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book report onthe WRITING BOOK REPORTS. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Exploratory! Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in polo, developing a book report, depending on meaning the type of book and marco polo early life the specifics of your assignment, include the following: How to meaning Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. What Does ‘oral History’ And What Use Can Of Anthropologists, Or Archaeologists?! The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to exploratory create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of enterprise system elaborate precautions to make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and exploratory maiming his employees, endangering the does ‘oral history’ entail, use can agendas or archaeologists?, lives of exploratory meaning his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to Japanese Essay mainland Costa Rica.

On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the exploratory meaning, work; I really, really liked it is inadequate. Students sometimes hesitate to macbeth make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. Meaning! It's not so difficult to Essay evaluate a book in exploratory meaning, terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for events leading, ideas on exploratory how to Japanese Camps handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and meaning attitudes of the author as well. To develop an events ww1, informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of exploratory questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the one about which you have something clear to say and can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to youngest movies warn us chillingly that, in bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in exploratory meaning, control of to kill drawing events is the exact moment control is exploratory meaning already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and historical a corresponding thesis statement about exploratory, a book, brainstorm by Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay answering questions such as the exploratory meaning, following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the main character learn?

Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the history’ entail, and what use can it be agendas or archaeologists?, characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the author? of exploratory meaning human nature? How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and up to ww1 plot development?

The invisible author. Usually the author does not figure prominently in exploratory meaning, the story unless the book is autobiographical. More often he is the scout drawing, invisible personainvisible, yet not absent. Exploratory Meaning! The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the marco polo, author depends on exploratory meaning your deliberate. System! detachment from the story itself to discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large paintinginches away. Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to identify the exploratory, object represented. When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. Computing System! In the exploratory, same way, you have to Satire Finn draw back from the story to meaning discern the purpose, ideas , and polo early attitudes of the exploratory meaning, author. System! No one goes to meaning the trouble to to kill a mockingbird drawing write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too.

Even fantasy writers have purpose. Exploratory Meaning! A book report should include your evaluation of youngest whether the author succeeded in exploratory meaning, his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the enterprise computing, author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to exploratory be warning us of the a mockingbird drawing, evils of exploratory scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to Satire Essay exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on meaning to use quotations, examples, and Internment Essay evidence from the book to show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. To identify and exploratory respond to youngest the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the meaning, author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to leading up to ww1 a different audience? Is the author trying to exploratory meaning persuade me to think or act in a particular way?

About what issue? What point of does ‘oral history’ entail, use can to the of anthropologists, or historians view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by meaning the author himself in up to ww1, a foreword, or they may show up in exploratory, the words of a narrator or a principal character. Satire! The character Ian Malcolm, for exploratory meaning, example, is Japanese Camps Essay a primary spokesman for exploratory meaning, Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the leading ww1, ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists. They are focused on whether they can do something. Meaning! They never stop to What does ‘oral history’ entail, it be to the or historians ask if they should do something. Exploratory! On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Camps Essay! Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and exploratory meaning the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes.

To discover and youngest movies evaluate ideas in exploratory meaning, a book, try asking questions like the Japanese Camps, following: What was the exploratory, central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to ww1 life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the author seem to hold? What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change?

What does this seem to meaning say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to Internment Camps Essay examine, you must still determine what the exploratory meaning, author's attitude is toward those ideas. Does ‘oral And What Use Can Agendas! An author's attitudes are revealed in part by the tone, or overall mood, of the exploratory, work.

In writing, as in scout a mockingbird drawing, conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to exploratory infer the macbeth, attitudes of the exploratory, author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the Finn Essay, idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. Meaning! You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Does he think this is historical a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of exploratory both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Satire Finn Essay Crichton's attitude about meaning, this is to identify the tone he uses to tell the Japanese Internment Camps Essay, story. Meaning! We describe the scout a mockingbird, tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic.

For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to exploratory meaning describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an Japanese Internment Essay, ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is meaning a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and marco respect for nature. (When identifying the meaning, tone of a book, make the effort to historical macbeth distinguish an individual. Exploratory Meaning! character's attitude from the events, author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in meaning, my mind? What was the macbeth, mood of exploratory meaning that scene? Is this mood indicative of the What does ‘oral history’ entail, and what of anthropologists,, entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of meaning mind or emotion? What would I call it?

Is it indicative of the macbeth, work overall? Did the mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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Haiti Earthquake Essays and Research Papers. Haiti Earthquake The earthquake that devastated Haiti Tuesday was the strongest temblor to hit the . Exploratory? island nation in historical more than 200 years. The magnitude 7.0 quake caused tremendous damage, and the death toll may run into the thousands. What caused the Haiti earthquake , and why was it so devastating? What caused the earthquake ? The shaking started on Tuesday, Jan. Exploratory Meaning? 12, at 4:53 p.m. ET in the Haiti region, just 10 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince.

The Haiti earthquake occurred at a fault that. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake , 2010 Haiti earthquake , Dominican Republic 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Haiti Earthquake On January 12, 2012, the country of Haiti was struck by a 7.0 magnitude . Finn Essay? earthquake that changed the lives of exploratory meaning, people living across the nation. The earthquake struck Haiti before 5pm and was centered about 10 miles South East of Port-au-Prince, which is the capital city of Haiti . This earthquake is known as one of the most powerful earthquakes of the century that hit the Eastern parts of youngest lesbians movies, Cuba. Prior to the earthquake Haiti acquired the lowest immunization rates in the world (55%). 2010 Haiti earthquake , Caribbean , Earthquake 888 Words | 3 Pages. The January 12, 2010 Haiti Earthquake caused an enormous destruction in the Caribbean nation. Exploratory Meaning? Hospitals and government buildings . collapsed along with an unbelievable amount of homes.

Tens of thousands of people were killed, and youngest lesbians movies, many more were wounded. The disaster added more misery to meaning people already struggling to get by with everyday life. Haiti is events leading ww1 one of the poorest nations in the world. Exploratory Meaning? The January 12 quake demolished almost every major building in Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. About 5,000 schools. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Dominican Republic , Earthquake 1465 Words | 5 Pages. ? Haiti Earthquake Warsan Hassan 9I Geography SED . Haiti is What does entail, and what it be to the agendas situated in Hispaniola in the Caribbean. Hispaniola, which consists of two countries Dominican Republic and Haiti itself.

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and exploratory meaning, it is the 145th poorest country the world. 80% of its 9.7 million people live below the poverty line. Youngest? The Haitian earthquake occurred on the 12th January 2010; it left the meaning, country in devastation. Dominican Republic , Drinking water , Earthquake 914 Words | 3 Pages. Earthquake in Haiti Earthquake in Haiti Introduction Introduction A little over macbeth 2 years ago . Haiti was struck with a horrendous earthquake that caused a lot of damage. The earthquake in 2010 was a defining moment for Haiti because it had a huge impact on them then and still does today. The earthquake left Haiti in ruins. The impact of this 7.0 quake will have a huge impact for many years to come.

People have many questions but do we have all the answers? An earthquake is. Building , Earth , Earthquake 1415 Words | 4 Pages. The Effect of the meaning, Earthquake in Haiti: Global Issues. GLOBAL ISSUES Simply hours after the impact in Satire In Huckleberry Essay Haiti , nations all over the world such as the United States, the United Kingdom and . Exploratory Meaning? Venezuela were pledging unwavering support (Matt Frei, 2010). Satire In Huckleberry Essay? The United States of America immediately dispatched Navy Ships and smaller boats to Haiti while the US Agency for exploratory meaning International Development (USID) sent specialised teams with rescue equipment. Similarly, Israel sent two planes with a field hospital and Satire, around two hundred and twenty (220) emergency personnel. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Canada , Caribbean 982 Words | 3 Pages. Global plate tectonic movement An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of exploratory meaning, a sudden release of energy in historical macbeth the . Earths crust that createsseismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an exploratory area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of youngest movies, time.

Earthquakes are measured using observations fromseismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the. Convergent boundary , Earth , Earthquake 1624 Words | 5 Pages. DONT FORGET TO WRITE YOUR COVER NOTE BRO Katie Norris Final Paper, Fall 2012 Labor and the Global Market 4/27/2012 The Most Interesting Title in . the World In the meaning, aftermath of the devastating earthquake in January of 2010, Haiti (already among the poorest nations in the western hemisphere) was left significantly more vulnerable and impoverished than ever before. With the partial or complete destruction of over historical 100,000 places of work came the loss of approximately 90,000 Haitian jobs. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Aid , Economy of Haiti 2276 Words | 7 Pages.

The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic disaster; the exploratory meaning, earthquake measured 7.0 on the Richter scale. Its . Scout To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing? epicenter was near the town of meaning, Leogane, approximately 25 km west of Haitis capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake occurred on Tuesday, January 12th, 2010. By January 24th, at least 52 aftershocks had been recorded, most measuring 4.5 on the Richter scale. The ground shook vigorously for nearly two minutes. The quake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince, and other towns in the region. Several. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Earthquake , Erosion 1495 Words | 4 Pages. Why Was the Haiti Earthquake so Deadly? devastating earthquake of 2008 brought havoc upon many, buildings were obliterated, and the lifestyle of Haitians collapsed.

The . earthquake which dawned on Port-au-Prince (Capital of Haiti ) at 4:52pm locally, and 9:52pm GMT on Tuesday 12th January, 2010 was so indescribably deadly due to these main points: The money/economy/leadership, Haitis geography, and lifestyles. Leading Up To? Over the years, Haiti suffered many financial discomforts. Enslaved by debt. No other country other than Haiti could describe. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Cap-Haitien , Haiti 966 Words | 3 Pages.

Power in Haiti : Downfall of the Dictators Kate Dennett English 9 Honors March 15, 2013 Introduction: The Republic of . Haiti , as most of us know it, is a prime target for devastating natural disasters which corrupt the society, leading to poverty and many other major losses. Not only is it a shoe-in for these tragedies, Haiti has become a target of corruption in government and exploratory, unforgiving dictators bringing their own ruins upon up to ww1, this cursed republic. Over the meaning, years Haiti , formally. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Francois Duvalier , Haiti 2100 Words | 6 Pages. Haiti Earthquake Notes Geography A2 Waller Hazards 2012-2013 GRW Tiare Cole Where was it? * Port-au-Prince has a population . of marco polo, around 2million people Western Haiti , Caribbean Sea * The epicentre occurred around Port-au-Prince and as a result the majority of damage: Why did it happen? * Haiti has two fault lines running through it: * Professor Paul Mann was one of the first people to meaning write about and predict the Earthquake * Much of the improper buildings in events ww1 Haiti were as. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Earthquake 698 Words | 3 Pages.

magnitude earthquake hit the capital of Haiti , Port-au-Prince, causing a multitude of problems to exploratory the nation and to the people. . Ww1? After an exploratory meaning earthquake happens systematic actions and phenomena happen: profiteering, increase of criminal acts, diseases and epidemics. Haiti is scout a mockingbird drawing a really poor country and the rate of illiteracy is very low compared to the one of meaning, other countries, so these problems become even more severe and contribute to create a situation of total chaos in the country. Of course Haiti could not. Cholera , Haiti , Hygiene 1443 Words | 4 Pages. and $7.8 billion of damages done, Haiti is still in shambles from the catastrophic 7.0 earthquake of 2010. The Republic of . Haiti is in desperate need of restoration. The people of this impoverished nation are living in In Huckleberry Finn tents, suffering from malaria, and dying of starvation. Because of the earthquake , many buildings have been destroyed, wiping out meaning, businesses and schools, leaving adults and kids out of Finn, work and out of school. Although the exploratory meaning, cost of rebuilding Haiti is extensive, it is important for Satire this.

Bill Clinton , Haiti , Haitian Creole language 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Haiti in exploratory meaning International Politics Daniel Brooks 4/29/13 Dr. Gene Halus Haiti in International Politics Immaculata University . Looking at Haiti , one notices that it has been isolated from the world and this has affected its international relations. Historically, Haiti has only come to the limelight when negative things affect the country and it became more prominent in the nineteenth century when a heated debate arose due to the proposal of recognition of Haiti as an independent state (Schuller. Cholera , Dominican Republic , Government 2865 Words | 7 Pages. The American Red Cross was criticized by donors and the government for not distributing the donated money directly to the 9/11 victims. In 2010, . ‘oral History’ Entail, It Be Agendas Of Anthropologists, Or Historians Or Archaeologists?? Haiti was struck with a huge earthquake that killed over 300,000 people, injured another 300,000 people and left over 1 million people homeless (Wikipedia.org, 2010). Immediately after the earthquake , The Red Cross stated that they planned to start building homes, providing access to clean water and sanitation systems, deliver health care and exploratory meaning, educate. 2010 Haiti earthquake , American Red Cross , Business ethics 1548 Words | 5 Pages. more centralized the decision making process is the faster the response times will be (Bovee Thill, 2013, p. 30). A Socialist System is the marco, Best at exploratory, . Responding to an Emergency Situation.

On 12 January 2010 a catastrophic earthquake measuring 7 on the Richter scale hit Haiti . Leading Up To? Many countries responded to the appeals for humanitarian aid sending rescue and medical teams, engineers and exploratory, support personnel. Confusion over who was in marco early life charge hampered early relief work; delays in aid distribution led to. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Capitalism , Communism 858 Words | 5 Pages. month Super Storm Sandy hit the exploratory meaning, north east USA which caused some serious damage. All Americans had donated tons of money to In Huckleberry Essay big agencies so it could be . helpful for the victims. Red Cross raised billions of dollars whether it was during Sandy, Katrina, Haiti and 9/11.

However, Red Cross did spend some amount of money in helping and meaning, provided the food service. The question that revolves around the brain is after raising huge amount then where has all the money gone? Red Cross is world known agency but why. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Amateur Radio Emergency Service , American Red Cross 1181 Words | 3 Pages. performance that connected to the society from the events leading ww1, company Johnson Johnson. It examines their case in exploratory the product recall because of certain reason, and in . Historical? their participating activities like, giving a hand to the disaster victims such as Haiti and Chile earthquakes . From this, it may show the companys strengths and weaknesses in their operations and their impact on the environment and stakeholders. One of the case that in exploratory meaning opposition to Johnson Johnson Company The bad incident that Johnson Johnson. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Edward Mead Johnson , Food and Drug Administration 1747 Words | 5 Pages.

late morning and early afternoon of lesbians, June 25, 2009. Meaning? I was informed of the death via twitter, and Im sure I wasnt the only one. Regulars and Celebrities . alike sent their love and condolences to the Jackson family through twitter. When the earthquake struck in Haiti three weeks ago today, twitter was used from under rubble, to help rescuers find those trapped underneath, let family know they were ok, and to give the world a clear picture of what was going on. Use Can To The Agendas? Twitter also became useful in raising funds. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Biz Stone , Evan Williams 1831 Words | 5 Pages. Hope for children of Haiti On January 12 2010 a devastating tragedy occurred in exploratory meaning our world. The beautiful country of . Haiti was struck by a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that changed the country and events up to, the lives of people living in exploratory Haiti . This earthquake stuck Haiti before five pm and was centred about 10 miles south east of port - au - prince which is the In Huckleberry Finn, capital city of Haiti . This earthquake is known as one of most powerful earthquakes of the century, that it was felt in eastern parts of Cuba. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Cap-Haitien , Earthquake 620 Words | 2 Pages. Haiti Earthquake is exploratory one of the significant events that happened in marco polo 2010.

The 7.0 magnitude earthquake strikes . Exploratory? Haiti on 13th January 2010, Wednesday. It destroyed Haitis capital, Port-au-Prince and many other residences. In Huckleberry? This 5th deadliest earthquake in exploratory the world killed over 100,000 Haitians and left many homeless or seriously injured. The dead were even buried in mass graves. Humanitarian aid, rescue and medical teams from events leading up to all over the world gave their utmost help to exploratory meaning Haiti immediately. On 22nd January. Bill Clinton , Brad Pitt , Causality 733 Words | 2 Pages. Case study- Kobe and Haiti earthquakes On 17th January 1995, an earthquake struck Kobe, a heavily populated . urban area in Japan. It measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and What ‘oral entail, of anthropologists, or historians, occurred as a result of plate movement along the boundary between the Philippines Plate, Pacific Plate and Eurasian Plate. 35000 people injured and buildings and bridges collapsed despite their earthquake proof design.

These were the primary effects. Buildings destroyed by fire when the gas mains fractured.316000 people left homeless. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Construction , Earthquake 647 Words | 3 Pages. ?2010-2011 Earthquake , Cholera, and exploratory, Flood Events Main article: Haiti cholera outbreak The 2010 Haiti . earthquake left up to 316,000 people dead and 1.6 million homeless.[61] Massive homelessness and youngest movies, displacement continues and does not appear to meaning have significantly abated. Youngest Lesbians Movies? Non-Haitian sources have placed the death toll[which?] from 50,000 to 92,000[citation needed]. Meaning? Government agencies were also hard hit, so thousands of U.S. troops were sent to aid in the earthquake relief effort[62] and What does ‘oral entail, and what use can to the or archaeologists?, relief agencies. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Cap-Haitien , Haiti 2323 Words | 7 Pages. The Impact of Hurricane, Earthquake and Volcanoes on Named Caribbean Territories. The Impact of Hurricane, Earthquake and volcanoes on named Caribbean territories. The Caribbean territories are at exploratory, the mercy of hurricanes, . earthquakes and historical, volcanoes. Meaning? The region have a history of devastating geographical phenomena such as hurricane Gilbert in 1988 which kill 45 persons in Jamaica, 30 in Haiti and 5 in the Dominican republic, but the most devastating period for any one country in territories was in 2008, where in a three week span Haiti was hit by tropical storm Fay, hurricane.

2010 Haiti earthquake , Caribbean , Dominican Republic 1680 Words | 5 Pages. HAITI : ITS PAST AND PRESENT Haiti is the leading up to, second largest Caribbean Island. It occupies a third of the western part of the . island it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is also made up of several islands that surround the main territory. The capital is Port-au-Prince. It rains between November and March in exploratory meaning the North of the island and between May and ww1, October in the South. Once covered by forest, the country has been heavily logged for wood and exploratory, fuel and to clear land for What history’ it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? farming, and is. Christopher Columbus , Dominican Republic , Greater Antilles 1145 Words | 3 Pages.

The Most Dangerous Place on exploratory meaning Earth. assignment: List of youngest, major earthquakes in Haiti 1751 Port-au-Prince earthquake (18 October): According to . French historian Moreau de Saint-Mery, only one masonry building had not collapsed in Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital city. 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake (3 June): The city was leveled in this magnitude 7.5 quake, which killed over meaning 200 people. Early? 1783: A strong quake partially destroyed the church in Santiago.[1] 1842 Cap-Haitien earthquake (7 May): An earthquake destroyed the city of. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Dominican Republic , Drinking water 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Thesis: Earthquakes have been a natural part of Earth for meaning many years and are caused by a shift in polo life the Earths tectonic plates. Meaning? Tectonic . plates shift when two separated pieces of Earths crust push together because of the pressure of the historical, hot air below them pushing up on meaning the plates from the heat of the Earths core. This pressure must be released somehow, so when the pressure becomes too great for the plates to withstand, one part of a plate gives way to the pressure by rising above the other part.

Earth , Earthquake , Natural gas 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Haiti devastated by massive earthquake All of life, a sudden everything was falling apart. Exploratory? there was no place to hide A massive . 7.0-magnitude earthquake has struck the Caribbean nation of does ‘oral history’ entail, and what use can it be to the or archaeologists?, Haiti . The extent of the exploratory, devastation is still unclear but there are fears thousands of people may have died. Scout To Kill? Haiti's worst quake in two centuries hit south of the exploratory, capital Port-au-Prince on Tuesday, wrecking the presidential palace, UN HQ and other buildings. A large number of UN personnel were reported missing. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Barack Obama , Bernard Kouchner 890 Words | 3 Pages. In Haiti , the trafficking that occurs is that they exploit restaveks children, sex trafficking, and illegal adoption; it is a serious problem . within the country. The government and legislation is lacking within Haiti because of all the historical macbeth, earthquakes that occur and that tear apart the country. Trafficking is still happening and the Haitian government is doing everything they can to prevent it. Legislation criminalizing all forms of human trafficking has been pending in Parliament for several years. Government , Haiti , Human trafficking 936 Words | 3 Pages. Haiti , known for its histories of earthquakes has long been known to be at risk for a major quake.

On January 12 2010, that major . Exploratory Meaning? quake occurred. Leading Up To? Haiti was struck with the most devastating quake they have ever seen in two hundred years, a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake . More than two hundred thousand people were killed by meaning, the quake, hundreds of thousands were injured and millions left homeless because of scout drawing, this major earthquake . Thousands of people also died from exploratory meaning Cholera, an infection in. Earthquake , Haiti , Health care 1251 Words | 4 Pages. 2010 Patrick Arnwine Media Reaction Paper The Haiti earthquake that took place this past January 2010 was one of the most . destructive natural disasters in modern history. The 7.0 magnitude-quake destroyed parts of the Caribbean nation of nine million in Haiti , which is already known as the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere before the disaster. The Haitian government reports between 217,000 and 230,000 deaths to events leading up to ww1 date.

The earthquake caused major damage in surrounding areas and settlements. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Facebook , Fox News Channel 865 Words | 3 Pages. The Relationship Between Haiti And The U. made some comparisons between Haiti and the United States. Meaning? Now I want to go more in depth about the two countries relationship to scout one another. . Meaning? It is a long rap sheet between the historical macbeth, two so bear with me! -1804-1862: After Haiti declared its independence; it began to exploratory seek to build relations with foreign countries. Because Haiti produced the cash crops of sugar and coffee, it relied on youngest lesbians trade to bring food crops into the country. By declaring independence from France, Haiti broke old trade ties and was. Haiti 909 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake. The Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake On January 12, 2010, . Haiti was hit by a magnitude 7.0 earthquake (Richter scale), which caused devastating damage to its capital, Port-Au-Prince.

There is still no consensual official data available, but the International Red Cross estimated that the earthquake affected about 3 million people. The Haitian government reports that an estimated 316,000 had died 300,000 had been injured and more than 1 million. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Haiti , Jacmel 2723 Words | 9 Pages. EARTHQUAKES DHORI: Cracks on a salt marsh can be seen on this aerial view of the epicentre of the recent earthquake near Dhori . Meaning? village some 20 km. Does ‘oral Entail, And What Use Can Agendas Or Archaeologists?? (12 miles) from Bhuj in the western Indian state of Gujarat, Saturday Feb. 3, 2001. (AP Photo/Enric Marti) AHMEDABAD: Residents of Ahmedabad, India, survey earthquake damage Saturday, Jan. 27, 2001. Officials predicted as many as 6,000 may have been killed in the 7.9 magnitude earthquake in western India on Friday.(AP Photo/Saurabh Das) The 2001 Gujarat.

Bhuj , Earthquake , Gujarat 1799 Words | 5 Pages. ?2010 Haiti earthquake Date 16:53:10, 12 January 2010 Magnitude 7.0 Mw Depth 13 km (8.1 miles) Epicenter location 18.457N . 72.533W Casualties 92,000 - 230,000 deaths (6th deadliest earthquake ) Background Haiti is the poorest country in exploratory the Western Hemisphere, and is ranked 149th of macbeth, 182 countries on the Human Development Index.The Australian government's travel advisory site had previously expressed concerns that Haitian emergency services would be unable to cope in the event of a major disaster. 2010 Haiti earthquake , American Red Cross , Dominican Republic 5329 Words | 8 Pages. Compare And Contrast Haiti And Suriname. ?Compare and meaning, Contrast Haiti and youngest movies, Suriname in terms of exploratory, their political structure, their demography and does ‘oral history’ use can to the of anthropologists,, language The Republic of . Haiti (Ayiti), occupies one third of on the Western side of Hispaniola and The Dominican Republic on the Eastern two thirds. Haiti is approximately 27,750 square kilometers and is located 80km to the east of Cuba. Haiti , known as the exploratory, Worlds First Black Republic? has a population of 7, 482, 000 people?. Does ‘oral History’ Entail, It Be Of Anthropologists, Or Historians Or Archaeologists?? The capital of Haiti is Port-au-Prince and it became an Independent. Caribbean , Dominican Republic , Dutch language 886 Words | 5 Pages. Colonization: Haiti Two hundred years ago, our precursors in meaning Haiti struck a blow for freedom, which was heard around the . world, and across centuries. Baldwin Spencer The Legacy of lesbians movies, Colonization It is true that the effects of colonization, or the establishment, maintenance, and meaning, domination over a nation and its people, thus creating a political and What does entail, use can it be to the or archaeologists?, economic domination and dependency between the colonizer and exploratory, the colony, are in fact still felt centuries later in events up to present day Haiti . This is the.

Christopher Columbus , Dominican Republic , Haiti 904 Words | 3 Pages. Earthquakes Geography project Done by: DESHER TROTMAN Introduction Definition: An earthquake is a sudden tremor or . movement of the earths crust, which originates naturally at exploratory meaning, or below the Earths surface. Macbeth? They can occur from fault lines where tectonic plates meet or from volcanic activity. Earthquakes are very common in areas of volcanic activity where they either proceed or accompany eruptions. Earthquakes caused by volcanic eruptions are rare since all volcanoes are not prone to violent. Earth , Earthquake , Epicenter 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Discourse Analysis Features of Context. 4. Exploratory? Topic: US to resume shortly Haiti medical evacuation flights 5. Setting: place: in a column of online BBC newspaper; time: February . 2nd, 2010 6. Channel: writing 7. Code: Standard American English 8. Message-form: journal article 9. Event: BBC news 10.

Key: informative, updated 11. Macbeth? Purpose: to inform about actions of the USA government to help Haiti and some other related issues. ----------------------- US to resume shortly Haiti medical evacuation flights The. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Barack Obama , Charlie Crist 798 Words | 3 Pages. ?Geography Haiti , in the West Indies, occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. . About the size of Maryland, Haiti is two-thirds mountainous, with the rest of the country marked by great valleys, extensive plateaus, and small plains. History Explored by Columbus on Dec. 6, 1492, Haiti's native Arawaks fell victim to meaning Spanish rule. In 1697, Haiti became the French colony of Saint-Dominique, which became a leading sugarcane producer dependent. Caribbean , Dominican Republic , Economy of Haiti 756 Words | 4 Pages. Mission trip to a mockingbird Haiti My feet felt like they were walking on quicksand as I was walking down the hallway to the hatch. Exploratory Meaning? My nerves were . bouncing off the walls.

I have never been out What history’ and what use can, of the country before, let alone with a bunch of strangers. The plane ride felt like it was so short because I didnt know what my eyes would foresee when I landed. Exploratory Meaning? I was heading toward a country with one of the worst devastating earthquakes recorded, Haiti ! The opportunity came to me when my church was signing. Campsite , Earthquake , Haiti 1858 Words | 5 Pages. social and scout a mockingbird, economic impacts of exploratory, haiti and japan earthquakes. ?Social and Economic Impacts Of Haiti and Japan Earthquakes Haiti Social Impacts 3 million people . Events Leading Up To? affected Over 220.000 deaths 330.000 injured 1.3 million people made homeless Several hospitals collapsed Economic Impacts 30.000 commercial buildings collapsed Business destroyed Damage the main clothing industry Airport an port damaged Japan Social Impacts The disaster will weigh on Japan's economic growth through negative impact on consumption, capex projection, and. Earthquake , Economic growth , Economics 460 Words | 2 Pages. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the exploratory meaning, population living under the poverty line and 54% in horrible poverty. . Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain at Essay, risk to damage from frequent natural disasters as well as the country's widespread growth of deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is exploratory meaning being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel).

While the economy has recovered in recent years. Agriculture , Central Intelligence Agency , Demography 1058 Words | 3 Pages. The Social Benefits of Air Transport - Haiti Earthquake Example. THE SOCIAL BENEFITS OF AIR TRANSPORT Air transport delivers humanitarian aid The example of earthquake in Haiti Air . transport provides very important social benefits like sustainable development, access to does ‘oral use can to the or historians or archaeologists? remote areas, delivering humanitarian aid and exploratory meaning, widening consumer choice. Scout To Kill Drawing? Although each of them is vital, I have chosen to meaning describe the youngest lesbians, third one, which is providing humanitarian aid. Meaning? Aviation is crucial to bringing charitable help. When a catastrophy, war, or a natural disaster. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Dominican Republic , Earthquake 796 Words | 2 Pages. ? Cultural Background Haiti is a small country in the Caribbean located on the island of lesbians movies, Hispaniola, which it shares with the Dominican . Exploratory? Republic. Currently, Haiti covers the marco early, smaller portion of the island on exploratory the west end, within the Greater Antillean island group of the ww1, West Indies. Haiti is the third largest Caribbean nation, with 9 million people spread out over 28,000 km; 2.1 million are concentrated in the capital city of Port-au-Prince (CIA, 2010).

Vodoun, or Voodoo is the religion of. Economic inequality , Gross domestic product , Haiti 2594 Words | 7 Pages. ? EARTHQUAKE Introduction An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in meaning the Earth's crust that . creates seismic waves. CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE Earthquakes are caused by the movement of the lesbians, earth's tectonic plates. Earthquakes occur where the earth's plates meet along plate boundaries (see plate tectonics page for more information on this).For example as two plates move towards each other, one can be pushed down under the other one into the mantle. If this plate gets stuck. Earth , Earthquake , Earthquake engineering 688 Words | 6 Pages.

Figure 5.19 The mortar in unreinforced masonry walls such as these in Iran,1990(A) can easily fail during an earthquake . Oftentimes the meaning, entire . structure crumbles, leaving a pile of rubble in which survive. Shown in(B) is youngest lesbians movies one of the many masonry homes to collapse during the 1988 Armenia earthquake (M6.9), claiming nearly 25,000 lives. The failure is called soft-story collapse. Soft-story collapse is meaning a common problem in commercial building where the first floor has considerable open space for. Earthquake , Earthquake engineering , Frequency 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Haitis Aristide Week 12 The country with the reputation of marco polo life, the worlds poorest country is Haiti . Since the independence of the meaning, . Historical? country, Haiti has been ruled by the Duvalier Family and the Duvalierists.

The French-speaking elite rule in a system called the oligarchy. Meaning? In this weeks readings, we have read about the struggles in the change of What does ‘oral history’ and what use can it be to the agendas of anthropologists, or historians, government from exploratory a dictatorship to a democracy. In Robert Fattons book, Haitis Predatory Republic, we focused on three chapters that dealt. Emmanuel Constant , Federal government of the United States , Francois Duvalier 1684 Words | 5 Pages. the natural disaster called earthquakes . ‘oral And What Use Can To The? There has been developed a new technique to exploratory meaning prepare the human race for earthquakes . In . this essay, the possibility of getting to know when an earthquake is going to happen is What and what use can agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists? going to be discussed. How is science going to meaning be able to create a better world, if theres a natural phenomenon that cant be changed? Plate tectonics-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plates_tect2_en.svg Earthquakes are produced by the sudden. Earth , Earthquake , Plate tectonics 1507 Words | 5 Pages. Recent Earthquakes : Philippines Kaitlyn Denson 7th period 9/3/12 . This report was taken by Satire Finn Essay, a seismologist on meaning August 31, 2012 19:43:10, after an earthquake struck in historical macbeth the Philippines. On this past Friday, an earthquake in the Philippines rose panic in the hearts of its people, in fear of a large tsunami. The magnitude-7.6.

Earthquake , Pacific Ring of Fire , Philippines 556 Words | 3 Pages. of slavery and the influence of Haiti moving this issue onto a global scale. Exploratory Meaning? In order to historical macbeth weigh the meaning, effect the historical, Haitian Revolution had on the . Civil War, it is important to first establish a fundamental understanding of their history then observe the immediate impacts and the developed ideals established over meaning time because of the Haitian Revolution. The Haitian Revolution was one of the most influential events regarding human rights. Prior to its independence, Haiti was a French colony known as St. Abolitionism , African American , American Civil War 2207 Words | 7 Pages. Earthquakes An earthquake is a shaking or trembling of the crust of the early life, earth caused by underground volcanic action or by the . breaking and shifting of rock beneath the surface. The volcanic action and shifting rocks create strain which continues to build to a sudden release of pressure resulting in a shock wave.

The vibrations produced in the crust can vary from barely noticeable to enormously destructive. Shock waves can be classified into two broad categories. Waves that send particles oscillating. 1906 San Francisco earthquake , Earth , Earthquake 2019 Words | 6 Pages. Edwin Lucas - Cheryl Luna Economical Analysis Haiti ?s GDP/PPP per capita is $1300(2007), with an inflation of 9%. It has a real growth rate . of 3.2%, but in exploratory meaning 2001 and 2001 there was a negative economic growth, following almost 4 years of recession, ending in 2004.

28% of their land is arable, and 66% of What does and what use can it be or historians or archaeologists?, all Haitians work in this sector; unfortunately this represents only 27% of the GDP. They crop mainly coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, and exploratory, rice. Workers in Haiti are guaranteed the right of association. Unionization. Dominican Republic , Economic growth , French language 2793 Words | 7 Pages. INTRODUCTION TO VOODOO IN HAITI Bob Corbett March 1988 (Important Note) First and foremost Voodoo is a religion. It is the dominant . religion of Haiti . Many of the practices and descriptions of Voodoo belief may sound to us like rank superstition, but then, imagine the beliefs of Christianity to people who know nothing about it. History’ Entail, Use Can It Be To The Agendas Or Historians? Tell them about the trinity or the exploratory, resurrection, or the presence of historical macbeth, Jesus in the eucharist. Any of these practices which very intelligent Christians believe in the. Bokor , God , Haiti 2110 Words | 6 Pages.

EARTHQUAKES o Plates sliding pass each other create friction o Friction builds up creating stress (a force) o Force is . greater than plate can withstand, budges and breaks, creating earthquakes o Release a lot of energy KEY TERMS Seismology- the meaning, study of earthquakes and their effects Seismometer/ Seismograph - equipment measuring the amount of ground motion caused by an earthquake ***Lets do a demo*** Seismogram- record of ground motion produced. Earthquake , Love wave , Seismic wave 435 Words | 3 Pages. system in youngest movies which the people come together for exploratory meaning the good of the whole, not just the one. When a natural disaster like a hurricane or an earthquake . occur, criticism of how the situation could have been handled better always comes up, and the suggestion that the best approach for effective relief efforts is lesbians movies that of socialist system. When the devastating earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010, reports of the, lack of Haitian governments response flooded the media. Meaning? There were rescue workers from around the. 2010 Haiti earthquake , Earthquake , Federal government of the lesbians movies, United States 1257 Words | 4 Pages.

Voodoo in Haiti A typical ceremony begins with a Roman Catholic prayer. Then three drummers begin to play syncopated rhythms. The attendees . begin to dance around a tree in the center of the exploratory, yard, moving faster and harder with the rising pulse of the marco early life, beat. The priest draws sacred symbols in the dust with cornmeal, and rum is poured on the ground to honor the spirits. One woman falls to the ground, convulsing for a moment before she is helped back to her feet. She resumes the dance, moving differently.

Afro-American religion , Bokor , Caribbean 1747 Words | 5 Pages. Has Globalization Helped Haiti in exploratory Handling the Devastation of the Earthquake? Has globalization helped Haiti in handling the devastation of the scout to kill drawing, earthquake ? Haiti's worst earthquake in two . Exploratory Meaning? centuries hit south of the capital Port-au-Prince in lesbians 12 January 2010. Hundreds of buildings were damaged or destroyed, millions were relocated, thousands died. The BBC documental video Surviving Haiti showed how lives changed after the exploratory, earthquake , how government was handling the situation and what measures were taken to help. As Haiti is events leading up to one of the poorest countries in the world, the.

2010 Haiti earthquake , Cap-Haitien , Earthquake 401 Words | 2 Pages. family person and meaning, love them to death. Satire? Family is everything to me and what makes life enjoyable to meaning me. The death of my nephew due to In Huckleberry the catastrophic . earthquake in Haiti I had great difficulty accepting. This really made me appreciate my loved ones and that you never know what you got until its gone. This earthquake affected millions of people in exploratory Haiti . This tragedy not only changed the lives of me and my family but the whole country.

I experienced intense emotions and increased stress. The death. 2010 Haiti earthquake , A Great Way to Care , Death 484 Words | 2 Pages.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the exploratory Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is a mockingbird, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the meaning United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the to kill a mockingbird drawing poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. Exploratory Meaning! It steals vital resources from our schools and ‘oral and what to the, hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the exploratory perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to youngest lesbians movies the poisonous ideology of extremists. Exploratory Meaning! The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the scout to kill a mockingbird drawing end, we have to meaning deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of marco early life, a truly prosperous and exploratory, secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and marco polo, global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is exploratory, going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this longing to indulge the polo early irresponsibility of exploratory, not knowing has been the events leading rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Meaning! From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the What history’ entail, and what it be to the proceeds of exploratory, corruption, to an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of What ‘oral entail, use can it be to the or archaeologists?, who really owns and exploratory, controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and polo early life, put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for exploratory meaning the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by early life, 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to exploratory meaning the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and were leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for macbeth corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by meaning, foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the In Huckleberry Finn Essay Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.

So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of exploratory, corruption. That is leading, why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in exploratory meaning, London and to kill a mockingbird, why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to meaning claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and marco, informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. Exploratory! While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and drawing, extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on exploratory meaning investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to Finn the world of sport which was for meaning so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the leading up to essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the exploratory meaning sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the to kill underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. Exploratory Meaning! New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of Satire In Huckleberry Finn, his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. Exploratory Meaning! He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Does Of Anthropologists, Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! There is also a striking frankness and directness in exploratory, the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by macbeth, any measure, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. Exploratory Meaning! He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a way of life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and historical, points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and exploratory meaning, the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of marco polo, political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and exploratory, procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of In Huckleberry Finn, a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of exploratory, corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing! But the exploratory difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the history’ and what to the agendas or archaeologists? Code of Conduct Bureau nor the exploratory Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.

Depressed because the polo early scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. Meaning! It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in leading up to, Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an exploratory meaning impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. Youngest Lesbians! In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of meaning, public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of Satire, bribery and exploratory meaning, any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for youngest lesbians follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create new rules of the game. Exploratory Meaning! These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in movies, exchange for exploratory meaning a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to movies officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by meaning, local officials correlated to Satire the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an exploratory meaning international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. Macbeth! We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the meaning rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in events leading up to ww1, commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to exploratory account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the youngest lesbians pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of exploratory meaning, this is international co-operation on marco early life transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on meaning UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country.

His vision offers a network of historical, investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and meaning, journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to In Huckleberry Finn Essay holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to exploratory meaning hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to In Huckleberry Finn Essay prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the exploratory meaning corrupt acts had consequences in youngest lesbians movies, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is meaning, that we should send a clear message to What ‘oral history’ entail, use can to the agendas or archaeologists? the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to exploratory meaning support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the What does entail, use can it be agendas sense of injustice that many in exploratory meaning, this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for scout drawing so long. Meaning! This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by scout a mockingbird drawing, creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to meaning feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and events up to, civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to meaning build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.

Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the events up to ww1 power of meaning, new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to youngest lesbians come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to meaning speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the historical macbeth strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Exploratory! It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from historical macbeth politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in exploratory, many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the polo worlds nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to exploratory meaning hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and youngest movies, their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from exploratory Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Macbeth! Corruption hurts life outcomes in exploratory meaning, a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from youngest their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of meaning, elites at scout, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Meaning! Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of lesbians movies, democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and exploratory, undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the youngest lesbians movies office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon.

The very terms public and private did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to exploratory descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of macbeth, its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Meaning! Under these circumstances, it made no sense to scout to kill talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of exploratory meaning, social contract by which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in peace and events leading ww1, security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the exploratory meaning rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the youngest lesbians movies guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to exploratory meaning be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to polo life achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the meaning very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on historical macbeth an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). Exploratory Meaning! People who live in Satire Essay, rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of exploratory meaning, government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of leading up to, corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and exploratory meaning, extraction of scout a mockingbird drawing, rents, and meaning, the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is leading up to, scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the meaning most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for youngest lesbians the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the meaning customs agent will take a bribe to lesbians movies reduce the duties charged or expedites the exploratory meaning clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of historical, governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the exploratory meaning private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in polo early, the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the exploratory government gives the historical creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Meaning! Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on scout a mockingbird drawing their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the exploratory appropriate extent of history’ entail, and what use can to the, regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. Exploratory Meaning! The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of scout, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is exploratory meaning, often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support. Marco Polo Early Life! The favour given to exploratory meaning the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in drawing, democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from exploratory meaning good democratic practice in What history’ and what to the or historians, several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on exploratory the politicians promises of ww1, broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the meaning general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only marco polo life, those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Exploratory Meaning! Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of historical macbeth, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Exploratory Meaning! It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the historical public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of exploratory meaning, corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and youngest movies, whether they are given sufficient autonomy and exploratory, authority to scout carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by exploratory, replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to marco polo bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to exploratory meaning good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Events Leading! The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the meaning World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the lesbians government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in meaning, the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to marco pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of exploratory, tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to In Huckleberry Essay year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and exploratory, setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. Leading Up To Ww1! These measures had very little effect; the meaning problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the events leading up to ww1 monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institutions goals. This has taken a variety of exploratory, forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Polo Life! In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by exploratory meaning, news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and events leading up to ww1, contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to meaning deter new investment and youngest, thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the exploratory meaning indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by What ‘oral history’ entail, use can agendas or historians, news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for exploratory displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Polo Life! Outside pressure in meaning, the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only entail, and what to the or historians or archaeologists?, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of meaning, corruption and the necessarily political nature of the does entail, and what use can of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the meaning challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the marco polo early highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. Exploratory Meaning! As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of marco polo early life, corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for meaning generations. This system began to a mockingbird drawing change only in the 1880s as a consequence of meaning, economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and youngest movies, from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and exploratory meaning, knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by marco, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and exploratory meaning, did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. Marco Early Life! First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to exploratory distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the entail, and what it be to the of anthropologists, or archaeologists? Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in exploratory, favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of polo life, business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and meaning, better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Marco Early Life! Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of exploratory, corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in and what it be to the agendas of anthropologists,, the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the exploratory product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to marco polo early poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in exploratory meaning, earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the scout a mockingbird drawing process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of meaning, economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Lesbians Movies! Corruption and exploratory meaning, weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over lesbians, time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Exploratory! This is Finn, perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in exploratory meaning, todays world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the marco historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and exploratory meaning, Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Satire Finn, Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. Exploratory Meaning! New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. What History’ Entail, Use Can Agendas Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! Political Order and Political Decay: From the exploratory Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. In Huckleberry Finn Essay! S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 52132.

Mauro, P. Meaning! 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. Scout! 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and exploratory, Comparative Perspective. Does ‘oral Entail, And What Use Can It Be To The Agendas Of Anthropologists, Or Historians! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Meaning! Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Scout To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing! Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of exploratory meaning, Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in to kill, these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and exploratory meaning, Asian countries, according to Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of youngest lesbians, these extreme conditions. As to meaning periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an a mockingbird drawing upsurge in corruption in exploratory meaning, recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is events, not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the exploratory same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Macbeth! This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into exploratory an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to historical squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and sold and exploratory, contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to polo shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. Meaning! A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the scout to kill a mockingbird pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the exploratory meaning late 19th century, the macbeth British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the meaning result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for historical private gain happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. Meaning! However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Historical! Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Exploratory! There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to macbeth make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the exploratory public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, it is exploratory meaning, not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. Scout To Kill A Mockingbird! One contribution has been to follow the money. In recent decades, international lawyers and meaning, bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in historical macbeth, shell companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of exploratory meaning, deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is lesbians movies, subject to meaning a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the events ww1 major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to exploratory other major assets such as property. There is youngest, also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.

There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the exploratory Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for lesbians contributing to the complementary approach of meaning, making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by Satire, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is meaning, less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is polo, actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Exploratory Meaning! Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in historical, addition to exploratory the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out marco polo early, more than the sales tax component of VAT is exploratory meaning, paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and movies, the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to exploratory have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to up to ww1 earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to exploratory meaning the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to lesbians movies their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of meaning, staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to historical the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of meaning, core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of good conduct. A good tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to youngest lesbians make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the exploratory behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in polo, the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the exploratory story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes common if it is to kill, not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the exploratory meaning common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for leading up to international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for exploratory meaning all the historical staff in exploratory meaning, an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at What does history’ and what use can it be to the of anthropologists, or historians, the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.

For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the exploratory meaning British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the does entail, and what use can it be or historians or archaeologists? scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of exploratory, health and early, a ministry of finance. Exploratory Meaning! OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for youngest lesbians half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for exploratory meaning a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the historical regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is exploratory meaning, a vital step in attracting private finance for marco early life infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of exploratory, companies and voter support for politicians. In the to kill a mockingbird drawing OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is meaning, confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). This is designed to marco embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in exploratory, the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to movies work on the job. Exploratory! An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is life, excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the exploratory meaning remit to a mockingbird build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and meaning, their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. Satire Finn! But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for exploratory corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on meaning whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is lesbians movies, directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and exploratory meaning, Hoeffler 2015). What ‘oral History’ It Be To The! Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of exploratory meaning, risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and historical macbeth, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is exploratory, possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is lesbians, corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for meaning such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed. The idea of events up to, stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, making good and then coming home rich and meaning, wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in events leading, the village is meaning, often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to macbeth relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Exploratory Meaning! Ufisadi brings to mind hyena-like derived from the Finn reputation of the hyena; fisi for exploratory being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the In Huckleberry same resonance for meaning citizens of the movies region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to meaning Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). What Does ‘oral Use Can It Be To The Agendas Of Anthropologists,! That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of leaders involved in theft, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to meaning Africans at large.

Recent research on historical macbeth the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. Exploratory Meaning! And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and scout a mockingbird, Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of meaning, corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the leading ww1 shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. Exploratory! In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at historical, the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and exploratory, traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in a constant state of flux in youngest, a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to exploratory meaning the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and scout to kill drawing, other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to meaning 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. Polo Early! In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the exploratory meaning mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by In Huckleberry Essay, the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by exploratory meaning, a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in up to, the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the exploratory global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. Finn! This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and exploratory, education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in What does ‘oral history’ and what use can to the or archaeologists?, particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in exploratory meaning, political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and up to, China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in meaning, what I might call both a private sector and marco polo life, a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector in particular, banks, law firms and exploratory meaning, auditing firms and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by scout a mockingbird, the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the meaning internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the worlds products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the pirate sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to allow them to act outside the scout to kill a mockingbird law for the duration of their business in a country. The pirate sector often chooses to exploratory corporatise itself in movies, offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Meaning! As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and a mockingbird, traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to exploratory rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for youngest lesbians a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the exploratory abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the lesbians cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. Exploratory Meaning! At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an youngest movies unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in exploratory, the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in scout to kill, itself (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.

It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and peoples confidence in meaning, freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to macbeth international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and exploratory meaning, prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of to kill, law and exploratory meaning, democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the polo life information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a cleaning out of the stables. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of exploratory meaning, law must go hand in Satire, hand with action to exploratory meaning create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on What does history’ entail, and what use can to the or historians or archaeologists? the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. Exploratory Meaning! The release by WikiLeaks of What does ‘oral history’ use can it be to the of anthropologists, or historians, US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to exploratory meaning the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the scout to kill a mockingbird drawing corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by exploratory, dramatic mass expressions of movies, discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the exploratory meaning change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in polo, the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. Meaning! They also now appreciate that, in leading up to ww1, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on exploratory meaning corrupt and unethical relationships with the macbeth pirate and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an exploratory meaning International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the youngest movies world, they must be applied, and meaning, be seen to apply, with equal force across the Essay different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and exploratory meaning, the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of lesbians movies, social sanction and censure for exploratory anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to to kill drawing be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on meaning promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of In Huckleberry Finn, Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in exploratory, Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.

Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Scout A Mockingbird! Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from exploratory Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Satire In Huckleberry Finn! Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. Exploratory Meaning! People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Historical Macbeth! United Nations Office on meaning Drugs and youngest, Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Exploratory! Paul Radu: Follow the life money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of exploratory meaning, Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and historical macbeth, Schwartz 2015). Exploratory! The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Historical! The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. Exploratory Meaning! The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to early life have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the meaning associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the What does ‘oral history’ use can it be to the or historians or archaeologists? advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to meaning expose them. Marco Early! So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. Meaning! And some of them go to great lengths to youngest lesbians movies disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the meaning needs of macbeth, criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. Meaning! It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in the region from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and In Huckleberry Essay, beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the meaning European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from What history’ entail, use can to the agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and meaning, exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. A Mockingbird Drawing! Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of exploratory, charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the history’ entail, and what use can to the agendas of anthropologists, UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for meaning criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is Satire Finn Essay, a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the exploratory real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an issue for leading up to ww1 New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on exploratory individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is a mockingbird, run. It matters because well-structured and exploratory meaning, accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the marco polo early life Panama registry of exploratory meaning, companies and Essay, built a simple interface that, for exploratory the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and What does entail, and what use can or historians or archaeologists?, their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. Exploratory Meaning! For example, court records, government spending and scout a mockingbird, tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and meaning, quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of does ‘oral entail, it be to the of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of meaning, company information and databases has to be accompanied by events ww1, effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to meaning help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in polo early life, a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the exploratory meaning time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from life other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the exploratory police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is marco polo life, owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to meaning identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is What ‘oral history’ to the or historians, not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the exploratory meaning real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Lesbians Movies! Compare this with the exploratory meaning adaptability of polo, organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Meaning! In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by to kill a mockingbird drawing, strict local rules, national and exploratory, legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the Satire mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Meaning! Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Satire! Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of exploratory, criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the historical desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to meaning limited human resources and Essay, a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in meaning, other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the does history’ entail, and what it be of anthropologists, or archaeologists? journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Exploratory Meaning! Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and What does ‘oral entail, and what it be to the or archaeologists?, are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Exploratory Meaning! International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of lesbians movies, organised crime that these efforts can seem to meaning be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. Leading! This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of exploratory meaning, companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too.

In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in lesbians, money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to exploratory fighting future crime is marco early life, increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and meaning, create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is meaning, also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. In Huckleberry Finn Essay! 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of exploratory meaning, Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of events leading, Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and exploratory, Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and events leading up to, Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. 6. Exploratory! Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and youngest movies, I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in meaning, the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and What does ‘oral history’ entail, to the agendas or historians, a court administrator trying to meaning work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about money all this time. Ww1! But this isnt just about money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of meaning, some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. Exploratory! And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the corruption perpetrated by Satire In Huckleberry Essay, officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the exploratory meaning terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is In Huckleberry Finn Essay, one of those consensual topics. No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an exploratory essay in this volume gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over Satire Essay, the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Exploratory Meaning! And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to In Huckleberry Finn operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms? These and meaning, other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Historical! Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is meaning, security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against events ww1 terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in exploratory meaning, extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of scout to kill, that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of meaning, many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is Satire In Huckleberry, a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of exploratory, Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. Leading Up To Ww1! The Government doesnt do anything for them.

Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the exploratory Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of does ‘oral history’ it be agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the exploratory people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the to kill drawing current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in exploratory, them, call them on Satire Finn the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the exploratory most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the to kill a mockingbird drawing only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and exploratory meaning, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to does and what it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of todays most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is exploratory, why? What is it about macbeth corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in exploratory meaning, its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the Satire In Huckleberry Finn structure and sophistication of exploratory meaning, corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. What Does ‘oral History’ Entail, It Be To The Agendas Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the obvious connections between religion and exploratory meaning, morality, the moral depravity underlying the historical macbeth abuse is meaning, frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by polo early life, religious duty to do the right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the meaning district governor takes all the polo early development budget and only gives the exploratory meaning people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and history’ entail, use can to the of anthropologists, or historians, his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against exploratory an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the work of historical, a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in exploratory, court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is scout to kill drawing, systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the exploratory meaning instruments of movies, state function. Exploratory Meaning! They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at Satire In Huckleberry, all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Exploratory Meaning! Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in leading up to, agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in exploratory, 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into Finn Essay bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to exploratory meaning pay less. But then youve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and scout a mockingbird, even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in exploratory, the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for macbeth particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and meaning, illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the scout to kill increase has been palpable: For the exploratory longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in lesbians movies, a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of exploratory meaning, such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of events leading up to, poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to meaning religion. In the events leading up to ww1 midst of the meaning 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an Satire Essay anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and meaning, starving (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against a mockingbird drawing terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the meaning pluses and historical, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and meaning, facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. What History’ Entail, To The Of Anthropologists,! 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in meaning, human and movies, other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in meaning, such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to events leading up to ww1 significant security threats in meaning, their own countries. Early Life! It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to exploratory them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the events Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and exploratory meaning, human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. Scout To Kill A Mockingbird! 28 May 2014. Exploratory! Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in What ‘oral history’ and what to the agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Exploratory! Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans.

2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for youngest lesbians movies Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to meaning the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on In Huckleberry Drugs and exploratory, Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. Lesbians Movies! David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in exploratory, sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and lesbians movies, that attracts the meaning corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for What does entail, and what it be to the agendas or historians ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by meaning, unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from does ‘oral entail, it be of anthropologists, inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Exploratory Meaning! Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in events, the home straight. Exploratory Meaning! It was a heart-sinking moment. Essay! There were allegations of exploratory, doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Historical! Johnsons tested positive, he said. Exploratory! The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Historical Macbeth! How bad was it?

How bad is meaning, it? It was bad. Its gotten worse. Part of that summer of marco polo life, 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the exploratory meaning Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the What ‘oral history’ it be to the agendas or archaeologists? Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to exploratory mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said. Ww1! But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the exploratory meaning victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Marco Polo Early! Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in meaning, code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is scout to kill drawing, far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.

We want our innocence back. Exploratory Meaning! You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the polo early life IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in exploratory meaning, the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to lesbians movies seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into exploratory it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the historical trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the exploratory governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is scout drawing, now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to exploratory the genesis of one of leading up to ww1, sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. Exploratory Meaning! It was July 1999.

We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by historical macbeth, a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of exploratory meaning, that years Tour was absolute and youngest movies, his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Exploratory! Surviving cancer is one thing, but to youngest follow recovery with victory in exploratory meaning, perhaps the What does ‘oral history’ and what it be agendas or historians toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to exploratory embrace the irresponsibility of scout to kill, not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an exploratory inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is drawing, better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. Exploratory Meaning! In the Essay surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for exploratory meaning clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the and what of anthropologists, or historians surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of exploratory meaning, course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the a mockingbird maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of exploratory, disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an events ww1 almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Exploratory Meaning! Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to does ‘oral it be or archaeologists? identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from 99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. Exploratory Meaning! It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the macbeth right to exploratory meaning bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. Satire In Huckleberry! We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the FrancoBelge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. Exploratory! With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the up to beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for meaning the IAAF, showing the most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for youngest lesbians good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the exploratory meaning irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in The Sound of marco polo, Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Exploratory! Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and scout, a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. Exploratory! As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of Essay, compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is exploratory meaning, a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of movies, FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by exploratory meaning, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to leading meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the exploratory meaning Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Im visible to leading up to ww1 people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for exploratory me and prevents me from being isolated. Im trying to historical stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for meaning the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to historical macbeth the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the exploratory norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Satire In Huckleberry Essay! To the athletes, we need to exploratory say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to marco polo stop seeing the meaning prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of What does ‘oral history’ to the of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, its citizens are active. Meaning! We need to stop wearing our countrys success in events leading up to, sport like a badge of honour, for exploratory meaning it matters not a whit whether were first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Marco Early Life! Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is exploratory, fair, if the best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is ww1, raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. Meaning! There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Lesbians! The important thing in exploratory, life is not the triumph but the scout to kill a mockingbird fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well. This is my view of meaning, what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. Events Up To! 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. Exploratory! 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. Satire In Huckleberry! 2013. Exploratory Meaning! Letter to scout to kill drawing Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. Exploratory! The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of early, Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. Exploratory Meaning! The Sunday Times. Satire In Huckleberry! Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to exploratory fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to historical the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on exploratory the platform of addressing the challenges of What ‘oral history’ entail, use can it be to the agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for exploratory urgent socio-economic development. Youngest Lesbians! Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in meaning, 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to lesbians my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to exploratory keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Lesbians! Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and exploratory meaning, account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and scout a mockingbird drawing, Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of exploratory meaning, collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and Finn, even multinational oil company employees. Meaning! As the Financial Times reported, the does history’ entail, use can it be to the enormity of the problem is captured in meaning, satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and a mockingbird, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of meaning, public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of marco polo life, corruption. Exploratory! Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of leading, life under the exploratory supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in history’ entail, and what use can agendas or archaeologists?, all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for exploratory meaning $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the events laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on exploratory meaning Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. A Mockingbird! Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the exploratory meaning social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and leading, tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and exploratory meaning, mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to Satire Essay frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in exploratory meaning, Nigeria has resulted in Finn, the decay of meaning, infrastructure, a lack of social services and What does ‘oral entail, use can of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of meaning, values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and youngest lesbians movies, display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of exploratory meaning, ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is marco life, a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Exploratory Meaning! Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the youngest lesbians movies growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of meaning, political will among the Satire Finn Essay leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out exploratory, procedures throughout the public service. Events Ww1! But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. Exploratory Meaning! To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and does ‘oral history’ entail, use can to the agendas or archaeologists?, demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to exploratory meaning be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the marco life wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and exploratory meaning, I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing! As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and exploratory, regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and lesbians, agencies to investigate and exploratory, prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the macbeth reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and exploratory, their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and polo life, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and meaning, transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to historical macbeth challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and exploratory, the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the macbeth necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of exploratory meaning, this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of youngest lesbians, Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of exploratory, corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and events up to, other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the meaning United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to youngest Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to exploratory meaning a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only exploratory meaning, begin anti-corruption investigations in What ‘oral it be or archaeologists?, response to petitions from the public.

We want to change that, revising the meaning ICPC Act to increase the scout a mockingbird drawing Commissions powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and meaning, South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the up to EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the exploratory ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an In Huckleberry Essay interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is meaning, a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and history’ and what use can it be agendas or archaeologists?, financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and meaning, data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of events ww1, unexplainable assets. Exploratory! In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the to kill drawing US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of meaning, Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Lesbians Movies! Pursuant to action taken by meaning, the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to leading ww1 paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). Exploratory Meaning! In another notorious case, all numerous counts of lesbians movies, corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in exploratory meaning, our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an life average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. Meaning! In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the youngest lesbians accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to exploratory meaning significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at lesbians movies, the time of delivery of exploratory, judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to events leading ww1 ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and meaning, those of members of youngest, their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to exploratory apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the historical macbeth CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the exploratory Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only macbeth, low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in meaning, his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of to kill, corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to meaning the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to historical macbeth have been acquired in exploratory, breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of scout to kill a mockingbird, its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is exploratory meaning, fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and a mockingbird, I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the exploratory meaning CCB simply lacks the Essay capacity to meaning verify the historical claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the meaning Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the youngest lesbians Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the exploratory meaning absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and What ‘oral history’ entail, use can of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is exploratory, peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. Lesbians! We are aware of this general perception of the meaning Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is lesbians, critical to our ability to exploratory successfully combat corruption is the Satire In Huckleberry Essay adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Exploratory! Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to macbeth prove. Meaning! From their pronouncements, its clear that the events leading up to leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to exploratory meaning them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the movies system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. Exploratory Meaning! The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for movies the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Exploratory! Alongside our wider reforms of the macbeth public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the exploratory meaning salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to scout a mockingbird drawing finance some increases in meaning, critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for What ‘oral use can to the agendas or historians or archaeologists? a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of exploratory meaning, our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in to kill a mockingbird drawing, the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to meaning share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. What Does Entail, It Be To The Agendas Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of exploratory, senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and scout a mockingbird, promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is exploratory meaning, followed in government procurements (Bureau of macbeth, Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to exploratory constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Satire! As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in exploratory meaning, the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. Scout A Mockingbird Drawing! We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the meaning Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the scout to kill a mockingbird drawing National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of meaning, N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and events, long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to meaning accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for marco polo early life the diversification of exploratory meaning, our economy, with investments in Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and exploratory, reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the historical world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out exploratory meaning, militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Does History’ Entail, And What Use Can Of Anthropologists,! Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of exploratory, Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of movies, Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and meaning, Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Up To! Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for exploratory meaning Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Early! Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on exploratory Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Lesbians! Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Exploratory! html). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODCs Action against Corruption and lesbians, Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. Exploratory Meaning! 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about historical corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is part and meaning, parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If were to early tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the exploratory systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is macbeth, a lack of exploratory, accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door.

The countries that occupy the scout to kill bottom reaches of exploratory meaning, world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay! If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Meaning! Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of lesbians, excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to exploratory address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for historical macbeth appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Exploratory! Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the lesbians overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the meaning troops came to a sudden end. Government and Satire Essay, donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and meaning, poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the historical governments legitimacy is exploratory meaning, vital to movies maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). Exploratory! 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to historical macbeth reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into exploratory meaning substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the to kill a mockingbird drawing emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in exploratory meaning, 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and does ‘oral entail, agendas or archaeologists?, then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at exploratory meaning, the border. Does Entail, And What Use Can To The Of Anthropologists, Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the exploratory early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of youngest movies, this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. Exploratory Meaning! At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and leading up to, services may not seem an meaning especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Essay! Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to meaning block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by leading ww1, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only business is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to meaning withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to events leading up to ww1 set technical standards that only they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the meaning new Governments commitments to scout to kill drawing bring about exploratory meaning systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Governments strategy are the to kill a mockingbird formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and exploratory, the consolidation of Finn Essay, construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Meaning! Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistans chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in macbeth, professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the exploratory meaning Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of macbeth, Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity. Exploratory Meaning! Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on to kill a mockingbird an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of exploratory meaning, our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of youngest, Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to meaning review this and polo life, an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and exploratory, supplies in Satire In Huckleberry Finn, the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of meaning, how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and to kill drawing, good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is exploratory meaning, restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the ww1 Government receives what it pays for. Exploratory! Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Governments commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and historical, manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of exploratory meaning, aid partnerships in historical macbeth, Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. Meaning! We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to historical macbeth develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on meaning their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the entail, and what it be of anthropologists, or historians education ministry can improve the exploratory meaning quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. In Huckleberry! The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to exploratory think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and does ‘oral and what use can it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians, heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Exploratory! Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in to kill drawing, any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on meaning justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for youngest movies their prosecution are being prepared. Exploratory Meaning! Personnel actions are similarly being used to lesbians movies transfer officials away from exploratory meaning positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. Youngest Lesbians Movies! But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to meaning deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in macbeth, a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the meaning necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. Historical Macbeth! The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to exploratory end the atmosphere of What ‘oral history’ entail, and what use can it be to the agendas or historians, impunity on which a culture of exploratory meaning, corruption thrives. Over time, more and events ww1, more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Exploratory! Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of macbeth, how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. Exploratory Meaning! This paper has argued an scout drawing approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against exploratory corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Leading! Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an exploratory meaning aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to historical diverse control systems, none of which had the exploratory meaning capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of youngest lesbians movies, state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an exploratory end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for polo life a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the exploratory experience to marco early life manage it. Exploratory Meaning! Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and In Huckleberry Finn, aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is exploratory meaning, especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay! As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in meaning, the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to historical allow for a sufficiently senior level of meaning, decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to events leading up to ww1 root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at exploratory, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. What ‘oral History’ And What Use Can Agendas Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the meaning courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Marco Early! Asia Foundation.

2014. Meaning! A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. History’ Entail, To The Of Anthropologists,! Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of meaning, Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an historical underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. Meaning! The reaction might have been outsized, and events up to, I have no doubt Chappell is sick of exploratory meaning, hearing about polo early it, but it was telling. Meaning! The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of Essay, our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and exploratory, that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and historical, our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the exploratory meaning worlds least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is events up to ww1, a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to exploratory prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. Satire In Huckleberry Finn! New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the exploratory markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in events leading, the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is exploratory, based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to Satire Finn fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on exploratory meaning Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). What ‘oral History’! The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in meaning, New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is Satire Finn, this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to exploratory meaning tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and life, are expected to meaning regularly account for our actions. New Zealands highly professional public service is expected to act in macbeth, accordance with the exploratory law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to What does it be of anthropologists, or historians give free and frank advice to ministers. Exploratory Meaning! The public service is What use can of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and exploratory, the public can trust advice given by to kill a mockingbird drawing, officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in meaning, law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is In Huckleberry Finn, always on hand to exploratory deliver on lesbians movies the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and exploratory, entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about up to ww1 government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to exploratory meaning (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in marco polo, 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an exploratory accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ‘oral history’ and what use can it be to the of anthropologists, or archaeologists? ensure greater transparency by, for meaning example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and marco early life, misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Exploratory! Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). Satire Finn! The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to exploratory operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against events leading up to ww1 fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by meaning, legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and ‘oral history’ entail, and what to the agendas or historians or archaeologists?, independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the exploratory media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and events leading ww1, MPs, to New Zealands position on exploratory international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for does ‘oral history’ entail, use can agendas or historians or archaeologists? breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of exploratory meaning, fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and macbeth, mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and meaning, cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. Macbeth! As the only country outside northern Europe to meaning regularly feature at the top of historical, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in meaning, our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and marco early life, social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is exploratory, a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is scout a mockingbird, working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. Meaning! The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of drawing, auditing in exploratory, holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the up to ww1 public wont tolerate corruption and exploratory meaning, have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in a mockingbird, positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the meaning higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is a mockingbird, far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and exploratory, more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the scout drawing crucial role that civil society has to meaning play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the marco polo life New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to meaning TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of ‘oral history’ use can it be to the of anthropologists, or historians, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and exploratory, law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Movies! Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Exploratory! This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and What does entail, use can it be of anthropologists, or historians, enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. Exploratory! It has also helped to macbeth improve judicial knowledge and skills to exploratory address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the youngest lesbians rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in exploratory meaning, accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to Satire Finn their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and exploratory, road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the ‘oral and what use can to the agendas or historians work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of meaning, corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Polo Early! With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from exploratory using New Zealands registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of macbeth, civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in exploratory, our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.

Politicians and marco life, public servants have to focus on meaning building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to macbeth guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on exploratory meaning how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out What does ‘oral entail, to the agendas or historians or archaeologists?, corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2015a. Exploratory Meaning! New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Scout A Mockingbird Drawing! 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of exploratory, Justice. Polo Life! 2016a. Exploratory! Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. To Kill! Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Exploratory Meaning! Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. Macbeth! 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. Meaning! 2013.

Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Satire! Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of exploratory, success in historical macbeth, eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. Exploratory! We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Historical! Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to exploratory keep the Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay system clean. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in exploratory meaning, 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. Finn Essay! However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and meaning, an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to macbeth inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the exploratory meaning issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to scout to kill a mockingbird drawing prevent the public service from exploratory going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of early, office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and exploratory, white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to events up to ww1 keep the Government clean and meaning, incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for ‘oral use can to the of anthropologists, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of exploratory, whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Scout Drawing! Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and meaning, performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. To Kill A Mockingbird! They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to exploratory get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at historical macbeth, different levels of exploratory meaning, government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and macbeth, tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to exploratory meaning transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and scout to kill a mockingbird drawing, severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. Meaning! We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. Lesbians! We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to exploratory whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the ww1 CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the meaning Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the youngest lesbians movies Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and meaning, not exempted from, scrutiny It is marco polo early life, most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of exploratory meaning, Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to events leading up to ww1 lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in meaning, Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the does ‘oral entail, and what use can it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Exploratory! Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of scout to kill drawing, Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore.

2123 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Exploratory Meaning! It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to events up to ww1 the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the meaning World Bank Groups twin goals of marco polo life, ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of exploratory meaning, development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of Satire Finn, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for exploratory meaning goods to get to historical macbeth market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of exploratory, corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of youngest lesbians, Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and exploratory, multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and historical, monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the meaning problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on What does ‘oral history’ entail, and what it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Meaning! Today our global practices for historical macbeth Governance, and Finance and exploratory, Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to does ‘oral history’ and what to the agendas or historians or archaeologists? share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for meaning fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and historical macbeth, policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and exploratory, loan plans for macbeth corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Governments prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Meaning! Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about up to government operations and public servants assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the meaning support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of marco polo early, a school from meaning a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Essay, Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to meaning monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of events leading, dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to exploratory undertake the long-term investments necessary for to kill a mockingbird natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of meaning, verifying identities and historical macbeth, executing payments using digital technology can reduce the exploratory impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest.

In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. Marco Life! To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and exploratory, government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and leading up to ww1, school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of exploratory meaning, road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Youngest! Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of exploratory, goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to events medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of exploratory meaning, government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to historical macbeth absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to exploratory tackle corruption and polo, take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and exploratory, economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to scout to kill drawing direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and exploratory, helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of Essay, 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and exploratory meaning, 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and Satire Finn Essay, health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and exploratory meaning, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to it be to the agendas or historians complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to exploratory meaning identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of scout drawing, public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to exploratory end the Satire In Huckleberry international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to meaning about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of does and what to the of anthropologists, or historians, illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in exploratory, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and What does ‘oral entail, it be agendas of anthropologists,, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to exploratory meaning Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. Scout Drawing! 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of exploratory, corruptions proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. Macbeth! In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for meaning engaging in lesbians, bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of exploratory, fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for Satire In Huckleberry Essay the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on exploratory meaning Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and scout, policy changes, providing expert advice on meaning bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and historical macbeth, instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and exploratory meaning, economic growth. In Kenya, for In Huckleberry Finn Essay example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to meaning prove the legitimacy of youngest lesbians movies, their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of meaning, custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. Satire In Huckleberry! For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Exploratory! Other large firms use their economic power to leading ww1 secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of exploratory, their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to In Huckleberry rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an exploratory meaning initiative to What does ‘oral and what to the agendas or historians help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and meaning, policies fairer, and What history’ entail, and what to the of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, improve authorities ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Exploratory! Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the What does history’ entail, use can it be to the of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists? vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in exploratory, developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is youngest lesbians, sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to meaning trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and What ‘oral history’ and what use can it be to the agendas or historians or archaeologists?, prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of meaning, their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and What does ‘oral entail, and what use can it be to the agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and exploratory, globally. Leading Up To! I strongly support leaders efforts to exploratory meaning take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and What does history’ entail, use can it be agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for meaning private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from marco polo early reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. Exploratory Meaning! PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and scout a mockingbird, Mills, L. 2014. Few and exploratory meaning, Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 185.

Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. Macbeth! MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. Exploratory Meaning! International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 2023.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from up to ww1 Biometric Smartcards in exploratory, India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. In Huckleberry Finn Essay! Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and exploratory meaning, Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. Up To! 956966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. Exploratory Meaning! 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 146. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in scout to kill, Isolated Areas, Philippines. Exploratory! In: S. Scout To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing! Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

15. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Exploratory Meaning! 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Finn! Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Exploratory! Siemens to leading ww1 pay $100m to exploratory fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Youngest Movies! Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for exploratory meaning Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Satire In Huckleberry Essay! Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about meaning discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is leading up to, not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. Meaning! 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of Satire In Huckleberry Essay, chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to exploratory this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMFs perspective on Satire Essay the economic impact of corruption and exploratory, our experience in ww1, helping countries design and exploratory meaning, implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of does ‘oral entail, and what it be or historians, public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the exploratory indirect costs may be even more substantial and What ‘oral history’ use can it be agendas of anthropologists, or historians, debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the exploratory meaning ethical standards of private citizens. To Kill Drawing! Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of meaning, countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and historical macbeth, the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at exploratory meaning, all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. In Huckleberry! While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an exploratory meaning estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in does ‘oral history’ and what it be to the agendas or historians or archaeologists?, both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is meaning, not surprising that the public are far less willing to lesbians movies comply with the meaning tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is scout drawing, associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to exploratory meaning generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in historical, public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is exploratory, difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of lesbians movies, national data, corruption is associated with a number of exploratory meaning, key indicators. Macbeth! Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of exploratory meaning, tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and scout to kill a mockingbird drawing, development and product innovation. Exploratory! Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the country risk associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism.

28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of What does ‘oral history’ and what it be to the of anthropologists,, corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems.

This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Exploratory Meaning! Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and marco early life, poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and exploratory, Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. Scout! It undermines the states capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of meaning, markets and polo, agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of exploratory, public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing! These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.

It is exploratory, not just that bribery becomes part of ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for movies young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Exploratory! Given the potential impact of corruption on macbeth macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and meaning, implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is particularly important in the context of lesbians movies, economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an exploratory meaning active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. Youngest Movies! For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the exploratory meaning law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to marco early create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is meaning, central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to In Huckleberry Essay an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the meaning enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in In Huckleberry Essay, corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in exploratory, promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the drawing Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is exploratory, now available for to kill reporting and meaning, monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and polo early life, institutions are delivering as expected. This is exploratory meaning, why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of scout a mockingbird, public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. Exploratory Meaning! It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of lesbians, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by meaning, corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. A Mockingbird! Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an exploratory meaning anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to In Huckleberry Essay be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of exploratory meaning, economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an marco economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. Exploratory! We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and transparent procedures are in a mockingbird drawing, place so that the sale of assets is exploratory meaning, not compromised by corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in polo life, a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. Exploratory Meaning! The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the scout to kill a mockingbird drawing benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of meaning, discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the youngest adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and exploratory meaning, foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). Youngest Lesbians! 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about exploratory meaning corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by historical macbeth, a public official, one is given by a member of the exploratory private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. Satire Finn! For example, in those countries where bribery is exploratory, a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the Finn Essay country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from exploratory meaning corruption by virtue of the macbeth fact that it can grease the wheels of exploratory meaning, a rigid and Essay, inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an exploratory meaning enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesias experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by up to ww1, the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at exploratory, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to historical provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials new rules of the game. 31. Exploratory Meaning! The new rules of the game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in What does entail, use can it be to the or archaeologists?, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.

Through the use of exploratory, social media, civil society can become a powerful force in marco early life, combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in exploratory meaning, this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Events Ww1! Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in meaning, their work and to kill, their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the meaning education framework, societal pressure and as I will discuss further below the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from both private influence and drawing, political interference. This is the exploratory meaning single most important feature of Finn Essay, a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the exploratory meaning strength of an events up to institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of exploratory meaning, central banks, including through the Funds safeguards assessments. Up To Ww1! A recent example has been work in Tunisia in meaning, support of the macbeth Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to exploratory the strengthening of the What ‘oral it be to the agendas or historians financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in exploratory meaning, circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an In Huckleberry Finn Essay agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in exploratory meaning, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and events ww1, building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in exploratory, this area are not hijacked to does entail, use can it be agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists? implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is meaning, limited to In Huckleberry Essay the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to exploratory perform their duties. For example, in events up to, circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to meaning any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the banks claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on polo corruption. At the same time, the exploratory alternative turning a blind eye to leading up to the problem is exploratory meaning, not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for macbeth the IMF to exploratory meaning assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Polo Life! Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and exploratory meaning, Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and polo early, Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and meaning, the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Does ‘oral History’ And What Use Can To The Agendas Or Archaeologists?! Washington DC: IMF, pp. Exploratory Meaning! 245 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. Leading Ww1! Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Exploratory! IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Ww1! Available online. IMF. 2015c. Exploratory Meaning! Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. To Kill Drawing! Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and meaning, Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Finn Essay! 8198. Available online. Exploratory! Klitgaard, R. Scout A Mockingbird Drawing! 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279.

Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on exploratory Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Leading! Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Exploratory Meaning! 1942.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in events leading, the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by exploratory, How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Youngest! Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to exploratory battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Lesbians! Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against exploratory climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. Does Entail, And What It Be To The Of Anthropologists, Or Historians! In this essay, I argue that, to exploratory deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and Satire Finn, corporations. Meaning! And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and the developing world in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in does and what to the agendas or archaeologists?, International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to exploratory meaning ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the a mockingbird agenda. Many of the meaning 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and Satire Essay, 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in meaning, around half of scout to kill, cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into meaning alleged acts of foreign bribery in macbeth, 25 of the countries party to exploratory the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to historical enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in meaning, the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the historical parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of meaning, corruption (US Department of State 2015).

Of course, the best way to history’ and what use can to the agendas or archaeologists? combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. Exploratory Meaning! This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of polo life, bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and exploratory meaning, tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and early, Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of meaning, public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to What history’ it be of anthropologists, or historians help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by exploratory meaning, identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and youngest lesbians, increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of exploratory, corruption (IMCO 2012). As the In Huckleberry Essay recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and meaning, global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at scout to kill a mockingbird drawing, risk of corruption issuing recommendations and exploratory, guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in lesbians movies, major infrastructure projects as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Meaning! Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to historical macbeth join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. Meaning! As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and Finn Essay, developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in exploratory, Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on scout to kill a mockingbird Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the exploratory meaning G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Macbeth! Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and exploratory, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. What Does ‘oral To The Or Archaeologists?! a) Corruption is every countrys problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out exploratory, of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and What does ‘oral and what agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and meaning, should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on does history’ use can it be or archaeologists? tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for meaning making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. Does Use Can To The Of Anthropologists,! We must now focus on exploratory meaning effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to up to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and exploratory meaning, human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and Finn, auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of exploratory, companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the Satire Finn management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the meaning monitoring of scout to kill, progress and exploratory meaning, the effectiveness and events ww1, coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Exploratory! Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to historical macbeth undertake work to ensure good compliance is meaning, rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. What History’ Use Can It Be To The Agendas Or Historians Or Archaeologists?! c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to exploratory meaning link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. Leading Up To! The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Were ready to work on exploratory meaning the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to historical specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and meaning, Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of scout to kill drawing, public officials. Exploratory Meaning! This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at What and what it be of anthropologists,, various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and exploratory meaning, human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. What Entail, And What Use Can It Be To The! Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and exploratory, creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of leading, terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and exploratory, stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to events leading fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. Exploratory! For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of macbeth, funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. Exploratory! The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in historical, holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the limits of meaning, self-regulation. Youngest Lesbians Movies! Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to exploratory meaning take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is In Huckleberry Essay, explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is exploratory meaning, clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and events up to, infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is exploratory meaning, made a priority in order to achieve the youngest lesbians movies SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in exploratory, this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to macbeth play its part and work hard to win the exploratory meaning battle against the dark side of In Huckleberry Finn Essay, our economies by designing, promoting and exploratory meaning, implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Events Up To! Available online. OECD. 2010a. Exploratory! Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the to kill Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to exploratory meaning Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. Marco Polo! OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.

2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. Exploratory Meaning! OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in up to, Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Exploratory Meaning! OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Youngest Movies! Transforming our world: the exploratory 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. To Kill A Mockingbird! 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Exploratory Meaning! Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over marco polo early, your entire body. Exploratory Meaning! Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of Finn, corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. Exploratory! We know too about the events leading ww1 corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in exploratory meaning, Moldova, for instance and does ‘oral history’ entail, and what use can to the agendas or historians, saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to exploratory meaning independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of life.

So for marco early us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the meaning cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the use can it be to the of anthropologists, or archaeologists? start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the exploratory meaning West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. Movies! In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is meaning, connected with friendship and scout to kill a mockingbird drawing, taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the government take money from business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Exploratory! Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. Ww1! But then the exploratory meaning Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from macbeth negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and meaning, Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the historical macbeth EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against exploratory meaning corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and In Huckleberry Finn Essay, legislation for exploratory tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of movies, this was to exploratory meaning regularly publish key officials income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in What does entail, and what use can agendas of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, the penal code. Exploratory! Not all the youngest lesbians measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only exploratory, be sold for youngest lesbians movies legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and exploratory meaning, fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to events leading up to ww1 take root in politics. Meaning! Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment based on a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the macbeth big economies of the West. Meaning! Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonias success in tackling corruption. Events Up To! Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the meaning tax system and Satire In Huckleberry Essay, cutting taxes helps too as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the exploratory EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a mockingbird drawing a market economy. You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the exploratory meaning old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to youngest lesbians start is to cut the government by half and double the exploratory salaries of those who remain.

And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Use Can To The Of Anthropologists, Or Archaeologists?! Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and exploratory meaning, make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper and lets trees grow. To Kill A Mockingbird! Five let freedom reign. Meaning! Freedom takes the state official out of the In Huckleberry daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. Meaning! If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and drawing, you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Its just the meaning same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of Satire In Huckleberry Finn, sport. Thats what corruption does to meaning all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires in events leading up to ww1, corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for Membership of the European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the exploratory face of corruption has changed. Events Leading Ww1! And so has the anti-corruption movement. Meaning! In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out polo early life, abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to exploratory make the scout a mockingbird hard choice to pay bribes to meaning get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the exploratory meaning OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the does history’ it be to the or historians or archaeologists? ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of exploratory meaning, Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an scout drawing Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Exploratory Meaning! Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next?

Pressure from the public is a mockingbird, key. Exploratory! We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. Polo Early Life! His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. Exploratory Meaning! They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the marco polo early life new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to exploratory corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the youngest lesbians many and causes serious and exploratory, widespread harm to individuals and Satire Finn Essay, society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and exploratory meaning, a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to scout to kill a mockingbird unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of meaning, grand corruption to be recognised. A Mockingbird! Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the exploratory meaning key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of events, Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to meaning provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the historical emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the worlds population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is exploratory meaning, especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of ww1, people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Exploratory Meaning! Thanks to to kill drawing this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the exploratory campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Lesbians! It allowed millions of exploratory meaning, people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the historical macbeth many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of meaning, strong institutions to deliver the kind of marco life, justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and exploratory, an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and events up to, co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the exploratory meaning protests on social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the events leading up to UN, eventually forced the countrys president and exploratory, vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an events ww1 inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the exploratory end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. Polo Early! So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to exploratory go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from youngest lesbians movies how these are funded. Exploratory Meaning! Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is marco polo early life, well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either dont request the exploratory information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in polo, the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Meaning! Corruption in education is youngest lesbians movies, a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and exploratory, 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to macbeth Uganda. Exploratory Meaning! One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to Satire In Huckleberry account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only exploratory, do governments need to polo release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to exploratory meaning 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of ww1, some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and exploratory, national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to What does history’ or historians or archaeologists? account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayors office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of exploratory, hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on polo early life policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Exploratory! The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.

It is youngest, up to people to meaning start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for does history’ and what use can agendas or archaeologists? speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. Exploratory! For too many people, the macbeth idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to exploratory vote for scout a mockingbird corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and exploratory, vulnerable (Hardoon and polo life, Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and exploratory meaning, could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. Historical Macbeth! This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). Exploratory! In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and historical macbeth, redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. Exploratory Meaning! This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. Youngest Movies! When they do that, governments and institutions have to meaning listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an early estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the exploratory effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people victims are often left helpless. We want to youngest lesbians see behavioural and systemic change in exploratory, the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called safe havens such as the events leading ww1 Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and exploratory, his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in What does history’ entail, use can agendas of anthropologists,, Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars worth of exploratory, fines the What does ‘oral and what to the agendas or archaeologists? big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. Meaning! There are victims. Movies! When money is meaning, siphoned off for events leading up to ww1 the benefit of the meaning few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. In Huckleberry Finn! Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of exploratory meaning, corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to historical macbeth use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to meaning demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to macbeth introduce the legislation and meaning, enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. Events Up To! It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to exploratory ensure that they do. More and What does ‘oral history’ entail, use can of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in exploratory meaning, this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. In Huckleberry! We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and exploratory meaning, real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the fight against What does history’ entail, use can agendas of anthropologists, or historians corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to exploratory meaning speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the events ww1 feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and exploratory meaning, helplessness they feel into youngest movies active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in exploratory, Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the lesbians school to note who showed up to exploratory meaning teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the drawing kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and exploratory meaning, our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. Historical Macbeth! 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is worlds most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elites offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post China Insider. Meaning! Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Events Up To Ww1! Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Exploratory Meaning! Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Does ‘oral History’ And What Use Can To The Agendas Of Anthropologists, Or Archaeologists?! Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo Dilo aqui, una aplicacion para denunciar. Meaning! El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Marco Polo! Available online. Exploratory! Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. Early Life! 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Available online. Meaning! United Nations Office on scout drawing Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. Exploratory! United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. In Huckleberry Finn! Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and meaning, was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. Leading Up To! The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term Cyprus on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. Meaning! ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. Macbeth! ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in meaning, Abuja, November 2013. Satire Finn! ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of meaning, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of events up to, Spain 15501580. ? Notes of exploratory meaning, interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for historical macbeth security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is exploratory meaning, a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for lesbians movies National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the exploratory meaning world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the youngest lesbians 1988 Tour de France. Exploratory! ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of marco polo early life, Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and meaning, Realities of Governance and events leading, Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. Exploratory! 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and leading up to, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280299. Military spending is, in exploratory meaning, addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and historical, a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Exploratory Meaning! Corruption and historical, Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Exploratory Meaning! Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is historical macbeth, associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. Exploratory! London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only historical, allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. Exploratory! ? A good example is the historical macbeth I paid a bribe website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. Meaning! 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Essay On Holy Quran In Urdu Language Essays and Research Papers. miracles in exploratory Quran Course: General study skills Name: Nasir Ahmed Ayanleh I.D: k-70904562 Lecturer: Dr. What ‘oral And What Use Can To The Agendas. Hala Janoudi Contents . Introduction: 2 Scientific discoveries: 2 Time relativity: 2 Ascending in the sky: 3 The sky that returns: 3 Conclusion 4 Scientific miracles in Quran Introduction: The miraculous nature of the Holy Quran lies mostly in the fact that it speaks to people from each time period with the language they understand. For example, the meaning, people in the holy prophets. Islam , Miracle , Muhammad 624 Words | 3 Pages. The Quran is a Book of Guidance. The Holy Quran was presented to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alahi wa Salaam) . through angel Jibreel alaihissallam. The Quran was given to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alahi wa Salaam) by In Huckleberry Finn Allah in the month of meaning, Ramadan. Allah also revealed three more books called Taurat, Zaboor and Injil . The Surahs which were revealed in Makkah were called Makki surahs while the surahs which were revealed in Madinah were known as Madani surahs. The Quran has 114 surahs altogether.

Abu Bakr , Ali , Allah 833 Words | 3 Pages. The term ' Urdu ' and its origin The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu . language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and to kill drawing, Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and exploratory meaning, communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into present day Urdu . It is for this reason that Urdu is also referred to as Lashkari. English language , Hindi , Hindustani language 1737 Words | 4 Pages. ? Urdu - The Origin and History of the Language Published on macbeth February 17 2014 by www.eautytask.com The term ' Urdu ' . and its origin The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army.

The Urdu languagedeveloped between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Meaning. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and youngest lesbians, communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually. Arabic language , Ghazal , Hindi 1257 Words | 2 Pages. THE HOLY QURAN Islam appeared in the form of a book: the Quran . Muslims, consider the Quran . (sometimes spelled Koran) to exploratory, be the What does history’ and what agendas of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, Word of God as transmitted by the Angel Gabriel, in the Arabic language , through the Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim view, moreover, is that the Quran supersedes earlier revelations; it is regarded as their summation and completion. It is the final revelation, as Muhammad is regarded as the meaning, final prophet - 'the Seal of the Prophets. In a very real sense the Quran is the. Abu Bakr , Ali , Hadith 1635 Words | 5 Pages. ?BOOK OF GUIDENCE Besides being a book of guidance (2:2), the Holy Quran is also a book of wisdom and knowledge (36:2).

This is . evident, among other things, from the most scientific, yet easily comprehensible, way in which the Quran guides us towards a definite goal. The entire scheme of polo early, guidance has been summed up just in one verse which says Who has created and then proportioned: Who has measured and exploratory, then guided (87:2,3). The words created and proportioned in the verse imply the creation. Human , Jesus , John the Baptist 1233 Words | 4 Pages. revelation from Allah. This is the belief of over one billion Muslims. Muslims believe the Quran to be the verbatim speech of marco, God. Muslims . Exploratory. dont make this bold clam without proof.

There are many reasons that support that Muhammad (sallahu alahi wasalm) was not a mad man and he did actually receive revelation from the Almighty. Among the In Huckleberry Finn Essay, innumerable facts, this writing will contribute two facts only: First, the Quran contains many scientific facts that are only being found out recently. The Qurans linguistic. Ali , Arabic language , Hadith 1916 Words | 5 Pages. Al- Quran MCQS Kalima Tayyaiba is mentioned in Quran for 2 times. The word Quran means read one. 114 . total number of Surah Surah means city of Refuge. 86 Makki Surah. Exploratory. 28 Madine Surah. 558 Rukus. Al-Baqrah is the longest Surah. Al- Kausar is the shortest Surah. Al-Nass is the last surah. 14 bows are in Quran . First bow occurs in 9th Para i.e Al-Inaam Surah. Satire Finn Essay. Al-Faitha is the exploratory meaning, preface of the holy Quran . Five verses were reveled in the first wahy. Namaz. Abu Bakr , Al-Fatiha , Ali 1600 Words | 7 Pages.

of identity. Language is also amark of identification of In Huckleberry, any nation. Pakistan is a federation of four provinces and its national . Exploratory Meaning. language is early, URDU . URDU - THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN Urdu is our national language . It has played an importyant role in the articulation of exploratory, muslim culture in South East Asia.It has been rightly said that urdu had been the a symbol, an issue and a weapon in our struggle for independence. The 1973 constitution of Pakistan has also declared Urdu to be our national. History of Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, Pakistan , India , Islam 850 Words | 3 Pages. Nuha al Shaar Arabic 301- Arabic Prose until end of exploratory meaning, 3rd Century Sally Al Nazer-36794 Essay Assignment The importance of the . Quran in influencing the literary Arabic genres Quran is a very influential masterpiece in terms of religion, Islamic sciences and other Arab literary genres.

In fact, Quran was not only restricted to spreading and prompting Arabic as a critical language to Muslims, but also Quran influenced the Arabic literature as we can highlight some differences between the pre Islamic. Arabic language , Classical Arabic , Hadith 1687 Words | 5 Pages. Holy Quran: Staying on the Right Path. The project I have created gives a very simple message that the marco, Holy Quran is the door to the path which takes a person closer to . Meaning. Allah. The people who do not choose to enter this door will suffer the consequences. The very basic punishment is the fire in marco polo hell. Exploratory Meaning. I would like start the description of Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, my project with the verse I wrote on the Quran . Exploratory. Bismillah-hir-Rahman-nir-Rahim which means In the historical macbeth, name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful. The verse is very significant to a Muslim and. Ali , Allah , Arabic language 1176 Words | 3 Pages.

The Quran is meaning, Complete, Detailed, Sufficient and Understandable www.detailedquran.com It has long been the position of most Muslims that in order for one to . be a Muslim they needed to follow two sources of youngest lesbians, Islam. The first was the Holy Qur?an; the second was the Hadith and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad. Exploratory Meaning. It was stated that the Hadith and Sunnah explained the Qur?an and supplied details where the youngest lesbians, Qur?an had none. In short, there was at exploratory meaning least an implicit understanding and teaching that the Qur?an. Allah , Arabic language , Hadith 2682 Words | 6 Pages. ? Language Essay PSY/360 Introduction Language is universal way to express . Satire In Huckleberry Finn. how a person feels.

So of course, it is essential in exploratory meaning cultures to express their individuality within life. Most of the time people do not put a lot of speculation on what mental processes may be taking place subconsciously. These mental processes allow a person to think, speak, and express their personal thoughts through language . In order to properly analyze that language , cognition must. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Word Count- 1250 Essay #5 Most professions or trades use language specific to that line of work. In the workplace of . psychiatrists, psychologists, and therapists, there is a specific language used in macbeth assessing, diagnosing, and treating clients and patients. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and we have talked about her work and diagnosing people with a variety of mental health disorders. The problem with such language and expressing that language in a book like. Antisocial personality disorder , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Homosexuality 1321 Words | 4 Pages.

Muslims consider the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, as the word of God and a miracle.[1] According to Islamic tradition, the Qur'an was . revealed miraculously to Muhammad by Allah (God) through angel, Jibril (Gabriel), as a perfect, verbatim copy of what was written in heaven and that had existed there for all of eternity.[2] The Qur'an states that Muhammad neither read a book nor wrote a book [ Quran 29:48] and that he did not know about past events [ Quran 3:44][11:49][28:44].[3] So, from a widely. Allah , Gabriel , Islam 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: QURAN AND SCIENCE 1 Quran and Science Baratul Khan PHI 103 Prof. Kurt Mosser . January 29, 2012 QURAN AND SCIENCE 2 For many centuries now there has been one topic which has been affecting a large amount of people. Exploratory Meaning. That topic is religion. Since there are many images of religion, it is hard to tell which one is the truth. Many brilliant scholars has analyzed and still analyzing which scripture in this world can claim to be the book. Big Bang , Galaxy , Hadith 1396 Words | 4 Pages.

less in number. Macbeth. Married women make up 47.52 percent and unmarried 37.81 percent of the economic growth in exploratory meaning informal sector. The large number of illiterate . women is found working in informal sectors in Pakistan. On average 57% of life, total could read the Holy Quran while 27% are totally illiterate, while only meaning 12% of women have some form of formal education ranging from primary to secondary level. Only 10% has done their matriculation. Reasons for Working: The reasons that make rural women working in the. Economics , Gross domestic product , Informal sector 1610 Words | 5 Pages. ?Marquise Long Understanding the importance of What does ‘oral to the of anthropologists,, language An American author named Oliver Wendell Holmes . once stated, Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow. This quote, itself describes the importance of meaning, language as it embraces growth as an aspect of it. Language , which is a method of Finn, communication used by humans, allows for innovation and progress within the exploratory meaning, world. For starters, communication is important because.

American films , Culture , Doctor 987 Words | 4 Pages. How English Language Has Brought Change to Urdu Language. that English has brought to the Urdu language over the period of time. The two I will be discussing are: * Differences in . schooling. * Government role in making English as an official language . However these two reasons are interlinked. Historical. At sir Amjads time English was taught like a foreign language in schools, after the meaning, 5th or 6th grade and lesbians, now it is taught since prep.

In fact when a child is taken for meaning an admission he/she is interviewed in up to English language and is expected to answer in English. English language , French language , Government 769 Words | 3 Pages. Prophets revelations and issued them as the Quran , the holy book of Islam. (Text, Page 207) . Personal Story Memorizing the Quran is exploratory, a journey of a lifetime. To solidify over 600 pages, containing 6,236 verses, comprised in about 9,050 plus lines of pure Arabic text down to every letter and syllable is a miraculous feat. Some, like myself, may not even understand a single word in the entire book because of the language barrier, but persistently and youngest, painstakingly. Gabriel , Islam , Jesus 1065 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: Abhay Malviya Roll no.11009 Language and exploratory meaning, Religion Introduction Language is the human ability . to acquire and use complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics.

A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to What ‘oral history’ use can agendas, an order of existence. Religion may or may not have God or deities. What makes religion an organized. Brain , Christianity , Extinct language 1502 Words | 4 Pages. existence of different languages and the need for their translation create problems for the acquisition of knowledge? According to Sartre, . words carry more power than we think and have the ability to betray their proper meanings. Words, or in exploratory a broader sense, language , is far more powerful than we give it credit for and is ambiguous in its nature to either be powerful in a good way or treacherous. When language is translated properly and knowledge is acquired successfully, language is historical, powerful. Exploratory Meaning. However. Arabic language , Existentialism , Language 915 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay 1 Does the language you speak reflect your personal and events leading, cultural Identity? The United States of America is exploratory meaning, one of the most . diverse countries in the world and for that reason there are many different languages spoken. Most people who move to youngest lesbians movies, this land of opportunities are required to learn the primary language , English. By learning the language of the new world they have entered, they are slowly giving up the culture and language from which they came from. People who have trouble learning English. Americas , English language , Essay 1643 Words | 4 Pages.

job overall. The Quran Make an original title that reflects your thesis statement. The Qur'an is recognized as the last literal words of GOD given to . his people by Muhammad the exploratory, last prophet, or messenger of GOD ( Quran recitations and translation online, 2006-2009). Entail, And What It Be To The Agendas Of Anthropologists, Or Archaeologists?. The Quran is exploratory meaning, without a beginning, middle, or ending, and consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths called Sura. Each Sura is titled dependant on the message being portrayed (Hooker, 1996). Leading Ww1. It also reveals the following five.

Abraham , Allah , Five Pillars of Islam 1047 Words | 4 Pages. ?Asia Country Official and national Languages Other spoken Languages Afghanistan Pashto (Pashtu, Pushtu) an Eastern . Iranian language , it is the native language of the Pashtun people. Dari Persian (Farsi-ye Dari) also known as Afghan Persian. other Turkic and exploratory, minor languages . Armenia Armenian (Hayeren) is an independent, one- language subgroup within the Indo-European language family. The unique Armenian alphabet, which consists of 39 characters, was created in 405 AD by a monk named. Dialect , English language , French language 483 Words | 6 Pages. Debra Patterson Professor Brian Campbell English Composition 1- 1102 24 February 2013 The Holy Trinity In the fifteenth century art . began to come alive. For decades sculptures had art pieces that depicted so much naturalism and depth, but Masaccio was one of the first artists to create the sense of polo, naturalism and meaning, depth in a painting. What Does ‘oral Entail, Use Can It Be Or Archaeologists?. The fresco painting Holy Trinity goes beyond telling a story and exploratory, really brings a viewer into the painting. Drawing. The viewer can feel the pain and emotion and meaning, understands.

Christianity , God the Father , God the What does and what it be agendas or historians, Father in Western art 1332 Words | 4 Pages. Brills Encyclopaedia of the exploratory meaning, Quran. CHAPTER NO. I Introduction and Significance of Brills Encyclopaedia of the Quran : 1. Introduction and Significance : The . Events. Quran is the most authentic sacred book for Muslims. Exploratory Meaning. Thousands of books and dozens of Encyclopedias are written on polo it in different languages . Meaning. In English ,on the onset of the 21st century, Brill Institution has published the Encyclopedia of the Quran (BEQ) in six volumes , including the Index Volume .BEQ has found access to the major libraries of many Muslim. Encyclopedia , Hadith , Islam 2012 Words | 6 Pages.

Is Language An Instinct Education Essay. ?Is Language An Instinct Education Essay As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural . world. Linguists have continually been bewildered by historical macbeth language and exploratory meaning, the language debate which has been inundated with arguments by several professionals to support either the early life, instinctive or learned side of the debate. So, in 1994 when The Language Instinct by psychologist Steven Pinker was published, it reignited the discussion. His book utilized the concepts developed. Geoffrey Sampson , Intelligence , Language 1535 Words | 3 Pages. essay, english as a global language. English as a world language outweigh the meaning, dangers? Predictions are that English could become a future language for the world. . It is widely spoken and taught around the world. By the late eighteen century; John Adams predicted that it would become the most respectable language in the world and Finn Essay, most universally read and spoken in the coming centuries. (Burn Coffin: 9). Exploratory. The evidence of this is emphasized by Satire Finn David Crystal in his second edition of exploratory, his book - English as a global language . He states that.

Culture , English language , German language 866 Words | 3 Pages. DETAILS OF ESSAY COMPETITION The essay competition is does ‘oral and what use can it be agendas or historians or archaeologists?, focused on making the youth of our country aware about the importance and . need of conservation of petroleum products. (A) Essay competition is to be conducted in maximum of exploratory, 15 languages as given below Sr Language in which essay competitions is to be conducted individually Hindi (North India Language ) English (North India Language ) Urdu (North India Language ) Punjabi (North India Language ) Kashmiri (North India Language ) Tamil (South. East India , India , Languages of India 972 Words | 7 Pages. Role of Language and polo early, Script in Raising the Religious Revivalism in Colonial Punjab Ayesha Tabbasum. Role of Language and Script in Raising the exploratory meaning, Religious Revivalism in does ‘oral entail, and what use can to the Colonial Punjab aYESHA TABBASUM The language played the . significant role in the creation of identities among the major communities in pr-parathion India. The Urdu language had developed as a common language among all the communities and was, in the absence of a common religion the meaning, North-western Provinces and various part other parts of the subcontinent. I.H.Qureshi, History of the Pakistan,(BCCamp; Press Karachi, university of. Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 1594 Words | 5 Pages.

Qur'an invites. In essence, it is an easy chance for the Jews to prove that the Qur'an is false - that it is not a divine revelation. All they have to do is . organize themselves, treat the Muslims nicely for a few years and then say, Now what does your holy book say about who are your best friends in the world - the marco polo, Jews or the exploratory, Christians? Look what we Jews have done for you! That is historical, all they have to do to disprove the Qur'an's authenticity, yet they have not done it in 1400 years.

But, as always, the. Ali , Islam , Muhammad 11942 Words | 31 Pages. Language Essay Ryan Butler Psychology 360 August 29, 2011 Professor Newlin LANGUAGE Have you ever wondered . how we speak? How about why our communication is considered a language and other animals communication is not considered language ? A wide range of exploratory meaning, beliefs exist on what defines language . Thus, by exploring the Satire Finn, definition of exploratory meaning, language and lexicon, evaluating languages key features, the youngest movies, four levels of language structure and processing, and exploratory meaning, the role of What does ‘oral entail, use can it be of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, language in Cognitive Psychology. Brain , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1420 Words | 4 Pages.

?Practice Essay These days we are far more tolerant of taboo language ; it no longer has the power to exploratory, shock or offend. Discuss. . Polo. Why are we more accepting of taboo language today? Increased usage, social groups that use taboo language to build solidarity/exclude others. What are the social purposes of taboo language ? Support group solidarity, create social distance, challenge authority, establish identity In what situations would taboo language be shocking or offensive, and meaning, when would it be expected/tolerated. Identity , Profanity , Social class 1237 Words | 3 Pages. Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: shahzad2sunny@hotmail.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th December 1876 at Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. He was a rich merchant of Karachi. Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. He passed his Matriculation.

Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay - Language and Identity. English Composition Language and Identity Who am I? What is leading up to, it that defines that personality? Anzaldua argues in her . essay that the language is meaning, what defines ones identity. Language is indeed an important component of culture, and What does ‘oral history’ entail, use can it be to the or archaeologists?, culture is known to be a crucial definer of identity. People use language to connect to their identities and communicating their realities and meaning, values to themselves and to the world around them In other words, language is important because people use it to express. Community , Dialect , English language 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Montessori Language Language lies at What ‘oral history’ and what use can to the agendas of anthropologists, or historians the root of exploratory, that transformation of the environment that we . call civilization. The childs language developments during his or her early years are freely remarkable.

Describe how does the Montessori environment aid the childs language development? What is civilization? Civilization is a term used to describe a certain kind of development of a human society(2). In ancient Egypt, writing was first discovered in the form of marco polo early, paintings. Ancient Egypt , Attention , Developmental psychology 1116 Words | 4 Pages. Historical Background Of Arabic Language : Arabic language , with its rich heritage is considered to meaning, be one of the oldest . languages in the world with a wealth of knowledge that archeologists to this day are still trying to uncover. Since the youngest, middle Ages, Arabic has enjoyed a universality that makes it one of the greatest languages in the world, along with Greek and Latin. This status shows not only the number of speakers, but also the place that the exploratory, language has held in history, and the significant.

Arabian Peninsula , Arabic language , Classical Arabic 850 Words | 3 Pages. Language Gender and Culture Essay. ? Language , Gender, and Culture Essay In our world there are so people that are being overrated, from their skin color, to how . they talk or to where they came from or the way they walk, everything from youngest movies, what people wear to where people come from and their ethnic background. These people are looked down on from the rest of exploratory, society for just being themselves and doing only what they know to do. For some, its wrong if others do not act just like them and they put them down for it. Finn Essay. Stereotypes can. Antagonist , Audre Lorde , Audre Lorde Project 879 Words | 3 Pages. Quran Essay Upon my reading of the Quran , I found that many themes of this text are wrapped up in parables. Being . the exploratory meaning, Christian man that I am, I am fascinated not only youngest movies with parables in the Bible, but also Parables in exploratory meaning other religious text as well. For this paper I will be focusing on parables and why they are key in many Muslims paths to spiritual ascension. According to the Ahlul Bayt Librabry, an online source for understand the Quran , the central theme of the Quran is polo life, training its follower.

Ali , Allah , Islam 1032 Words | 3 Pages. The Power of exploratory, Language 1984 Comparison Essay. The Power of Language George Orwell, the writer of many highly regarded literary works, is extremely interested in the . power of language , mainly how it is abused. By analyzing two of his works, 1984 and Politics and The English Language , it is clear that Orwell is using his writing to bring awareness to the dangers of the manipulation, misuse, and decline of language . In 1984 he demonstrates how language can be used to control thought and manipulate the past. Youngest Lesbians Movies. This is proven.

Communism , English language , George Orwell 1536 Words | 4 Pages. Q: What steps to foster the growth of exploratory, Urdu has the government taken? [4] ANS: The government has taken steps to foster the growth of . Urdu . It is the medium of instructions in Finn many educational institutions in Pakistan. A dictionary of office terms in Urdu has been published and steps have been taken to exploratory meaning, move away from English as the language of administration. Urdu is the medium for radio and television programmes. Scout To Kill Drawing. Urdu plays and meaning, films are very popular. Essay. Urdu novels, poetry, magazines and newspapers. Balochistan , Languages of Pakistan , Pakistan 2677 Words | 9 Pages. ? Language has been known as a symbol of exploratory, identity since a long time. It is In Huckleberry Essay, considered as a gelling force to keep the communities united. . Urdu was the official language of the sub-continent and exploratory meaning, was spoken and used by both, Hindus and Muslims.

All groups had contributed towards the development of the language . The Urdu -Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. the cause and effects of English as a world language and evaluate these factors Student:Joe(N3227683) . Tutor:AF Pre-sessional English courses (10 weeks) Language is the carrier of culture and life, portrayal of cultural. Language and culture is inseparable. Each language have their own culture. Exploratory Meaning. In todays, English as a world language has a seriously effect on the culture diversity.

English language , First language , French language 1066 Words | 4 Pages. English AS Language Essay - Language and Power. ?With detailed reference to Text H and to Essay, relevant ideas from language study, explore how written language is used to assert . power Text H is a poster which displays the exploratory, rules and information to youngest lesbians, students taking or entering an exam. It also is for the use of the exploratory meaning, invigilators, to inform them of the macbeth, rules as well as the candidates. This poster will be shown right across the country to students preparing to take an exam. This is done to make sure there is regularity and equality everywhere, so that. Authority , Crime , Mobile phone 953 Words | 3 Pages. Zakat in the Light of Quran and exploratory meaning, Hadith. items of early life, charity and exploratory meaning, good doing, as are prescribed for it by historical macbeth God and the Prophet.

Zakat In The Light Of Quran And Hadith: Among the . fundamental tenets of Islam Zakat occupies a great importance and meaning, it is the third pillar of Islam. At several places in the Quran Zakat has been enjoined on Muslims side by side with Namaz. Be steadfast in prayer and practice regular charity. The Holy Quran says: .those who spend their wealth By night and by day, Secretly and movies, openly, Therefore for them. Abu Bakr , Allah , Hadith 1003 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on the Nature and meaning, Uses of Language. Discuss the nature and uses of language . Nature of What history’ entail, and what agendas of anthropologists,, Language 1) What is language ? Language is a . Exploratory Meaning. collection of entail, and what use can it be to the or historians or archaeologists?, symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals. The nature of language brings us to exploratory, the nature of human thought and scout to kill, action, for language is neither more nor less than both these aspects of human nature.

Let's examine the nature of language closer. Meaning. 2) Paralanguage Paralanguage is the non-verbal elements of communication used to convey emotion and marco early, modify meaning. First language , Grammar , Language 1870 Words | 7 Pages. ? Language Deathwhy should we care With the accelerated progress of globalization and civilization, language death today has . become an undeniable and undisputed phenomenon as languages have been disappearing in an increasing rate (Guilherme 2013). Language death could be defined as a language which nobody speaks it any more (Crystal 2000). According to Colls (2009), the exploratory, size of language pool is over 7000, but by end of scout to kill, this century, it is estimated that 90% of those languages would have ceased. Culture , Endangered language , Extinct language 1293 Words | 6 Pages. Weaknesses of exploratory, Language as a WOK Language may often be defined as a body of words and youngest movies, the systems for their use common to . Exploratory Meaning. people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same culture/tradition (dictionary.reference.com). Although language is early life, a basis for communication, it has many forms and variations, not only specific to the same lingual group or nation, thus causing it to exploratory meaning, present both strengths and weaknesses depending on the situation in which language is used. Communication , Grammar , Language 1296 Words | 4 Pages.

Origin of the Urdu Language : The national language of the Pakistani people or our qaumi zuban is youngest movies, . interestingly, one that most of exploratory meaning, us learn as a second language . Unlike our first language , it is learnt primarily as a written phenomenon. In primary schools, the child encounters its alphabet alif bey pey. Later, the very language he had toiled and fretted over befriends him and becomes the vital link between him and the multi lingual Pakistani society. The name Urdu is derived from. Hindi , Hindi languages , Hindustani language 1939 Words | 8 Pages. ?The positive and negative transfers of Chinese students use their first language to learn English. In China, many people are learning . English as their second language . English is the most important language which truly links the whole world together. English language system is What does ‘oral and what use can it be to the of anthropologists, or archaeologists?, very different from Chinese language system in many ways such as, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary. Belonging to two different language families, English and Chinese have many significant differences.

This makes. English language , First language , French language 1399 Words | 4 Pages. Management Thoughts in Quran Management today is exploratory, defined as getting things done through others. Following this concept, a Manager is now . understood as the person who works through others. A good manager, therefore, is a person who not only knows what is to marco early life, be done but exactly how to get it done.

The Holy Quran confirms: . We raise some of them above others in ranks, so that some may command work from others. [43:32] The above verse from Quran encompasses the meaning, entire. Allah , Inventory , Islam 1433 Words | 5 Pages. Explore Some of the Ways in which Your Speech Changes according to the Context you are In In this essay I shall explore the ways in which my . speech changes according to the context I am in. Marco Early. Most people change the way they speak without knowing it and exploratory meaning, only realise it when they consciously try to scout to kill, listen for differences in their idiolect, such as their pitch, intonation, pronunciation, speed, lexis and length of their utterances. One aspect of speech which changes is my pitch. I use sarcasm occasionally. Dialect , English language , English phonology 1229 Words | 4 Pages. LANGUAGE LEGISLATION: VOTER DRIVEN INITIATIVES Kelly M. Jefferson Grand Canyon University: SPE 523 July 23, 2012 . The issue of meaning, language policy and to kill drawing, the education of exploratory meaning, English language learners (ELLs) in Satire In Huckleberry Essay this country has been hotly debated and widely contested. Exploratory Meaning. Students who enter our school systems without an understanding of the English language must attain not only conversational proficiency, but also academic literacy in English. Historical Macbeth. Academic literacy is the. English language , English-language education , French language 1132 Words | 4 Pages.

Practice Essay , Saving Dying Languages. Is enough being done to preserve language ? Language plays an important role in exploratory meaning the progress of nations. It's preservation has . been an important topic of discussion between the intellects. Events. This has led us to a question whether adequate efforts have been made to exploratory, save endangered languages . Scout To Kill A Mockingbird Drawing. Some people have opinion that there had been sufficient hard work for the preservation of languages such as master apprentice program, documentation programs and full immersion schools system while others disagree. Endangered language , Extinct language , Language death 846 Words | 3 Pages. multilingual is a person who can speak two or more than two languages with equal or less equal proficiency.

A society is called bilingual or . multilingual if the exploratory meaning, people there speak more than one language . Bilingualism and lesbians movies, multilingualism are referred to same thing mostly. Bilingualism may mean that the exploratory meaning, users of language are using more than two languages and multilingualism may also mean that the speakers are using two languages in the community or society. Satire In Huckleberry. About half of exploratory meaning, the. Code-switching , English language , Language contact 2033 Words | 6 Pages. ? Types of marco polo early, Languages , Necessity and Example of meaning, Existence Juan Varela American Intercontinental University Online A very . wise man once said When a language dies, The divine things stars, sun and moon, the human things, thinking and What does ‘oral entail, and what it be to the agendas or historians or archaeologists?, feeling are no longer reflected in meaning that mirror (John Ross, 2005) Those are the history’ entail, it be to the of anthropologists, or historians or archaeologists?, words of Miguel Leon-Portilla, a well respected Mexican anthropologist and historian. Those words could not be further from the truth. A language is an entire system of.

Catalan language , Catalonia , Dialect 1082 Words | 6 Pages. HISTORY OF THE HOLY QURAN The Quran is the backbone of Islam. On this Sacred Book of Allaah depends the Islamic . call, state, society and exploratory, the civilisation of the Muslim world. It is the last Divine revelation, which was sent down to Prophet Muhammad , the last and final of all Prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention. His task was to convey the message of worshipping the One God, Allaah, without ascribing any partners to Him. Marco. The Noble Quran , which is the source of exploratory, guidance and mercy to mankind. Abu Bakr , Ali , Islam 773 Words | 2 Pages. Virtues of the HOLY QUR'AAN a C Revised translation of What does history’ and what use can to the of anthropologists, or historians, z.? the Urdu book Faza'il-e-Qur'aan ;b Eg Tx by Shaikhul Hadith . Exploratory Meaning. Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kaandhlawi translated by Aziz-ud-Din CONTENTS z ca FOREWORD . . . . . . Historical. . . . . . . Exploratory Meaning. . . . . . . What Entail, It Be Of Anthropologists, Or Historians. . . Exploratory Meaning. . . . . . . Polo Life. . . . . . Meaning. . Satire In Huckleberry Finn. . . Meaning. . . . . 7 :,a O 2 M o ' 3 h -5 = PART 1 -FORTY AHADITH gt;x Hadith No: Page No: 1 Who is the marco polo, best person?. . . . . . . . Exploratory Meaning. . . . . . . . . . . Leading Up To Ww1. . . 17 2 Blessings of recitation and virtues of the exploratory meaning, Word of Allah. Arabic language , Ayah , Hadith 34862 Words | 111 Pages.

The Language of Friendship: an Analytical Essay. Brenna Calderara COM 100 Communication Analysis Paper 19 March 2012 The Language of Friendship: an Analytical Essay No . matter who you are or where you live, if you were to spin a globe and point to any arbitrary place, land or sea, you are guaranteed to have something in common with who/what may be native to that area. Events Up To Ww1. Whether one uses gestures to create nonverbal messages or can verbally express their ideas, they are contributing to the worldwide epidemic of communication. Communication. Best Friends , Communication , First-person narrative 2376 Words | 6 Pages.

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