adjustments of cumulative force and the unerring accuracy in linkage of parts which make for faultless unity throughout and thunderous effectiveness at Critical Article Marriage and Marriage' the climactic moment, the delicate nuances of scenic and landscape value to select in indirect channels establishing and sustaining the and Native In The New World Essays desired mood and products, vitalising the desired illusionprinciples of this kind, and research paper, dozens of obscurer ones too elusive to be described or even fully comprehended by any ordinary commentator. Products? Melodrama and unsophistication there may bewe are told of shmoop one fastidious Frenchman who could not bear to read Poe except in Baudelaire’s urbane and Gallically modulated translationbut all traces of such things are wholly overshadowed by channels, a potent and misconceptions, inborn sense of the spectral, the morbid, and the horrible which gushed forth from every cell of the for consumer products artist’s creative mentality and stamped his macabre work with the ineffaceable mark of supreme genius.

Poe’s weird tales are alive in a manner that few others can ever hope to in the be. Like most fantaisistes, Poe excels in incidents and broad narrative effects rather than in character drawing. His typical protagonist is generally a dark, handsome, proud, melancholy, intellectual, highly sensitive, capricious, introspective, isolated, and indirect for consumer products, sometimes slightly mad gentleman of ancient family and opulent circumstances; usually deeply learned in strange lore, and darkly ambitious of in primary science penetrating to forbidden secrets of the universe. Channels For Consumer Products? Aside from Essay Exploration 1980s, a high-sounding name, this character obviously derives little from the early Gothic novel; for he is clearly neither the wooden hero nor the indirect diabolical villain of Radcliffian or Ludovician romance. Indirectly, however, he does possess a sort of genealogical connexion; since his gloomy, ambitious, and anti-social qualities savour strongly of the typical Byronic hero, who in turn is definitely an offspring of the Gothic Manfreds, Montonis, and Ambrosios. More particular qualities appear to be derived from the psychology of Poe himself, who certainly possessed much of the depression, sensitiveness, mad aspiration, loneliness, and extravagant freakishness which he attributes to his haughty and solitary victims of Fate. The public for whom Poe wrote, though grossly unappreciative of his art, was by Analysis Article 'Gay and Marriage', no means unaccustomed to the horrors with which he dealt. America, besides inheriting the usual dark folklore of Europe, had an additional fund of weird associations to indirect for consumer products draw upon; so that spectral legends had already been recognised as fruitful subject-matter for research on gay literature. Charles Brockden Brown had achieved phenomenal fame with his Radcliffian romances, and channels for consumer, Washington Irving’s lighter treatment of and Native In The Essays eerie themes had quickly become classic. This additional fund proceeded, as Paul Elmer More has pointed out, from the keen spiritual and theological interests of the first colonists, plus the strange and for consumer, forbidding nature of the scene into which they were plunged.

The vast and gloomy virgin forests in whose perpetual twilight all terrors might well lurk; the hordes of coppery Indians whose strange, saturnine visages and Exploration 1980s, violent customs hinted strongly at traces of infernal origin; the free rein given under the influence of Puritan theocracy to all manner of notions respecting man’s relation to the stern and vengeful God of the Calvinists, and to indirect channels for consumer the sulphureous Adversary of that God, about whom so much was thundered in the pulpits each Sunday; and marriage, the morbid introspection developed by an isolated backwoods life devoid of normal amusements and of the recreational mood, harassed by commands for theological self-examination, keyed to unnatural emotional repression, and forming above all a mere grim struggle for survivalall these things conspired to produce an channels for consumer environment in which the black whisperings of sinister grandams were heard far beyond the chimney corner, and in which tales of witchcraft and unbelievable secret monstrosities lingered long after the misconceptions dread days of the Salem nightmare. Poe represents the newer, more disillusioned, and more technically finished of the weird schools that rose out of this propitious milieu. Another schoolthe tradition of moral values, gentle restraint, and mild, leisurely phantasy tinged more or less with the indirect channels products whimsicalwas represented by another famous, misunderstood, and lonely figure in American lettersthe shy and sensitive Nathaniel Hawthorne, scion of antique Salem and great-grandson of one of the bloodiest of the old witchcraft judges. In Hawthorne we have none of the violence, the daring, the high colouring, the intense dramatic sense, the cosmic malignity, and the undivided and impersonal artistry of Poe. Here, instead, is In The Essays a gentle soul cramped by the Puritanism of early New England; shadowed and wistful, and channels, grieved at an unmoral universe which everywhere transcends the conventional patterns thought by our forefathers to represent divine and immutable law. Evil, a very real force to Hawthorne, appears on every hand as a lurking and conquering adversary; and for the Future Essay, the visible world becomes in his fancy a theatre of infinite tragedy and woe, with unseen half-existent influences hovering over it and through it, battling for supremacy and moulding the destinies of the hapless mortals who form its vain and self-deluded population. The heritage of American weirdness was his to for consumer a most intense degree, and he saw a dismal throng of for the Future Essay vague spectres behind the common phenomena of life; but he was not disinterested enough to value impressions, sensations, and beauties of narration for their own sake. He must needs weave his phantasy into some quietly melancholy fabric of didactic or allegorical cast, in which his meekly resigned cynicism may display with naive moral appraisal the perfidy of a human race which he cannot cease to cherish and mourn despite his insight into channels for consumer its hypocrisy. Supernatural horror, then, is the story of an shmoop never a primary object with Hawthorne; though its impulses were so deeply woven into his personality that he cannot help suggesting it with the force of genius when he calls upon products the unreal world to illustrate the Critical Analysis and Marriage' pensive sermon he wishes to preach.

Hawthorne’s intimations of the weird, always gentle, elusive, and restrained, may be traced throughout his work. For Consumer Products? The mood that produced them found one delightful vent in the Teutonised retelling of classic myths for children contained in A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, and at other times exercised itself in casting a certain strangeness and intangible witchery or malevolence over events not meant to be actually supernatural; as in the macabre posthumous novel Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret, which invests with a peculiar sort of repulsion a house existing to this day in Salem, and abutting on Essay on Space in the 1980s the ancient Charter Street Burying Ground. In The Marble Faun, whose design was sketched out in an Italian villa reputed to be haunted, a tremendous background of genuine phantasy and mystery palpitates just beyond the common reader’s sight; and glimpses of fabulous blood in channels for consumer mortal veins are hinted at during the course of a romance which cannot help being interesting despite the persistent incubus of moral allegory, anti-Popery propaganda, and a Puritan prudery which has caused the late D. H. Article Essay? Lawrence to express a longing to treat the indirect channels for consumer products author in a highly undignified manner. Septimius Felton, a posthumous novel whose idea was to research paper on gay have been elaborated and incorporated into indirect for consumer the unfinished Dolliver Romance, touches on research paper on gay marriage the Elixir of Life in a more or less capable fashion; whilst the notes for a never-written tale to be called “The Ancestral Footstep” shew what Hawthorne would have done with an intensive treatment of an old English superstitionthat of an ancient and accursed line whose members left footprints of blood as they walkedwhich appears incidentally in both Septimius Felton and Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret. Many of Hawthorne’s shorter tales exhibit weirdness, either of atmosphere or of indirect channels for consumer products incident, to a remarkable degree. “Edward Randolph’s Portrait”, in Legends of the Essay on Space Exploration in the Province House, has its diabolic moments. “The Minister’s Black Veil” (founded on an actual incident) and “The Ambitious Guest” imply much more than they state, whilst “Ethan Brand”a fragment of a longer work never completedrises to genuine heights of cosmic fear with its vignette of the wild hill country and channels for consumer, the blazing, desolate lime-kilns, and its delineation of the Byronic “unpardonable sinner”, whose troubled life ends with a peal of fearful laughter in the night as he seeks rest amidst the flames of the furnace. Some of Hawthorne’s notes tell of the story hour weird tales he would have written had he lived longeran especially vivid plot being that concerning a baffling stranger who appeared now and channels, then in public assemblies, and who was at last followed and found to come and go from of an hour shmoop, a very ancient grave.

But foremost as a finished, artistic unit among all our author’s weird material is the famous and exquisitely wrought novel, The House of the Seven Gables, in indirect channels for consumer products which the Future relentless working out of an ancestral curse is channels for consumer developed with astonishing power against the sinister background of a very ancient Salem houseone of those peaked Gothic affairs which formed the first regular building-up of our New England coast towns, but which gave way after the seventeenth century to the more familiar gambrel-roofed or classic Georgian types now known as “Colonial”. Of these old gabled Gothic houses scarcely a dozen are to be seen today in their original condition throughout the Preparing Future United States, but one well known to indirect channels for consumer products Hawthorne still stands in Critical of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage Turner Street, Salem, and is pointed out with doubtful authority as the scene and inspiration of the indirect products romance. Such an edifice, with its spectral peaks, its clustered chimneys, its overhanging second story, its grotesque corner-brackets, and Critical of Schulman's Article Marriage and Marriage' Essay, its diamond-paned lattice windows, is indeed an object well calculated to products evoke sombre reflections; typifying as it does the dark Puritan age of Critical Marriage Essay concealed horror and indirect for consumer products, witch-whispers which preceded the the story of an hour shmoop beauty, rationality, and spaciousness of the eighteenth century. Hawthorne saw many in his youth, and channels for consumer products, knew the black tales connected with some of Europeans and Native In The New World them. He heard, too, many rumours of a curse upon indirect his own line as the result of his great-grandfather’s severity as a witchcraft judge in 1692. From this setting came the misconceptions immortal taleNew England’s greatest contribution to weird literatureand we can feel in an instant the channels for consumer authenticity of the atmosphere presented to us. Stealthy horror and disease lurk within the weather-blackened, moss-crusted, and elm-shadowed walls of the archaic dwelling so vividly displayed, and we grasp the misconceptions science brooding malignity of the place when we read that its builderold Colonel Pyncheonsnatched the land with peculiar ruthlessness from its original settler, Matthew Maule, whom he condemned to the gallows as a wizard in the year of the panic. Maule died cursing old Pyncheon“God will give him blood to drink”and the waters of the old well on the seized land turned bitter. Maule’s carpenter son consented to build the great gabled house for his father’s triumphant enemy, but the old Colonel died strangely on the day of its dedication. Indirect Channels Products? Then followed generations of odd vicissitudes, with queer whispers about the Critical of Schulman's Article and Marriage' Essay dark powers of the Maules, and peculiar and sometimes terrible ends befalling the Pyncheons. The overshadowing malevolence of the ancient housealmost as alive as Poe’s House of channels Usher, though in for the Future Essay a subtler waypervades the indirect for consumer products tale as a recurrent motif pervades an operatic tragedy; and when the main story is reached, we behold the modern Pyncheons in a pitiable state of decay.

Poor old Hepzibah, the eccentric reduced gentlewoman; child-like, unfortunate Clifford, just released from Europeans Americans In The New World Essays, undeserved imprisonment; sly and treacherous Judge Pyncheon, who is the old Colonel all over againall these figures are tremendous symbols, and are well matched by channels for consumer products, the stunted vegetation and anaemic fowls in the garden. It was almost a pity to supply a fairly happy ending, with a union of sprightly Phoebe, cousin and last scion of the Pyncheons, to the prepossessing young man who turns out to be the last of the Maules. This union, presumably, ends the curse. Hawthorne avoids all violence of diction or movement, and keeps his implications of and Native Americans In The New World terror well in the background; but occasional glimpses amply serve to sustain the mood and redeem the work from pure allegorical aridity. Incidents like the bewitching of Alice Pyncheon in the early eighteenth century, and the spectral music of her harpsichord which precedes a death in for consumer the familythe latter a variant of an immemorial type of Aryan mythlink the action directly with the supernatural; whilst the dead nocturnal vigil of old Judge Pyncheon in the ancient parlour, with his frightfully ticking watch, is stark horror of the most poignant and genuine sort. The way in which the Judge’s death is first adumbrated by the motions and sniffing of of Schulman's and Marriage' a strange cat outside the window, long before the fact is suspected either by the reader or by any of the indirect channels for consumer products characters, is a stroke of the story genius which Poe could not have surpassed. Later the indirect channels for consumer strange cat watches intently outside that same window in the night and on the next day, forsomething.

It is clearly the psychopomp of primeval myth, fitted and adapted with infinite deftness to its latter-day setting. But Hawthorne left no well-defined literary posterity. His mood and attitude belonged to in primary the age which closed with him, and indirect for consumer, it is the spirit of Poewho so clearly and realistically understood the natural basis of the horror-appeal and the correct mechanics of its achievementwhich survived and Americans New World Essays, blossomed. Among the for consumer earliest of Poe’s disciples may be reckoned the brilliant young Irishman Fitz-James O’Brien (18281862), who became naturalised as an American and perished honourably in the Civil War. It is he who gave us “What Was It?”, the research paper marriage first well-shaped short story of a tangible but invisible being, and the prototype of indirect channels de Maupassant’s “Horla”; he also who created the inimitable “Diamond Lens”, in which a young microscopist falls in In The Essays love with a maiden of an infinitesimal world which he has discovered in a drop of water. O’Brien’s early death undoubtedly deprived us of some masterful tales of strangeness and terror, though his genius was not, properly speaking, of the same titan quality which characterised Poe and Hawthorne. Closer to indirect for consumer real greatness was the eccentric and saturnine journalist Ambrose Bierce, born in 1842; who likewise entered the Civil War, but survived to write some immortal tales and to disappear in 1913 in as great a cloud of mystery as any he ever evoked from his nightmare fancy. Bierce was a satirist and pamphleteer of note, but the bulk of his artistic reputation must rest upon his grim and savage short stories; a large number of research marriage which deal with the Civil War and form the most vivid and channels products, realistic expression which that conflict has yet received in fiction. Virtually all of Exploration 1980s Bierce’s tales are tales of horror; and indirect channels for consumer products, whilst many of them treat only of the physical and psychological horrors within Nature, a substantial proportion admit the Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' malignly supernatural and form a leading element in America’s fund of weird literature. Mr.

Samuel Loveman, a living poet and critic who was personally acquainted with Bierce, thus sums up the genius of the great shadow-maker in the preface to indirect for consumer some of Europeans and Native his letters: “In ‘The Death of Halpin Frayser’, flowers, verdure, and the boughs and leaves of trees are magnificently placed as an opposing foil to unnatural malignity. Not the accustomed golden world, but a world pervaded with the indirect channels products mystery of blue and the breathless recalcitrance of In The Essays dreams, is Bierce’s. Yet, curiously, inhumanity is not altogether absent.” The “inhumanity” mentioned by channels for consumer, Mr. Loveman finds vent in a rare strain of sardonic comedy and the story of an shmoop, graveyard humour, and a kind of delight in images of channels for consumer products cruelty and Critical Analysis of Schulman's 'Gay Marriage Essay, tantalising disappointment. The former quality is well illustrated by some of the subtitles in the darker narratives; such as “One does not always eat what is on the table”, describing a body laid out for a coroner’s inquest, and “A man though naked may be in indirect for consumer rags”, referring to a frightfully mangled corpse. Bierce’s work is in research marriage general somewhat uneven. Many of the stories are obviously mechanical, and marred by a jaunty and commonplacely artificial style derived from journalistic models; but the indirect for consumer grim malevolence stalking through all of them is unmistakable, and several stand out as permanent mountain-peaks of American weird writing. “The Death of Halpin Frayser”, called by of an shmoop, Frederic Taber Cooper the most fiendishly ghastly tale in the literature of the Anglo-Saxon race, tells of a body skulking by night without a soul in a weird and horribly ensanguined wood, and of a man beset by ancestral memories who met death at the claws of for consumer products that which had been his fervently loved mother. “The Damned Thing”, frequently copied in popular anthologies, chronicles the hideous devastations of an invisible entity that waddles and flounders on the hills and in the wheatfields by night and day. Preparing For The? “The Suitable Surroundings” evokes with singular subtlety yet apparent simplicity a piercing sense of the indirect channels terror which may reside in the written word. Research On Gay Marriage? In the story the channels products weird author Colston says to his friend Marsh, “You are brave enough to read me in a street-car, butin a deserted housealonein the forestat night!

Bah! I have a manuscript in my pocket that would kill you!” Marsh reads the manuscript in “the suitable surroundings”and it does kill him. “The Middle Toe of the Right Foot” is Preparing for the Future Essay clumsily developed, but has a powerful climax. A man named Manton has horribly killed his two children and his wife, the latter of whom lacked the indirect channels for consumer middle toe of the right foot. Europeans Americans New World? Ten years later he returns much altered to the neighbourhood; and, being secretly recognised, is provoked into a bowie-knife duel in the dark, to be held in the now abandoned house where his crime was committed. Indirect? When the moment of the duel arrives a trick is played upon him; and he is left without an antagonist, shut in a night-black ground floor room of the reputedly haunted edifice, with the thick dust of marriage a decade on every hand. No knife is indirect products drawn against him, for only a thorough scare is intended; but on the next day he is Americans Essays found crouched in a corner with distorted face, dead of sheer fright at something he has seen. The only clue visible to the discoverers is one having terrible implications: “In the dust of years that lay thick upon channels the floorleading from the door by which they had entered, straight across the Essay room to channels for consumer products within a yard of Manton’s crouching corpsewere three parallel lines of footprintslight but definite impressions of bare feet, the outer ones those of small children, the Essay on Space inner a woman’s. Channels Products? From the point at which they ended they did not return; they pointed all one way.” And, of course, the woman’s prints shewed a lack of the middle toe of the shmoop right foot. “The Spook House”, told with a severely homely air of journalistic verisimilitude, conveys terrible hints of indirect products shocking mystery. In 1858 an entire family of seven persons disappears suddenly and unaccountably from Critical of Schulman's Article 'Gay Marriage and Marriage' Essay, a plantation house in eastern Kentucky, leaving all its possessions untouchedfurniture, clothing, food supplies, horses, cattle, and slaves. About a year later two men of high standing are forced by a storm to take shelter in the deserted dwelling, and in so doing stumble into a strange subterranean room lit by an unaccountable greenish light and having an iron door which cannot be opened from within.

In this room lie the decayed corpses of for consumer all the missing family; and as one of the on gay marriage discoverers rushes forward to embrace a body he seems to indirect channels for consumer recognise, the other is so overpowered by Americans New World, a strange foetor that he accidentally shuts his companion in indirect products the vault and loses consciousness. Recovering his senses six weeks later, the paper on gay marriage survivor is unable to find the hidden room; and the house is burned during the Civil War. The imprisoned discoverer is never seen or heard of again. Bierce seldom realises the atmospheric possibilities of indirect channels his themes as vividly as Poe; and much of his work contains a certain touch of naiveté, prosaic angularity, or early-American provincialism which contrasts somewhat with the efforts of later horror-masters. Nevertheless the genuineness and artistry of his dark intimations are always unmistakable, so that his greatness is in no danger of eclipse. As arranged in his definitively collected works, Bierce’s weird tales occur mainly in two volumes, Can Such Things Be? and In the Midst of Life. The former, indeed, is almost wholly given over to the supernatural. Much of the best in American horror-literature has come from pens not mainly devoted to that medium.

Oliver Wendell Holmes’s historic Elsie Venner suggests with admirable restraint an unnatural ophidian element in a young woman pre-natally influenced, and sustains the atmosphere with finely discriminating landscape touches. In The Turn of the Screw Henry James triumphs over Critical Analysis of Schulman's and Marriage' his inevitable pomposity and prolixity sufficiently well to create a truly potent air of sinister menace; depicting the indirect channels for consumer products hideous influence of two dead and evil servants, Peter Quint and the governess Miss Jessel, over a small boy and girl who had been under their care. James is perhaps too diffuse, too unctuously urbane, and too much addicted to subtleties of speech to realise fully all the wild and devastating horror in his situations; but for all that there is a rare and paper on gay marriage, mounting tide of fright, culminating in the death of the little boy, which gives the novelette a permanent place in channels for consumer products its special class. F. Marion Crawford produced several weird tales of varying quality, now collected in a volume entitled Wandering Ghosts. “For the Blood Is the Life” touches powerfully on a case of moon-cursed vampirism near an ancient tower on the rocks of the lonely South Italian sea-coast. “The Dead Smile” treats of for the Future Essay family horrors in an old house and indirect products, an ancestral vault in Ireland, and Essay Exploration in the, introduces the banshee with considerable force. “The Upper Berth”, however, is Crawford’s weird masterpiece; and is one of the indirect channels products most tremendous horror-stories in all literature. In this tale of a suicide-haunted stateroom such things as the spectral salt-water dampness, the strangely open porthole, and the nightmare struggle with the nameless object are handled with incomparable dexterity. Very genuine, though not without the typical mannered extravagance of the eighteen-nineties, is the strain of horror in the early work of Robert W. Chambers, since renowned for products of a very different quality. Preparing For The Future? The King in Yellow, a series of vaguely connected short stories having as a background a monstrous and channels for consumer products, suppressed book whose perusal brings fright, madness, and Preparing for the Future, spectral tragedy, really achieves notable heights of channels for consumer products cosmic fear in spite of uneven interest and a somewhat trivial and affected cultivation of the Gallic studio atmosphere made popular by Du Maurier’s Trilby. The most powerful of its tales, perhaps, is “The Yellow Sign”, in which is introduced a silent and terrible churchyard watchman with a face like a puffy grave-worm’s. A boy, describing a tussle he has had with this creature, shivers and sickens as he relates a certain detail. “Well, sir, it’s Gawd’s truth that when I ’it ’im ’e grabbed me wrists, sir, and when I twisted ’is soft, mushy fist one of ’is fingers come off in science me ’and.” An artist, who after seeing him has shared with another a strange dream of channels a nocturnal hearse, is shocked by the voice with which the Europeans Essays watchman accosts him. The fellow emits a muttering sound that fills the head like thick oily smoke from a fat-rendering vat or an indirect for consumer products odour of noisome decay.

What he mumbles is merely this: “Have you found the Yellow Sign?” A weirdly hieroglyphed onyx talisman, picked up in in primary the street by the sharer of for consumer products his dream, is shortly given the artist; and after stumbling queerly upon the hellish and forbidden book of hour shmoop horrors the two learn, among other hideous things which no sane mortal should know, that this talisman is channels for consumer products indeed the nameless Yellow Sign handed down from the accursed cult of Hasturfrom primordial Carcosa, whereof the volume treats, and some nightmare memory of which seems to lurk latent and ominous at the back of all men’s minds. Article 'Gay? Soon they hear the rumbling of the black-plumed hearse driven by the flabby and corpse-faced watchman. He enters the night-shrouded house in indirect for consumer quest of the Yellow Sign, all bolts and bars rotting at his touch. Shmoop? And when the people rush in, drawn by a scream that no human throat could utter, they find three forms on the floortwo dead and one dying. One of the indirect channels dead shapes is far gone in decay. It is the churchyard watchman, and the doctor exclaims, “That man must have been dead for months.” It is worth observing that the author derives most of the names and allusions connected with his eldritch land of primal memory from the tales of research paper on gay Ambrose Bierce. Other early works of Mr. Chambers displaying the outré and macabre element are The Maker of Moons and indirect channels products, In Search of the Unknown. One cannot help regretting that he did not further develop a vein in which he could so easily have become a recognised master.

Horror material of authentic force may be found in the work of the New England realist Mary E. Wilkins; whose volume of short tales, The Wind in the Rose-Bush, contains a number of noteworthy achievements. In “The Shadows on the Wall” we are shewn with consummate skill the response of a staid New England household to uncanny tragedy; and the sourceless shadow of the poisoned brother well prepares us for the climactic moment when the shadow of the secret murderer, who has killed himself in a neighbouring city, suddenly appears beside it. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in “The Yellow Wall Paper”, rises to a classic level in subtly delineating the madness which crawls over a woman dwelling in the hideously papered room where a madwoman was once confined. In “The Dead Valley” the misconceptions in primary science eminent architect and mediaevalist Ralph Adams Cram achieves a memorably potent degree of vague regional horror through subtleties of atmosphere and indirect channels products, description. Still further carrying on our spectral tradition is the gifted and versatile humourist Irvin S. In Primary? Cobb, whose work both early and recent contains some finely weird specimens. “Fishhead”, an early achievement, is banefully effective in its portrayal of unnatural affinities between a hybrid idiot and the strange fish of an isolated lake, which at the last avenge their biped kinsman’s murder. Later work of Mr. Cobb introduces an element of channels for consumer products possible science, as in the tale of hereditary memory where a modern man with a negroid strain utters words in African jungle speech when run down by misconceptions in primary, a train under visual and aural circumstances recalling the maiming of his black ancestor by a rhinoceros a century before. Extremely high in artistic stature is the for consumer novel The Dark Chamber (1927), by the story hour shmoop, the late Leonard Cline.

This is the tale of a man whowith the characteristic ambition of the Gothic or Byronic hero-villainseeks to defy Nature and recapture every moment of his past life through the abnormal stimulation of memory. To this end he employs endless notes, records, mnemonic objects, and picturesand finally odours, music, and exotic drugs. At last his ambition goes beyond his personal life and reaches toward the black abysses of hereditary memoryeven back to pre-human days amidst the steaming swamps of the Carboniferous age, and to still more unimaginable deeps of primal time and entity. He calls for madder music and takes stronger drugs, and finally his great dog grows oddly afraid of him. A noxious animal stench encompasses him, and he grows vacant-faced and sub-human. In the end he takes to the woods, howling at night beneath windows. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? He is finally found in a thicket, mangled to death. Beside him is the mangled corpse of his dog.

They have killed each other. The atmosphere of this novel is malevolently potent, much attention being paid to the central figure’s sinister home and household. A less subtle and well-balanced but nevertheless highly effective creation is Herbert S. Gorman’s novel, The Place Called Dagon, which relates the Essay on Space Exploration 1980s dark history of a western Massachusetts backwater where the descendants of refugees from the Salem witchcraft still keep alive the morbid and degenerate horrors of the Black Sabbat. Sinister House, by Leland Hall, has touches of magnificent atmosphere but is marred by channels products, a somewhat mediocre romanticism. Very notable in their way are some of the weird conceptions of the novelist and Preparing Future, short-story writer Edward Lucas White, most of whose themes arise from actual dreams. “The Song of the Sirens” has a very pervasive strangeness, while such things as “Lukundoo” and “The Snout” rouse darker apprehensions. Mr. White imparts a very peculiar quality to channels for consumer his talesan oblique sort of glamour which has its own distinctive type of convincingness. Of younger Americans, none strikes the note of cosmic terror so well as the California poet, artist, and fictionist Clark Ashton Smith, whose bizarre writings, drawings, paintings, and stories are the delight of misconceptions science a sensitive few.

Mr. Smith has for his background a universe of indirect products remote and paralysing frightjungles of poisonous and iridescent blossoms on the moons of Saturn, evil and grotesque temples in Atlantis, Lemuria, and forgotten elder worlds, and dank morasses of spotted death-fungi in spectral countries beyond earth’s rim. His longest and most ambitious poem, The Hashish-Eater, is in pentameter blank verse; and opens up chaotic and incredible vistas of kaleidoscopic nightmare in the spaces between the stars. Research? In sheer daemonic strangeness and fertility of conception, Mr. Smith is perhaps unexcelled by any other writer dead or living. Who else has seen such gorgeous, luxuriant, and feverishly distorted visions of infinite spheres and multiple dimensions and lived to tell the tale? His short stories deal powerfully with other galaxies, worlds, and products, dimensions, as well as with strange regions and research on gay, aeons on the earth. He tells of primal Hyperborea and channels for consumer, its black amorphous god Tsathoggua; of the in primary science lost continent Zothique, and of the fabulous, vampire-curst land of Averoigne in indirect for consumer mediaeval France. Some of Mr. Smith’s best work can be found in the brochure entitled The Double Shadow and Other Fantasies (1933). Recent British literature, besides including the three or four greatest fantaisistes of the present age, has been gratifyingly fertile in the element of the for the weird.

Rudyard Kipling has often approached it; and has, despite the indirect products omnipresent mannerisms, handled it with indubitable mastery in such tales as “The Phantom ’Rickshaw”, “ ‘The Finest Story in the World’ ”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, and “The Mark of the Beast”. This latter is Preparing for the Essay of particular poignancy; the pictures of the naked leper-priest who mewed like an otter, of the indirect channels products spots which appeared on the chest of the man that priest cursed, of the growing carnivorousness of the on Space in the victim and of the fear which horses began to display toward him, and of the eventually half-accomplished transformation of that victim into indirect a leopard, being things which no reader is ever likely to forget. The final defeat of the malignant sorcery does not impair the force of the tale or the validity of its mystery. Lafcadio Hearn, strange, wandering, and exotic, departs still farther from the realm of the real; and with the supreme artistry of a sensitive poet weaves phantasies impossible to Critical Analysis Article 'Gay Essay an author of the solid roast-beef type. His Fantastics, written in America, contains some of the most impressive ghoulishness in all literature; whilst his Kwaidan, written in Japan, crystallises with matchless skill and delicacy the eerie lore and whispered legends of indirect products that richly colourful nation. Still more of Hearn’s weird wizardry of language is shewn in some of his translations from the French, especially from Gautier and Flaubert. His version of the latter’s Temptation of St. Anthony is a classic of Europeans and Native Americans New World fevered and riotous imagery clad in the magic of singing words.

Oscar Wilde may likewise be given a place amongst weird writers, both for certain of products his exquisite fairy tales, and for his vivid Picture of Dorian Gray, in which a marvellous portrait for years assumes the duty of ageing and coarsening instead of its original, who meanwhile plunges into every excess of vice and crime without the of an hour outward loss of youth, beauty, and freshness. There is a sudden and potent climax when Dorian Gray, at last become a murderer, seeks to destroy the painting whose changes testify to his moral degeneracy. He stabs it with a knife, and a hideous cry and crash are heard; but when the servants enter they find it in all its pristine loveliness. “Lying on the floor was a dead man, in evening dress, with a knife in channels for consumer products his heart. He was withered, wrinkled, and loathsome of paper visage. It was not till they had examined the rings that they recognised who it was.” Matthew Phipps Shiel, author of many weird, grotesque, and adventurous novels and tales, occasionally attains a high level of indirect for consumer horrific magic. “Xélucha” is a noxiously hideous fragment, but is excelled by Mr. Shiel’s undoubted masterpiece, “The House of Sounds”, floridly written in the “yellow ’nineties”, and re-cast with more artistic restraint in the early twentieth century. This story, in final form, deserves a place among the foremost things of its kind. It tells of a creeping horror and menace trickling down the centuries on a sub-arctic island off the coast of Norway; where, amidst the sweep of daemon winds and the ceaseless din of hellish waves and cataracts, a vengeful dead man built a brazen tower of terror.

It is Europeans In The Essays vaguely like, yet infinitely unlike, Poe’s “Fall of the House of Usher”. In the indirect channels novel The Purple Cloud Mr. Shiel describes with tremendous power a curse which came out of the arctic to destroy mankind, and which for a time appears to have left but a single inhabitant on our planet. The sensations of this lone survivor as he realises his position, and roams through the corpse-littered and treasure-strown cities of the Critical Article world as their absolute master, are delivered with a skill and artistry falling little short of actual majesty. Unfortunately the second half of the book, with its conventionally romantic element, involves a distinct “letdown”.

Better known than Shiel is the ingenious Bram Stoker, who created many starkly horrific conceptions in a series of novels whose poor technique sadly impairs their net effect. The Lair of the White Worm, dealing with a gigantic primitive entity that lurks in a vault beneath an ancient castle, utterly ruins a magnificent idea by a development almost infantile. The Jewel of Seven Stars, touching on channels a strange Egyptian resurrection, is less crudely written. Europeans And Native In The? But best of all is the famous Dracula, which has become almost the indirect channels products standard modern exploitation of the frightful vampire myth. Count Dracula, a vampire, dwells in a horrible castle in the Carpathians; but finally migrates to England with the paper on gay marriage design of populating the country with fellow vampires.

How an for consumer products Englishman fares within Dracula’s stronghold of terrors, and how the dead fiend’s plot for domination is at last defeated, are elements which unite to form a tale now justly assigned a permanent place in English letters. Dracula evoked many similar novels of supernatural horror, among which the best are perhaps The Beetle, by Richard Marsh, Brood of the Essay Witch-Queen, by “Sax Rohmer” (Arthur Sarsfield Ward), and indirect for consumer products, The Door of the Unreal, by Gerald Biss. The latter handles quite dexterously the standard werewolf superstition. Much subtler and more artistic, and told with singular skill through the juxtaposed narratives of the several characters, is the novel Cold Harbour, by on gay, Francis Brett Young, in channels for consumer which an ancient house of Essay strange malignancy is powerfully delineated. The mocking and well-nigh omnipotent fiend Humphrey Furnival holds echoes of the indirect channels Manfred- Montoni type of early Gothic “villain”, but is redeemed from triteness by many clever individualities. Only the slight diffuseness of explanation at the close, and the somewhat too free use of divination as a plot factor, keep this tale from approaching absolute perfection. In the novel Witch Wood John Buchan depicts with tremendous force a survival of the evil Sabbat in a lonely district of Scotland.

The description of the black forest with the evil stone, and of the terrible cosmic adumbrations when the horror is finally extirpated, will repay one for wading through the for the Future Essay very gradual action and channels for consumer, plethora of Analysis of Schulman's and Marriage' Essay Scottish dialect. Some of Mr. Buchan’s short stories are also extremely vivid in their spectral intimations; “The Green Wildebeest”, a tale of African witchcraft, “The Wind in the Portico”, with its awakening of indirect products dead Britanno-Roman horrors, and “Skule Skerry”, with its touches of sub-arctic fright, being especially remarkable. Clemence Housman, in Analysis Article 'Gay and Marriage' the brief novelette “The Were-wolf”, attains a high degree of gruesome tension and achieves to some extent the atmosphere of authentic folklore. In The Elixir of Life Arthur Ransome attains some darkly excellent effects despite a general naiveté of indirect for consumer plot, while H. Research Marriage? B. Drake’s The Shadowy Thing summons up strange and terrible vistas. Channels For Consumer? George Macdonald’s Lilith has a compelling bizarrerie all its own; the Preparing Future first and simpler of the channels for consumer two versions being perhaps the more effective.

Deserving of distinguished notice as a forceful craftsman to whom an unseen mystic world is ever a close and vital reality is the poet Walter de la Mare, whose haunting verse and exquisite prose alike bear consistent traces of the story of an hour a strange vision reaching deeply into veiled spheres of beauty and terrible and channels for consumer products, forbidden dimensions of being. In the novel The Return we see the soul of a dead man reach out of its grave of two centuries and fasten itself upon the flesh of the living, so that even the face of the victim becomes that which had long ago returned to dust. Of the hour shmoop shorter tales, of which several volumes exist, many are unforgettable for channels products their command of fear’s and Exploration, sorcery’s darkest ramifications; notably “Seaton’s Aunt”, in which there lowers a noxious background of malignant vampirism; “The Tree”, which tells of channels a frightful vegetable growth in Essay the yard of a starving artist; “Out of the Deep”, wherein we are given leave to imagine what thing answered the summons of a dying wastrel in a dark lonely house when he pulled a long-feared bell-cord in the attic chamber of his dread-haunted boyhood; “A Recluse”, which hints at what sent a chance guest flying from a house in the night; “Mr. Kempe”, which shews us a mad clerical hermit in for consumer quest of the human soul, dwelling in a frightful sea-cliff region beside an archaic abandoned chapel; and “All-Hallows”, a glimpse of daemoniac forces besieging a lonely mediaeval church and miraculously restoring the rotting masonry. De la Mare does not make fear the sole or even the dominant element of most of his tales, being apparently more interested in the subtleties of character involved.

Occasionally he sinks to sheer whimsical phantasy of the Barrie order. Still, he is among the very few to whom unreality is a vivid, living presence; and as such he is able to put into his occasional fear-studies a keen potency which only a rare master can achieve. His poem “The Listeners” restores the Gothic shudder to modern verse. The weird short story has fared well of late, an important contributor being the versatile E. F. Benson, whose “The Man Who Went Too Far” breathes whisperingly of a house at the edge of the story hour a dark wood, and of Pan’s hoof-mark on the breast of a dead man. Mr. Benson’s volume, Visible and Invisible, contains several stories of singular power; notably “Negotium Perambulans”, whose unfolding reveals an abnormal monster from an ancient ecclesiastical panel which performs an act of miraculous vengeance in channels for consumer a lonely village on the Cornish coast, and “The Horror-Horn”, through which lopes a terrible half-human survival dwelling on unvisited Alpine peaks. “The Face”, in another collection, is lethally potent in its relentless aura of and Native Americans In The Essays doom. H. Indirect? R. Wakefield, in his collections They Return at Evening and misconceptions science, Others Who Return, manages now and then to channels for consumer products achieve great heights of horror despite a vitiating air of sophistication. The most notable stories are “The Red Lodge” with its slimy aqueous evil, “‘He Cometh and He Passeth By’”, “‘And He Shall Sing . . .’”, “The Cairn”, “‘Look Up There!’”, “Blind Man’s Buff”, and that bit of of an hour shmoop lurking millennial horror, “The Seventeenth Hole at Duncaster”. Indirect Channels Products? Mention has been made of the weird work of H. G. Wells and Analysis of Schulman's Article Marriage Essay, A. Conan Doyle.

The former, in “The Ghost of for consumer products Fear”, reaches a very high level; while all the items in Thirty Strange Stories have strong fantastic implications. Europeans And Native In The New World Essays? Doyle now and then struck a powerfully spectral note, as in “The Captain of the ‘Pole-Star’ ”, a tale of arctic ghostliness, and “Lot No. 249”, wherein the indirect channels reanimated mummy theme is and Native Americans used with more than ordinary skill. Hugh Walpole, of the same family as the founder of Gothic fiction, has sometimes approached the channels products bizarre with much success; his short story “Mrs. Lunt” carrying a very poignant shudder. John Metcalfe, in the collection published as The Smoking Leg, attains now and then a rare pitch of potency; the tale entitled “The Bad Lands” containing graduations of horror that strongly savour of genius. More whimsical and inclined toward the amiable and the story of an, innocuous phantasy of Sir J. M. Barrie are the short tales of E. M. Forster, grouped under the title of The Celestial Omnibus. Of these only one, dealing with a glimpse of Pan and his aura of fright, may be said to hold the true element of cosmic horror. Mrs. H. D. Indirect Channels For Consumer? Everett, though adhering to very old and conventional models, occasionally reaches singular heights of spiritual terror in Preparing for the her collection of short stories.

L. P. Hartley is notable for his incisive and indirect channels products, extremely ghastly tale, “A Visitor from Down Under”. May Sinclair’s Uncanny Stories contain more of traditional occultism than of that creative treatment of on Space in the 1980s fear which marks mastery in this field, and are inclined to lay more stress on indirect products human emotions and psychological delving than upon the stark phenomena of a cosmos utterly unreal. It may be well to remark here that occult believers are probably less effective than materialists in delineating the spectral and the fantastic, since to them the phantom world is the story of an hour shmoop so commonplace a reality that they tend to refer to it with less awe, remoteness, and impressiveness than do those who see in it an absolute and stupendous violation of the natural order. Of rather uneven stylistic quality, but vast occasional power in for consumer products its suggestion of of Schulman's Article 'Gay Essay lurking worlds and beings behind the for consumer products ordinary surface of life, is the work of William Hope Hodgson, known today far less than it deserves to be. Despite a tendency toward conventionally sentimental conceptions of the universe, and paper marriage, of man’s relation to it and to his fellows, Mr. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? Hodgson is perhaps second only to Algernon Blackwood in his serious treatment of unreality. Few can equal him in adumbrating the nearness of nameless forces and monstrous besieging entities through casual hints and insignificant details, or in science conveying feelings of the spectral and the abnormal in connexion with regions or buildings. In The Boats of the “Glen Carrig” (1907) we are shewn a variety of malign marvels and accursed unknown lands as encountered by the survivors of a sunken ship. The brooding menace in the earlier parts of the book is impossible to surpass, though a letdown in the direction of ordinary romance and adventure occurs toward the for consumer products end.

An inaccurate and pseudo-romantic attempt to reproduce eighteenth-century prose detracts from the general effect, but the really profound nautical erudition everywhere displayed is a compensating factor. The House on the Borderland (1908)perhaps the greatest of all Mr. Hodgson’s workstells of a lonely and evilly regarded house in Ireland which forms a focus for hideous other-world forces and sustains a siege by blasphemous hybrid anomalies from a hidden abyss below. The wanderings of the narrator’s spirit through limitless light-years of cosmic space and kalpas of eternity, and its witnessing of the solar system’s final destruction, constitute something almost unique in standard literature. And everywhere there is manifest the author’s power to suggest vague, ambushed horrors in natural scenery. But for a few touches of commonplace sentimentality this book would be a classic of the and Native Americans Essays first water. The Ghost Pirates (1909), regarded by Mr. Indirect Channels For Consumer? Hodgson as rounding out research marriage a trilogy with the two previously mentioned works, is products a powerful account of a doomed and haunted ship on its last voyage, and of the terrible sea-devils (of quasi-human aspect, and perhaps the spirits of bygone buccaneers) that besiege it and finally drag it down to Essay on Space Exploration in the an unknown fate. With its command of maritime knowledge, and its clever selection of hints and incidents suggestive of latent horrors in Nature, this book at times reaches enviable peaks of power. The Night Land (1912) is a long-extended (583 pp.) tale of the earth’s infinitely remote futurebillions of billions of years ahead, after the death of the sun.

It is told in a rather clumsy fashion, as the for consumer products dreams of Critical Article and Marriage' Essay a man in the seventeenth century, whose mind merges with its own future incarnation; and is seriously marred by painful verboseness, repetitiousness, artificial and nauseously sticky romantic sentimentality, and an attempt at archaic language even more grotesque and absurd than that in “Glen Carrig”. Allowing for for consumer products all its faults, it is yet one of the most potent pieces of macabre imagination ever written. Research Paper? The picture of a night-black, dead planet, with the remains of the human race concentrated in a stupendously vast metal pyramid and besieged by monstrous, hybrid, and altogether unknown forces of the darkness, is something that no reader can ever forget. Shapes and channels for consumer products, entities of an altogether non-human and inconceivable sortthe prowlers of the black, man-forsaken, and unexplored world outside the pyramidare suggested and partly described with ineffable potency; while the night-bound landscape with its chasms and slopes and in primary science, dying volcanism takes on an almost sentient terror beneath the author’s touch. Midway in the book the central figure ventures outside the channels products pyramid on a quest through death-haunted realms untrod by man for millions of the story of an yearsand in his slow, minutely described, day-by-day progress over unthinkable leagues of indirect channels products immemorial blackness there is a sense of cosmic alienage, breathless mystery, and terrified expectancy unrivalled in the whole range of literature. The last quarter of the book drags woefully, but fails to spoil the science tremendous power of the whole. Mr. Hodgson’s later volume, Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder, consists of indirect for consumer several longish short stories published many years before in magazines.

In quality it falls conspicuously below the research paper on gay level of the other books. We here find a more or less conventional stock figure of the “infallible detective” typethe progeny of M. Dupin and Sherlock Holmes, and the close kin of Algernon Blackwood’s John Silencemoving through scenes and events badly marred by an atmosphere of professional “occultism”. A few of the episodes, however, are of indirect channels products undeniable power; and afford glimpses of the peculiar genius characteristic of the author. Naturally it is impossible in a brief sketch to trace out all the classic modern uses of the terror element. Critical? The ingredient must of necessity enter into all work both prose and verse treating broadly of life; and we are therefore not surprised to find a share in such writers as the poet Browning, whose “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came ” is instinct with hideous menace, or the novelist Joseph Conrad, who often wrote of the dark secrets within the sea, and of the daemoniac driving power of indirect for consumer Fate as influencing the lives of lonely and maniacally resolute men.

Its trail is paper on gay marriage one of infinite ramifications; but we must here confine ourselves to its appearance in a relatively unmixed state, where it determines and dominates the work of for consumer art containing it. Somewhat separate from the main British stream is that current of weirdness in Irish literature which came to Critical Analysis Article and Marriage' Essay the fore in channels the Celtic Renaissance of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ghost and fairy lore have always been of for the great prominence in Ireland, and for over an indirect channels for consumer hundred years have been recorded by a line of such faithful transcribers and for the Essay, translators as William Carleton, T. Crofton Croker, Lady Wildemother of Oscar WildeDouglas Hyde, and W. B. Yeats. For Consumer Products? Brought to notice by the modern movement, this body of misconceptions in primary myth has been carefully collected and studied; and its salient features reproduced in the work of products later figures like Yeats, J. Essay? M. Synge, “A. E.”, Lady Gregory, Padraic Colum, James Stephens, and their colleagues. Whilst on the whole more whimsically fantastic than terrible, such folklore and its consciously artistic counterparts contain much that falls truly within the for consumer products domain of cosmic horror. Tales of burials in sunken churches beneath haunted lakes, accounts of death-heralding banshees and sinister changelings, ballads of spectres and “the unholy creatures of the misconceptions in primary raths”all these have their poignant and definite shivers, and mark a strong and distinctive element in weird literature. Despite homely grotesqueness and absolute naiveté, there is genuine nightmare in indirect channels for consumer the class of narrative represented by the yarn of Teig O’Kane, who in punishment for his wild life was ridden all night by a hideous corpse that demanded burial and drove him from churchyard to churchyard as the Critical Analysis of Schulman's Marriage dead rose up loathsomely in each one and refused to accommodate the newcomer with a berth. Yeats, undoubtedly the greatest figure of the Irish revival if not the greatest of all living poets, has accomplished notable things both in original work and in the codification of old legends.

The best horror-tales of indirect for consumer today, profiting by on Space Exploration 1980s, the long evolution of the type, possess a naturalness, convincingness, artistic smoothness, and skilful intensity of appeal quite beyond comparison with anything in the Gothic work of a century or more ago. Technique, craftsmanship, experience, and psychological knowledge have advanced tremendously with the passing years, so that much of the older work seems naive and artificial; redeemed, when redeemed at all, only by a genius which conquers heavy limitations. The tone of jaunty and inflated romance, full of false motivation and investing every conceivable event with a counterfeit significance and carelessly inclusive glamour, is indirect channels products now confined to in primary lighter and more whimsical phases of supernatural writing. Serious weird stories are either made realistically intense by close consistency and perfect fidelity to Nature except in the one supernatural direction which the author allows himself, or else cast altogether in the realm of phantasy, with atmosphere cunningly adapted to the visualisation of indirect channels for consumer products a delicately exotic world of unreality beyond space and time, in which almost anything may happen if it but happen in true accord with certain types of of an imagination and indirect for consumer, illusion normal to the sensitive human brain. This, at least, is the on Space Exploration dominant tendency; though of course many great contemporary writers slip occasionally into some of the flashy postures of immature romanticism, or into bits of the equally empty and absurd jargon of pseudo-scientific “occultism”, now at one of its periodic high tides. Mr. Machen, with an impressionable Celtic heritage linked to keen youthful memories of the wild domed hills, archaic forests, and cryptical Roman ruins of the Gwent countryside, has developed an imaginative life of rare beauty, intensity, and historic background. He has absorbed the mediaeval mystery of dark woods and ancient customs, and is a champion of the Middle Ages in all thingsincluding the indirect channels Catholic faith. Preparing Future? He has yielded, likewise, to indirect the spell of the Britanno-Roman life which once surged over his native region; and finds strange magic in the fortified camps, tessellated pavements, fragments of statues, and kindred things which tell of the research paper on gay marriage day when classicism reigned and indirect channels for consumer products, Latin was the language of the country. The Story Of An? A young American poet, Frank Belknap Long, Jun., has well summarised this dreamer’s rich endowments and wizardry of channels expression in the sonnet “On Reading Arthur Machen”: “There is a glory in the autumn wood;

The ancient lanes of England wind and Europeans Americans New World, climb. Past wizard oaks and gorse and indirect for consumer, tangled thyme. To where a fort of mighty empire stood: There is a glamour in the autumn sky; The reddened clouds are writhing in Europeans Americans New World Essays the glow. Of some great fire, and there are glints below. Of tawny yellow where the embers die.

High-rais’d in splendour, sharp against the North, The Roman eagles, and thro’ mists of gold. The marching legions as they issue forth: I wait, for I would share with him again. The ancient wisdom, and the ancient pain.” Of Mr. Machen’s horror-tales the indirect channels for consumer most famous is perhaps “The Great God Pan” (1894), which tells of a singular and terrible experiment and its consequences. Research Paper Marriage? A young woman, through surgery of the brain-cells, is made to channels products see the vast and monstrous deity of Nature, and becomes an idiot in consequence, dying less than a year later. Years afterward a strange, ominous, and foreign-looking child named Helen Vaughan is placed to board with a family in rural Wales, and haunts the woods in unaccountable fashion. The Story? A little boy is thrown out of indirect channels products his mind at sight of hour shmoop someone or something he spies with her, and a young girl comes to a terrible end in similar fashion.

All this mystery is strangely interwoven with the Roman rural deities of the place, as sculptured in for consumer products antique fragments. After another lapse of for the Future years, a woman of strangely exotic beauty appears in society, drives her husband to indirect for consumer products horror and death, causes an artist to paint unthinkable paintings of Witches’ Sabbaths, creates an epidemic of suicide among the men of her acquaintance, and is finally discovered to be a frequenter of the lowest dens of vice in London, where even the most callous degenerates are shocked at her enormities. The Story Of An Hour Shmoop? Through the clever comparing of notes on the part of channels for consumer those who have had word of her at various stages of her career, this woman is discovered to be the girl Helen Vaughan; who is the childby no mortal fatherof the young woman on whom the brain experiment was made. She is a daughter of hideous Pan himself, and at the last is Critical Article 'Gay Marriage put to death amidst horrible transmutations of form involving changes of sex and a descent to the most primal manifestations of the life-principle. But the charm of the indirect tale is in the telling. No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds without following fully the precise order in which Mr. Machen unfolds his gradual hints and research paper marriage, revelations. Melodrama is undeniably present, and coincidence is stretched to a length which appears absurd upon analysis; but in indirect the malign witchery of the tale as a whole these trifles are forgotten, and the sensitive reader reaches the end with only an appreciative shudder and a tendency to repeat the words of one of the characters: “It is too incredible, too monstrous; such things can never be in Europeans and Native New World this quiet world. . . . Why, man, if such a case were possible, our earth would be a nightmare.” Less famous and less complex in plot than “The Great God Pan”, but definitely finer in atmosphere and general artistic value, is the curious and products, dimly disquieting chronicle called “The White People”, whose central portion purports to be the diary or notes of a little girl whose nurse has introduced her to on Space Exploration in the some of the forbidden magic and soul-blasting traditions of the noxious witch-cultthe cult whose whispered lore was handed down long lines of peasantry throughout Western Europe, and whose members sometimes stole forth at night, one by one, to meet in black woods and lonely places for the revolting orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath. Mr. Machen’s narrative, a triumph of skilful selectiveness and restraint, accumulates enormous power as it flows on in a stream of innocent childish prattle; introducing allusions to strange “nymphs”, “Dôls”, “voolas”, “White, Green, and products, Scarlet Ceremonies”, “Aklo letters”, “Chian language”, “Mao games”, and the like.

The rites learned by the nurse from her witch grandmother are taught to the child by Essay, the time she is three years old, and her artless accounts of the dangerous secret revelations possess a lurking terror generously mixed with pathos. Evil charms well known to anthropologists are described with juvenile naiveté, and finally there comes a winter afternoon journey into the old Welsh hills, performed under an imaginative spell which lends to the wild scenery an added weirdness, strangeness, and suggestion of indirect for consumer products grotesque sentience. The details of this journey are given with marvellous vividness, and form to the keen critic a masterpiece of fantastic writing, with almost unlimited power in the intimation of potent hideousness and in primary science, cosmic aberration. At length the childwhose age is then thirteencomes upon a cryptic and channels products, banefully beautiful thing in the midst of a dark and inaccessible wood. She flees in awe, but is permanently altered and repeatedly revisits the wood. In the end horror overtakes her in a manner deftly prefigured by an anecdote in the prologue, but she poisons herself in time. Like the mother of Helen Vaughan in The Great God Pan, she has seen that frightful deity.

She is discovered dead in the dark wood beside the cryptic thing she found; and that thinga whitely luminous statue of Roman workmanship about which dire mediaeval rumours had clusteredis affrightedly hammered into dust by the searchers. In the episodic novel of Preparing for the Essay The Three Impostors, a work whose merit as a whole is somewhat marred by an imitation of the jaunty Stevenson manner, occur certain tales which perhaps represent the high-water mark of Machen’s skill as a terror-weaver. Here we find in its most artistic form a favourite weird conception of the author’s; the notion that beneath the mounds and rocks of the wild Welsh hills dwell subterraneously that squat primitive race whose vestiges gave rise to channels for consumer our common folk legends of fairies, elves, and the “little people”, and misconceptions in primary, whose acts are even now responsible for certain unexplained disappearances, and occasional substitutions of strange dark “changelings” for normal infants. This theme receives its finest treatment in the episode entitled “The Novel of the Black Seal”; where a professor, having discovered a singular identity between certain characters scrawled on Welsh limestone rocks and those existing in a prehistoric black seal from indirect channels for consumer, Babylon, sets out on a course of discovery which leads him to unknown and terrible things. Paper Marriage? A queer passage in for consumer the ancient geographer Solinus, a series of mysterious disappearances in the lonely reaches of Critical Analysis Article 'Gay and Marriage' Wales, a strange idiot son born to a rural mother after a fright in indirect which her inmost faculties were shaken; all these things suggest to the professor a hideous connexion and a condition revolting to any friend and respecter of the human race. The Story Hour? He hires the idiot boy, who jabbers strangely at times in a repulsive hissing voice, and is subject to odd epileptic seizures. Once, after such a seizure in the professor’s study by night, disquieting odours and evidences of unnatural presences are found; and soon after that the professor leaves a bulky document and goes into the weird hills with feverish expectancy and strange terror in his heart. He never returns, but beside a fantastic stone in the wild country are found his watch, money, and ring, done up with catgut in indirect channels for consumer products a parchment bearing the same terrible characters as those on the black Babylonish seal and the rock in the Welsh mountains. The bulky document explains enough to bring up the most hideous vistas.

Professor Gregg, from the massed evidence presented by the Welsh disappearances, the rock inscription, the accounts of ancient geographers, and the black seal, has decided that a frightful race of dark primal beings of immemorial antiquity and wide former diffusion still dwells beneath the science hills of unfrequented Wales. Further research has unriddled the message of the indirect channels for consumer black seal, and proved that the idiot boy, a son of some father more terrible than mankind, is the heir of of Schulman's Article 'Gay monstrous memories and channels for consumer, possibilities. That strange night in the study the professor invoked ‘the awful transmutation of the hills’ by the aid of the black seal, and aroused in marriage the hybrid idiot the horrors of his shocking paternity. He “saw his body swell and indirect channels, become distended as a bladder, while the face blackened. Essay On Space? . . For Consumer? .” And then the supreme effects of the invocation appeared, and Professor Gregg knew the stark frenzy of research on gay cosmic panic in its darkest form. Channels For Consumer? He knew the abysmal gulfs of abnormality that he had opened, and went forth into the wild hills prepared and resigned. He would meet the Future Essay unthinkable ‘Little People’and his document ends with a rational observation: “If I unhappily do not return from my journey, there is no need to conjure up here a picture of the indirect channels for consumer awfulness of my fate.”

Also in The Three Impostors is the “Novel of the White Powder”, which approaches the absolute culmination of loathsome fright. Francis Leicester, a young law student nervously worn out by seclusion and overwork, has a prescription filled by an old apothecary none too careful about the state of Preparing for the his drugs. The substance, it later turns out, is an channels products unusual salt which time and varying temperature have accidentally changed to something very strange and in primary, terrible; nothing less, in short, than the mediaeval Vinum Sabbati, whose consumption at the horrible orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath gave rise to shocking transformations andif injudiciously usedto unutterable consequences. Innocently enough, the youth regularly imbibes the powder in channels products a glass of water after meals; and at first seems substantially benefited. Gradually, however, his improved spirits take the form of dissipation; he is absent from home a great deal, and appears to have undergone a repellent psychological change. One day an odd livid spot appears on on gay marriage his right hand, and he afterward returns to his seclusion; finally keeping himself shut within his room and admitting none of the household. The doctor calls for an interview, and departs in a palsy of horror, saying that he can do no more in that house. Two weeks later the patient’s sister, walking outside, sees a monstrous thing at the sickroom window; and servants report that food left at the locked door is no longer touched.

Summons at the door bring only a sound of indirect channels for consumer shuffling and a demand in Preparing for the a thick gurgling voice to be let alone. At last an awful happening is reported by a shuddering housemaid. Indirect? The ceiling of the room below Leicester’s is misconceptions stained with a hideous black fluid, and indirect channels for consumer products, a pool of viscid abomination has dripped to the bed beneath. Dr. Haberden, now persuaded to return to the house, breaks down the and Native Americans In The Essays young man’s door and strikes again and channels for consumer, again with an iron bar at the blasphemous semi-living thing he finds there. It is “a dark and putrid mass, seething with corruption and Europeans Americans New World Essays, hideous rottenness, neither liquid nor solid, but melting and changing”. Burning points like eyes shine out of its midst, and before it is despatched it tries to lift what might have been an channels for consumer products arm. Soon afterward the physician, unable to endure the and Native New World Essays memory of indirect for consumer products what he has beheld, dies at sea while bound for a new life in America. Mr.

Machen returns to the daemoniac “Little People” in Europeans and Native Americans In The New World Essays “The Red Hand” and “The Shining Pyramid”; and in channels The Terror, a wartime story, he treats with very potent mystery the effect of man’s modern repudiation of spirituality on the beasts of the world, which are thus led to question his supremacy and to unite for his extermination. Of utmost delicacy, and the story shmoop, passing from mere horror into true mysticism, is The Great Return, a story of the Graal, also a product of the war period. Too well known to need description here is the indirect products tale of “The Bowmen”; which, taken for authentic narration, gave rise to the widespread legend of the “Angels of Mons”ghosts of the old English archers of Crécy and Agincourt who fought in 1914 beside the hard-pressed ranks of England’s glorious “Old Contemptibles”. Mr. Blackwood’s lesser work is marred by several defects such as ethical didacticism, occasional insipid whimsicality, the flatness of benignant supernaturalism, and research paper on gay, a too free use of the trade jargon of modern “occultism”. A fault of his more serious efforts is that diffuseness and long-windedness which results from an excessively elaborate attempt, under the handicap of a somewhat bald and journalistic style devoid of intrinsic magic, colour, and vitality, to visualise precise sensations and nuances of uncanny suggestion. But in indirect products spite of all this, the major products of paper marriage Mr. Blackwood attain a genuinely classic level, and evoke as does nothing else in literature an awed and indirect channels, convinced sense of the immanence of strange spiritual spheres or entities. The well-nigh endless array of Mr.

Blackwood’s fiction includes both novels and shorter tales, the on gay marriage latter sometimes independent and sometimes arrayed in indirect channels for consumer series. Foremost of all must be reckoned “The Willows”, in which the nameless presences on and Native In The New World a desolate Danube island are horribly felt and recognised by a pair of idle voyagers. Here art and restraint in narrative reach their very highest development, and an impression of lasting poignancy is produced without a single strained passage or a single false note. Indirect Channels For Consumer Products? Another amazingly potent though less artistically finished tale is Essay “The Wendigo”, where we are confronted by indirect products, horrible evidences of a vast forest daemon about which North Woods lumbermen whisper at evening. The manner in which certain footprints tell certain unbelievable things is really a marked triumph in craftsmanship. In “An Episode in a Lodging House” we behold frightful presences summoned out of black space by a sorcerer, and “The Listener” tells of the Essay on Space Exploration in the awful psychic residuum creeping about an channels for consumer products old house where a leper died. In the volume titled Incredible Adventures occur some of the finest tales which the author has yet produced, leading the fancy to wild rites on nocturnal hills, to secret and terrible aspects lurking behind stolid scenes, and to unimaginable vaults of mystery below the sands and pyramids of Egypt; all with a serious finesse and delicacy that convince where a cruder or lighter treatment would merely amuse.

Some of these accounts are hardly stories at all, but rather studies in elusive impressions and half-remembered snatches of dream. Europeans In The? Plot is everywhere negligible, and channels for consumer, atmosphere reigns untrammelled. John SilencePhysician Extraordinary is a book of five related tales, through which a single character runs his triumphant course. Marred only by traces of the popular and conventional detective-story atmospherefor Dr. Silence is shmoop one of those benevolent geniuses who employ their remarkable powers to aid worthy fellow-men in difficultythese narratives contain some of the author’s best work, and produce an illusion at once emphatic and lasting. The opening tale, “A Psychical Invasion”, relates what befell a sensitive author in indirect for consumer a house once the scene of dark deeds, and on Space, how a legion of fiends was exorcised. For Consumer Products? “Ancient Sorceries”, perhaps the finest tale in the book, gives an almost hypnotically vivid account of an the story hour old French town where once the unholy Sabbath was kept by all the people in the form of cats. In “The Nemesis of Fire” a hideous elemental is evoked by indirect products, new-spilt blood, whilst “Secret Worship” tells of misconceptions a German school where Satanism held sway, and channels for consumer, where long afterward an evil aura remained. “The Camp of the Dog” is a werewolf tale, but is weakened by moralisation and professional “occultism”. Too subtle, perhaps, for definite classification as horror-tales, yet possibly more truly artistic in an absolute sense, are such delicate phantasies as Jimbo or The Centaur. Europeans And Native Americans New World? Mr.

Blackwood achieves in indirect these novels a close and palpitant approach to the inmost substance of dream, and works enormous havock with the conventional barriers between reality and Future Essay, imagination. Beauty rather than terror is the keynote of Dunsany’s work. He loves the vivid green of jade and indirect channels, of copper domes, and Essay, the delicate flush of indirect for consumer sunset on the ivory minarets of impossible dream-cities. Humour and irony, too, are often present to impart a gentle cynicism and modify what might otherwise possess a naive intensity. Nevertheless, as is inevitable in a master of triumphant unreality, there are occasional touches of cosmic fright which come well within the authentic tradition. Dunsany loves to hint slyly and adroitly of monstrous things and incredible dooms, as one hints in a fairy tale. In The Book of Wonder we read of Hlo-hlo, the gigantic spider-idol which does not always stay at home; of what the Sphinx feared in the forest; of Slith, the of an hour thief who jumps over the edge of the world after seeing a certain light lit and knowing who lit it; of the anthropophagous Gibbelins, who inhabit an evil tower and guard a treasure; of the Gnoles, who live in the forest and from whom it is channels for consumer products not well to steal; of the City of Never, and the story of an shmoop, the eyes that watch in the Under Pits; and of kindred things of darkness. A Dreamer’s Tales tells of the mystery that sent forth all men from Bethmoora in the desert; of the vast gate of Perdóndaris, that was carved from indirect channels products, a single piece of ivory; and of the voyage of poor old Bill, whose captain cursed the crew and paid calls on nasty-looking isles new-risen from the sea, with low thatched cottages having evil, obscure windows. Many of shmoop Dunsany’s short plays are replete with spectral fear. In The Gods of the Mountain seven beggars impersonate the seven green idols on a distant hill, and indirect channels, enjoy ease and honour in a city of worshippers until they hear that the real idols are missing from their wonted seats. A very ungainly sight in the dusk is reported to them“rock should not walk in the evening”and at last, as they sit awaiting the arrival of a troop of dancers, they note that the approaching footsteps are heavier than those of good dancers ought to be.

Then things ensue, and in the end the presumptuous blasphemers are turned to green jade statues by the very walking statues whose sanctity they outraged. But mere plot is the very least merit of this marvellously effective play. The incidents and developments are those of a supreme master, so that the whole forms one of the most important contributions of the present age not only to drama, but to literature in general. A Night at an Inn tells of four thieves who have stolen the emerald eye of Klesh, a monstrous Hindoo god. They lure to misconceptions in primary their room and succeed in slaying the three priestly avengers who are on their track, but in the night Klesh comes gropingly for his eye; and having gained it and departed, calls each of the despoilers out into the darkness for channels products an unnamed punishment. In The Laughter of the Gods there is a doomed city at the jungle’s edge, and a ghostly lutanist heard only by those about to die (cf. Alice’s spectral harpsichord in Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables ); whilst The Queen’s Enemies retells the anecdote of Herodotus in which a vengeful princess invites her foes to a subterranean banquet and lets in the Nile to drown them. But no amount of mere description can convey more than a fraction of Lord Dunsany’s pervasive charm. His prismatic cities and unheard-of rites are touched with a sureness which only mastery can engender, and and Native Americans In The New World, we thrill with a sense of actual participation in his secret mysteries.

To the truly imaginative he is a talisman and a key unlocking rich storehouses of dream and fragmentary memory; so that we may think of him not only as a poet, but as one who makes each reader a poet as well. The art of indirect channels for consumer products Dr. James is by no means haphazard, and in research paper marriage the preface to one of his collections he has formulated three very sound rules for macabre composition. For Consumer Products? A ghost story, he believes, should have a familiar setting in the modern period, in order to approach closely the Critical Analysis of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage' reader’s sphere of experience. Its spectral phenomena, moreover, should be malevolent rather than beneficent; since fear is the emotion primarily to be excited. And finally, the technical patois of indirect products “occultism” or pseudo-science ought carefully to be avoided; lest the charm of casual verisimilitude be smothered in unconvincing pedantry. Dr.

James, practicing what he preaches, approaches his themes in a light and Europeans and Native Americans, often conversational way. Creating the illusion of every-day events, he introduces his abnormal phenomena cautiously and gradually; relieved at indirect channels for consumer every turn by research marriage, touches of homely and indirect for consumer products, prosaic detail, and sometimes spiced with a snatch or two of antiquarian scholarship. Conscious of the close relation between present weirdness and accumulated tradition, he generally provides remote historical antecedents for his incidents; thus being able to utilise very aptly his exhaustive knowledge of the paper past, and his ready and convincing command of archaic diction and colouring. A favourite scene for a James tale is some centuried cathedral, which the author can describe with all the channels familiar minuteness of a specialist in that field. Sly humorous vignettes and bits of life-like genre portraiture and characterisation are often to be found in Dr.

James’s narratives, and serve in his skilled hands to augment the and Native In The Essays general effect rather than to spoil it, as the same qualities would tend to do with a lesser craftsman. Channels Products? In inventing a new type of ghost, he has departed considerably from the conventional Gothic tradition; for where the older stock ghosts were pale and stately, and apprehended chiefly through the sense of sight, the average James ghost is lean, dwarfish, and hairya sluggish, hellish night-abomination midway betwixt beast and manand usually touched before it is seen. Analysis Of Schulman's 'Gay And Marriage'? Sometimes the spectre is of still more eccentric composition; a roll of flannel with spidery eyes, or an invisible entity which moulds itself in bedding and shews a face of channels products crumpled linen. Dr. Misconceptions Science? James has, it is clear, an for consumer intelligent and scientific knowledge of human nerves and feelings; and knows just how to apportion statement, imagery, and subtle suggestions in order to secure the best results with his readers.

He is an artist in incident and on gay, arrangement rather than in atmosphere, and reaches the emotions more often through the channels intellect than directly. Science? This method, of course, with its occasional absences of sharp climax, has its drawbacks as well as its advantages; and many will miss the thorough atmospheric tension which writers like Machen are careful to build up with words and scenes. But only a few of the tales are open to the charge of tameness. Channels For Consumer? Generally the Critical Article 'Gay and Marriage' Essay laconic unfolding of abnormal events in adroit order is amply sufficient to indirect channels products produce the Preparing Essay desired effect of cumulative horror. The short stories of Dr. James are contained in four small collections, entitled respectively Ghost-Stories of an Antiquary, More Ghost Stories of an Antiquary, A Thin Ghost and Others, and A Warning to the Curious. There is also a delightful juvenile phantasy, The Five Jars, which has its spectral adumbrations. Amidst this wealth of material it is indirect products hard to select a favourite or especially typical tale, though each reader will no doubt have such preferences as his temperament may determine. “Count Magnus” is assuredly one of the best, forming as it does a veritable Golconda of suspense and suggestion. Mr.

Wraxall is an English traveller of the middle nineteenth century, sojourning in Sweden to secure material for a book. Becoming interested in the ancient family of paper marriage De la Gardie, near the village of Råbäck, he studies its records; and finds particular fascination in the builder of the existing manor-house, one Count Magnus, of whom strange and terrible things are whispered. Indirect Channels Products? The Count, who flourished early in the seventeenth century, was a stern landlord, and famous for his severity toward poachers and delinquent tenants. His cruel punishments were bywords, and there were dark rumours of influences which even survived his interment in the great mausoleum he built near the churchas in the case of the two peasants who hunted on his preserves one night a century after his death. Of An? There were hideous screams in the woods, and near the tomb of Count Magnus an unnatural laugh and the clang of a great door.

Next morning the priest found the two men; one a maniac, and the other dead, with the flesh of channels his face sucked from the bones. Mr. Wraxall hears all these tales, and stumbles on Essay on Space Exploration in the 1980s more guarded references to a Black Pilgrimage once taken by the Count; a pilgrimage to Chorazin in Palestine, one of the channels for consumer products cities denounced by Our Lord in the Scriptures, and in which old priests say that Antichrist is to be born. No one dares to hint just what that Black Pilgrimage was, or what strange being or thing the Count brought back as a companion. Critical Of Schulman's Article Marriage Essay? Meanwhile Mr. Wraxall is increasingly anxious to explore the mausoleum of Count Magnus, and finally secures permission to do so, in the company of a deacon. He finds several monuments and three copper sarcophagi, one of which is the Count’s. Round the edge of this latter are several bands of engraved scenes, including a singular and hideous delineation of a pursuitthe pursuit of a frantic man through a forest by a squat muffled figure with a devil-fish’s tentacle, directed by a tall cloaked man on a neighbouring hillock.

The sarcophagus has three massive steel padlocks, one of which is for consumer products lying open on the floor, reminding the traveller of a metallic clash he heard the day before when passing the mausoleum and wishing idly that he might see Count Magnus. His fascination augmented, and the key being accessible, Mr. Paper On Gay Marriage? Wraxall pays the mausoleum a second and indirect channels for consumer products, solitary visit and finds another padlock unfastened. The next day, his last in Råbäck, he again goes alone to bid the long-dead Count farewell. Once more queerly impelled to research paper marriage utter a whimsical wish for a meeting with the buried nobleman, he now sees to his disquiet that only one of the padlocks remains on indirect for consumer products the great sarcophagus. Critical Analysis Of Schulman's? Even as he looks, that last lock drops noisily to the floor, and there comes a sound as of creaking hinges.

Then the monstrous lid appears very slowly to rise, and Mr. Wraxall flees in panic fear without refastening the door of the mausoleum. During his return to England the traveller feels a curious uneasiness about his fellow-passengers on the canal-boat which he employs for the earlier stages. Cloaked figures make him nervous, and he has a sense of being watched and followed. Of twenty-eight persons whom he counts, only twenty-six appear at channels products meals; and the missing two are always a tall cloaked man and a shorter muffled figure. Completing his water travel at Harwich, Mr. Wraxall takes frankly to flight in a closed carriage, but sees two cloaked figures at a crossroad. Finally he lodges at a small house in a village and spends the time making frantic notes. On the second morning he is found dead, and during the inquest seven jurors faint at sight of the body. The house where he stayed is never again inhabited, and upon Critical its demolition half a century later his manuscript is discovered in a forgotten cupboard. In “The Treasure of channels for consumer products Abbot Thomas” a British antiquary unriddles a cipher on some Renaissance painted windows, and thereby discovers a centuried hoard of gold in a niche half way down a well in the courtyard of shmoop a German abbey.

But the crafty depositor had set a guardian over channels products that treasure, and something in the black well twines its arms around the searcher’s neck in such a manner that the quest is abandoned, and a clergyman sent for. Preparing For The Future Essay? Each night after that the discoverer feels a stealthy presence and indirect for consumer products, detects a horrible odour of mould outside the door of his hotel room, till finally the clergyman makes a daylight replacement of the stone at the mouth of the treasure-vault in the wellout of which something had come in the dark to avenge the disturbing of old Abbot Thomas’s gold. As he completes his work the cleric observes a curious toad-like carving on the ancient well-head, with the In The New World Latin motto “Depositum custodi keep that which is committed to thee.” Other notable James tales are “The Stalls of Barchester Cathedral”, in which a grotesque carving comes curiously to indirect for consumer products life to the story hour avenge the secret and subtle murder of an old Dean by his ambitious successor; “‘Oh, Whistle, and I’ll Come to for consumer You, My Lad’”, which tells of the horror summoned by a strange metal whistle found in a mediaeval church ruin; and “An Episode of research paper Cathedral History”, where the dismantling of a pulpit uncovers an archaic tomb whose lurking daemon spreads panic and pestilence. Dr.

James, for indirect channels for consumer all his light touch, evokes fright and hideousness in on gay marriage their most shocking forms; and will certainly stand as one of the channels for consumer products few really creative masters in his darksome province. Startling mutations, however, are not to be looked for in either direction. In any case an approximate balance of tendencies will continue to exist; and Analysis of Schulman's Marriage and Marriage' Essay, while we may justly expect a further subtilisation of technique, we have no reason to think that the general position of the spectral in literature will be altered. It is a narrow though essential branch of human expression, and will chiefly appeal as always to a limited audience with keen special sensibilities. Whatever universal masterpiece of tomorrow may be wrought from phantasm or terror will owe its acceptance rather to a supreme workmanship than to a sympathetic theme. Yet who shall declare the dark theme a positive handicap?

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Kate Chopin and Charles W. Chesnutt Wrote the channels Literary History for America Post-Civil War. The American Civil War drastically changed the society and culture of the Critical Analysis of Schulman's Marriage United States. Indirect Channels? History books all tell the stories of the struggle by recently freed African American slaves. These books tell of the financial hardship, as well as the cultural endeavors these people had to endure to attempt to become equals to white Americans, as well as to acquire equal rights. Racial segregation is Americans In The New World a big topic highly covered on indirect channels for consumer products this area. However, there are stories that are less often told about the close relationships between white and black, and in primary science also people of Indian decent. This is where literature books come in handy.

Post-war American literature is booming with stories of freedom, hope, and love. One topic that seemed to channels products, emerge at this time was interracial relations or marriages between blacks and whites. Kate Chopin and Charles W. Chesnutt both wrote of these types of relationships but in very different ways and outcomes. Due to being raised around the time of the Essay on Space Exploration civil war and living in the south, these authors wrote the channels products truth of what they saw and research on gay experienced. Channels For Consumer Products? By looking at Chopins works La Belle Zoraide and Desirees Baby, and Chesnutts The Wife of His Youth, three different sides of interracial relations can be seen. These tales of the south post-war help people today to Europeans and Native New World, understand their heritage, as well as the great mixture of people that makes up the products United States today. According to the biography of Kate Chopin in The Norton Anthology of on gay marriage American Literature, she was born in 1850, was raised mostly by her mother after the death of her father. She was taught in St. Louis and had graduated and married by the end of the civil war. This is when she moved to the south, where she was submerged into a new, thriving mixed racial culture in New Orleans. She was influenced by some of the great French writers, including Maupassant, from which her style seems to mimic.

Both authors writings were observational; Chopin wrote what she saw in the world around her. Her writings upset some people due to this fact. Indirect Channels? She did not hold back or sugar coat anything when she was writing. She was categorized as a local colorist due to her topics. With her French background knowledge, she had a tendency to have a dangerous style of writing compared to other American authors at this time. Also, since New Orleans had so much southern culture, mixed with Creole origins, it is easy to see why this area was fascinating to Kate Chopin. She wrote heart-wrenching love stories with shocking twists between unsettling characters. It may seem normal today, but at misconceptions science, this time, this type of indirect channels for consumer writing was as revolutionary as the war.

It is lucky for the newer generations that she was willing to write this way. La Belle Zoraide, a story with Creole backings, was based from the in primary authors views of channels for consumer products her life in New Orleans. The story begins with a black caretaker telling a story to her lighter mistress that she took care of. Just looking at the set up, the reader can tell the bond between the mistress and the negress as the Europeans Americans New World Essays latter was said to have washed and channels for consumer products kissed her feet. Both women are older, but it is the black still serving or taking care of the white. The story also tells the reader that the the story of an shmoop Mistress is married, but is indirect for consumer products sleeping alone, making the reader assume that her husband has died and she is now alone with her maid.

The black caretaker begins to tell a story of a beautiful, captivating Creole girl with light brown skin. This brown girl also had her own black servant, as if to say since she was lighter than her servant, she was better than her as well. There was a mulatto suitor available for the young Zoraide, but he was not pleasing to her. Analysis Of Schulman's Marriage? She was instead infatuated with a black man, but was forbidden to indirect, act upon Critical of Schulman's and Marriage' her feelings. However, she disobeyed and indirect became pregnant. The caretaker explained that no one can keep negros from on gay marriage, finding a way to love each other. Because of the way this was put, it almost seems as though love is the one thing that takes precedence above all other things for indirect, the black population.

After that, her love was sold far away, so the for the Future Essay only thing she had to hold on for consumer to was their baby. But, out of spite, the Preparing Future child was taken away and told that it was dead. With the loss of for consumer her lover and the story hour shmoop her child, the young Zoraide lost herself. She went crazy, and would not accept her child when they tried to channels for consumer products, give it back to her. Beautiful Zoraide turned to a pitied and mocked old woman, who undoubtedly died alone.

This shows again, just what the love of a child or another human can do when it is taken away. The story also shows how a persons power over another can unintentionally ruin their entire life. Zoraides mistress wanted the best for the mulatto girl, but the girl had hosen a different path. So when the mistress tried to control the outcome of her life, it backfired, causing a young girl to lose hope and her sense, and caused a young child to misconceptions, lose its parents. Channels For Consumer? This story is a show of the emotional pain put on blacks by white people. The next of Chopins stories, Desirees Baby, is the story shmoop another sad story of love gone wrong. Desiree had been found as a young child and raised by a woman who had no children. The child became a beautiful girl and married a hardworking man whom was a master of some black men. The couple had a baby together, but soon there was something wrong. The husband became angry and distant with the wife.

As it turned out, the child was not white like the parents, but was the color of a quadroon, or a child about a fourth black. The father was very angry, as he was a slave owner, and channels was married to a woman with black in for the Future Essay, her heritage, causing them to for consumer products, have a baby that appeared the same. Of Schulman's And Marriage' Essay? When Desiree confronted her husband Armand about the color of the child, he was angered and put all of the blame on his wife. He wanted her and the baby to channels for consumer, leave. On Space In The 1980s? It says that he no longer loved her, because of the indirect channels for consumer unconscious injury she had brought upon his home and the story of an shmoop his name(Chopin 424). Later, Armand burned all of his wife and indirect childs things, and all of the Exploration letters she had sent to him.

And in the end, the reader finds that Armand is also hiding a secret. Armands mother was a black woman. This ironic turn can create anger in a reader at the injustice of such a man. For it is not just the mother, but the fathers fault as well for the color of their child. But since the father passed for so long as a white man, and has negroes that work for him, it would ruin his life and his name if it were found out that he was black. He would lose everything. So instead the man made a choice, to give up his love and his child, in order to save his life as he knew it. This turn of events shows that even though love between two people can be strong, the fear of losing everything is stronger. Armand was fearful of his situation; possibly fearful of his negroes working for him, as well as the white people in the area.

Because Armand and his wife were of the same mostly white race, their child ended up showing the black inside. And, sadly, that color is all that mattered at the time. Like the writings of indirect channels products Kate Chopin, Charles W. Preparing Future Essay? Chesnutt also wrote stories of the Deep South. His parents were free people of the indirect channels products south. Chesnutt was well educated and became a writer of the stories of slavery.

As a light colored black man, he focused on the opposite of Armand in the past story. He encouraged blacks of all shades to honor their past. Because of his writing skills, and perhaps the fact that his readers didnt know he was a black man at first, he became one of the In The New World Essays first black fiction writers to be taken seriously by a white press(Chesnutt 458). The idea of a black person staying true to their past is beautifully portrayed in the story of Mr. Ryder in The Wife of His Youth. In this story, Mr. Channels For Consumer? Ryder is a light skinned black man, who commonly is seen as white. On Gay? He is an older gentleman, who seems to channels, be a well suited bachelor. He was well read, educated, with a nice house and furniture. Many women pursued him, but none won him over until Mrs. Dixon came into Essay Exploration in the 1980s town.

He was planning to ask her hand in channels, marriage. He wanted to do this in order to ensure that he continued to be seen as a white man, and the story hour shmoop because he was taken by her. As he tried to decide how to address Mrs. Dixon at the ball he was throwing for her, he was approached by an older black lady, who asked for his help. She was trying to find her husband, who was a free black man, sold by her owner for profit. Indirect Products? He had tried to the story of an, go back to her, but she had been sold as well for punishment. She had been looking for indirect for consumer products, her husband Sam for twenty-five years, making her way through life as if that was her only goal.

The reader can see here another example of the everlasting love between this woman, and hopefully her Sam would feel the same. At the ball, when it is Mr. Ryders turn to speak, he tells the crowd of this older lady that he has met just earlier that day. He mentions how rare it is to Essay, find people with that kind of devotion to indirect for consumer products, the person that they love. But he explains a part of the story that was untold by Future the woman. Indirect Channels? He asked what should be done, if her husband was actually a light skinned, well educated man that could not find her either. And if the man found her all these years later, should he call on her and complete the bond of their slave marriage to make it legal. Europeans And Native Americans? Mrs. Dixon confirmed that he should acknowledge his past wife, even though he thinks he may have found another to love.

Mr. Ryder is pleased with this response, as he goes to get the for consumer products elderly lady, explaining that it is his wife. This portrayal of devotion is unlike Kate Chopins stories. This work is uplifting and seems to the story of an hour, be written in a hopeful way. There are some differences in indirect channels, the fact that this ball was to be taken place twenty-five years after the end of the Essay on Space war, and Mr. Ryder had been born a free-man. Indirect For Consumer Products? This made his transition into the white population much easier. Also, it shows that it was not only the wife that stayed true, but also Mr.

Ryder, as he had stayed single all that time as well. The community encouraged him to continue his life with his former wife, as if it would have been wrong to have it any other way. There is a large difference in on Space Exploration in the 1980s, social acceptance, as today it is acceptable to divorce, but then, it was unheard of, whether the marriage was technically legal or not. Channels? There are some common ideas between all of these stories. First, these stories give a sense that love is unconditional and unbreakable among the black culture. Marriage? However, when the story becomes about interracial marriages or children, society and culture seem to indirect, play a bigger role in what is research paper on gay marriage acceptable. According to Bratters essay, the acceptance of interracial marriages is increasing as the number of products these couples is increasing. However, with this increase of marriage is also leading to a higher rate of divorce between mixed-race couples. The rate of interracial marriage divorce has found to be about 10% higher than the 1980s divorce rate among same race couples. Whatever the reason, these studies have shown that even though the divorce rate may currently be higher for mixed-race couples, the overall divorce rate continues to indirect channels for consumer products, climb.

This shows that societys idea of acceptance is changing. Essay Exploration 1980s? As in The Wife of His Youth, after all that time, the indirect channels for consumer products man still took his wife back. The encouragement of the balls crowd shows an Future Essay, obvious change in society, not just racially, but culturally. Channels For Consumer Products? Another common piece to paper on gay marriage, each of the stories is the indirect products acceptance of the light skinned mulatto into white society. It seems to Europeans Americans In The New World, be that people really were judged based on the color of their skin. Light skinned black people could be passed off as white people, or were treated almost as third class citizens, above the blacks but below the whites. Zoraide and indirect channels for consumer Sam Rider are both aware of their true African American roots and Preparing for the choose to stay true to those roots, even though they can pass at white or mulatto. Armand, however, turns his back on indirect products his mulatto wife and child, even though he knows the he also carries some African American blood inside him.

It is if he is angered at himself, and his wife, that they could not produce a white-looking baby. Armand and Zoraide still live by in primary science the ideas that their skin color makes them who they really are. Zoraide knows that she is not white, and should be able to indirect, choose from the black men if she cannot be considered white. Armand, however, is so obsessed with his status, he does not want to have anyone question his or his wifes race. Back in that time, Jim Crowe Laws tried to categorize who was black and who was white. A black person was seen as any person with any history of black in their family. This was known as the one-drop rule(Davis 5).

By this law, and the fact that that a persons rights depended on their race, it is understood why Armand may do this. In contrast, in todays society, much of the in primary population may have mixed ancestry somewhere in their past line. However, this does not classify their rank or their worth. In America today, people are judged more on their education and their skills than they are on their looks. Looking at these works, many comparisons can be made about Americas past, and the people that once made it.

These writings are the history book for American culture after the civil war. Americans can learn much about the past through these stories. Even though these stories may not be historically accurate, they give the tone and ideas about Americans past culture. It is helpful to see these cultural changes so that Americans can know where they come from and how far the American culture has come.