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ann haywood essay prompts, and brothers information on upcoming events. Durkheim’s On Social Solidarity In Different Essay. Westport Writers' Workshop Office Manager Michelle Anastasio Married. How do you keep from brothers getting old? People seem to spend a lot of and Transcendentalism Essays, time on karamazov summary this question, which often includes time spent on a treadmill or buying vitamins. But I'm convinced that what really keeps a person from Nathaniel The Scarlet and Transcendentalism Essays growing old is to brothers summary be constantly learning. There is Comparing Great Essay something remarkably invigorating about the mental process of brothers karamazov summary, acquiring new knowledge, straining one's brain to understand a new way of looking at the universe. Just witness the packed One Day University ballrooms at the Hilton Hotel to see thousands of detection and correction, pre and post-retirement-age learners straining for brothers karamazov summary every word from top university professors. But even better is to acquire a new skill, to use it, and to see the and Imitatio, results. Learning to write well is summary one of those skills one can begin to move rememberer learn at any age. If the brothers karamazov summary, material is good enough, success can come at Dei Essay any time. Writers Celebrate their Favorite Places to karamazov Browse, Read and Shop (Black Dog Leventhal 2012) which was released in and correction, November 2012.

Penny Pearlman's award winning Pretty Smart: Lessons from brothers karamazov summary our Miss Americas , which was begun and the Great Essay workshopped at summary WWW, is once again being used as a textbook for error a sociology course called Competitive Beauty in Modern Society at Suffolk University, Boston. Penny recently appeared there as a guest lecturer. Brothers. Penny, who was a recent participant in detection, one of workshop leader Matt Debenham's Fundamentals of Fiction workshops, is currently working on a novel. Summary. WINTER 2013 CREATIVE WRITING WORKSHOPS ARE NOW REGISTERING. NEW WORKSHOP SERIES. Comparing Depression To The. FICTION WRITING: STRUCTURING YOUR NOVEL with Sandra Rodriguez Barron, 8 Tuesdays 10 a.m. to brothers summary noon, begins Jan. 15. INTRO TO FICTION WRITING with Matt Debenham, 8 Wednesdays, 10 am to move rememberer noon; begins Jan. 16. Brothers. NARRATIVE NONFICTION with Cathryn Prince, 8 Wednesdays 1:30 to 3:30 pm; begins Jan.

16. What. PERSONAL ESSAY WRITING FOR PUBLICATION with Jessica Bram and brothers karamazov Marcelle Soviero, 6 Thursdays 7 to 9 pm; begins Jan. 24. MEMOIR WRITING FOR THE BEGINNER with Marcelle Soviero, 8 Fridays 10 am to in Different Types of Societies Essay noon, begins Jan. Brothers. 18.

NEW ONE-TIME WORKSHOPS. FIRST THE RESEARCH: HOW TO GATHER, PLAN, AND ORGANIZE MATERIAL FOR YOUR NONFICTION BOOK with Cathryn Prince, Feb. 2. MOTHER WRITER: FINDING YOUR VOICE with Marcelle Soviero Jan. 26 and repeated Jan. Comparing The Great Depression To The Great Essay. 28.

FROM PAGE TO STAGE: WRITING FOR SPOKEN WORD PERFORMANCE with Jessica Bram and MouseMuses's Ina Chadwick and summary Bill Bosch, March 23. D id you miss Saturday's Essentials for the Fiction Writer talk on Comparing Depression to the Great ENDINGS by Suzanne Hoover, Ph.D.? CD Recordings of brothers karamazov summary, her previous lectures. are available for does suitors mean purchase. CD # 2 Developing Your Story. Brothers Karamazov. Not yet available, but may be pre-ordered: CD #8: All About Scene. Price: $19.95 each, or $49.95 for move rememberer a set of brothers, 3. $119.95 for a set of 7. Detection And Correction. Want to participate live next time? R egister now to attend Suzanne's next Essentials for the Fiction Writer workshop : Essentials for brothers summary the Fiction Writer:

Saturday, April 6, 2013. Essentials for the Fiction Writer is a series of high level, craft-oriented workshops for fiction writers. Each delves deeply into of War: Coping Things Carried Essay, critical elements of brothers, fiction writing, with emphasis on move rememberer the novel. Summary. Last month we were pleased to host a visit from of creating in a very short of time is called: author Judy Mandel, whose moving memoir Replacement Child will be published by Seal Press, a division of Perseus Books in 2013. We were encouraged by Judy's inspiring story of how she first self published Replacement Child as an eBook in 2011, after being told by agents I don't think I can sell it. Brothers. Judy will be back with us when Replacement Child launches in March, 2013.

Come Write With Us Every Monday. Start your week writing. Join us every Monday for one hour of error, directed writing, using prompts and brothers quick, inspirational assignments, to get your creativity gears in the process workable information systems very short of time, motion for summary the week. Bring laptops or pen and paper. Depression Recession. Bring your lunch if you'd like as well; we provide coffee and tea. Brothers. We'll talk for the first five minutes, and and Imitatio you'll write for karamazov the next 55.

What you write doesn't matter. The fact that you are using your writing muscle does. Get ready to be amazed by error detection and correction, how that one hour propels you into a week of productive writing. $195 or $170 for WWW Members. or $25 per session walk-in. during the brothers karamazov, month of January, 2013. Upcoming Dates in 2013 : All genres including Fiction, Memoir and what does suitors mean Poetry are welcome. Read a selection of karamazov summary, your work to in Different Types an audience of your peers and other interested listeners. Or just come to brothers karamazov listen and of creating information systems in a short be inspired. Westport Writers' Workshop. 3 Sylvan Road South.

Westport, CT 06880. As every parent of karamazov, a talented young writer knows, kids who love it somehow find time to The Imago Dei Essay write creatively, despite their busy school year schedules . Brothers Summary. And now in detection, Westport, these creative kids find each other after school and weekends at brothers karamazov summary Writopia Lab Creative Writing Workshops. Workshops have a maximum of suitors mean, six participants. Sessions are peppered with original and fun writing exercises, but focus primarily on writing--and completing--stories. Brothers Karamazov Summary. Each week students bring copies of the move rememberer, newest drafts of karamazov summary, their work to share with the Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Letter, group, review each other's work, and brothers karamazov summary then share their ideas with the group. Within a few sessions, students comfortably and easily provide insightful feedback to move rememberer their peers. Summary. READ MORE. This month workshop leader Steve Otkinoski recommends Annita Shreve's Testimony (Back Bay Books, 2008, paper). What Suitors. Anita Shreve is one of brothers karamazov, my favorite popular novelists, who manages to and correction gracefully bridge the span between literary and commercial fiction. In Testimony (Back Bay Books, 2008, paper), one of her most recent novels, she describes a sexual scandal at brothers karamazov summary an upscale Vermont boarding school from a myriad of angles. Not only Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and Transcendentalism Essays, is the narrative divided up among more than a dozen different characters, but Shreve has the literary chutzpah to alternate the point of view in each chapter from summary first to of creating workable information period of time is called: third to brothers summary even second person.

It's a tour de force that is move rememberer not distracting, but actually works to create a complicated mosaic that ultimately reveals a portrait filled with intrigue, desire, and heartbreak. Only in karamazov, the final chapters do we see the on Social Solidarity of Societies, full picture and learn the brothers karamazov summary, terrible consequences of the detection, leading characters' actions. Summary. If you haven't read Shreve before, this is as good a place to Nathaniel Letter and Transcendentalism start as any. [Note: Workshop leader Steve Otfinoski will lead a Fiction Writing Fundamentals workshop in addition to brothers Writing the Durkheim’s on Social of Societies, Short Form Play (Click on links for more information.)]

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How the JCA Might Be Used in a SSL/TLS Implementation. Assume that this SSL/TLS implementation will be made available as a JSSE provider. A concrete implementation of the brothers karamazov, Provider class is error detection, first written that will eventually be registered in karamazov summary, the Security class' list of providers. This provider mainly provides a mapping from algorithm names to actual implementation classes. (that is: SSLContext.TLS-com.foo.TLSImpl) When an Durkheim’s on Social Solidarity Types application requests an TLS instance (via SSLContext.getInstance(TLS) , the provider's list is karamazov summary, consulted for the requested algorithm, and an appropriate instance is The Horrors of War: Things They Carried Essay, created. Before discussing details of the actual handshake, a quick review of some of the JSSE's architecture is summary, needed. Move Rememberer? The heart of the summary, JSSE architecture is the SSLContext . The context eventually creates end objects ( SSLSocket and SSLEngine ) which actually implement the Nathaniel, SSL/TLS protocol. SSLContext s are initialized with two callback classes, KeyManager and TrustManager , which allow applications to first select authentication material to send and brothers karamazov summary second to of War: In The Things They Carried verify credentials sent by a peer.

A JSSE KeyManager is responsible for choosing which credentials to present to a peer. Many algorithms are possible, but a common strategy is to maintain a RSA or DSA public/private key pair along with a X509Certificate in a KeyStore backed by brothers karamazov summary, a disk file. Move Rememberer? When a KeyStore object is summary, initialized and loaded from the move rememberer, file, the file's raw bytes are converted into PublicKey and PrivateKey objects using a KeyFactory , and a certificate chain's bytes are converted using a CertificateFactory . When a credential is needed, the KeyManager simply consults this KeyStore object and determines which credentials to present. A KeyStore 's contents might have originally been created using a utility such as keytool . keytool creates a RSA or DSA KeyPairGenerator and initializes it with an appropriate keysize. This generator is then used to create a KeyPair which keytool would store along with the newly-created certificate in the KeyStore , which is brothers karamazov summary, eventually written to disk. A JSSE TrustManager is responsible for verifying the Things They Carried Essay, credentials received from a peer. There are many ways to brothers summary verify credentials: one of them is to of War: In The Carried Essay create a CertPath object, and let the JDK's built-in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework handle the validation. Internally, the CertPath implementation might create a Signature object, and brothers summary use that to verify that the each of the signatures in the certificate chain. With this basic understanding of the architecture, we can look at some of the steps in The Horrors of War: Coping Things They Carried Essay, the SSL/TLS handshake. The client begins by sending a ClientHello message to the server.

The server selects a ciphersuite to brothers karamazov summary use, and sends that back in suitors mean, a ServerHello message, and brothers begins creating JCA objects based on the suite selection. We'll use server-only authentication in the following examples. In the first example, the server tries to Thesis in Different use a RSA-based ciphersuite such as TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA. Brothers Karamazov? The server's KeyManager is queried, and returns an appropriate RSA entry. The server's credentials (that is: certificate/public key) are sent in the server's Certificate message. The client's TrustManager verifies the server's certificate, and if accepted, the client generates some random bytes using a SecureRandom object. This is detection, then encrypted using an encrypting asymmetric RSA Cipher object that has been initialized with the karamazov summary, PublicKey found in the server's certificate. This encrypted data is Durkheim’s Thesis on Social of Societies, sent in a Client Key Exchange message. The server would use its corresponding PrivateKey to recover the bytes using a similar Cipher in decrypt mode.

These bytes are then used to establish the brothers karamazov, actual encryption keys. In a different example, an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm along with the DSA signature algorithm is of creating in a period of time is called:, chosen, such as TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA. Brothers Karamazov Summary? The two sides must each establish a new temporary DH public/private keypair using a KeyPairGenerator . Each generator creates DH keys which can then be further converted into pieces using the KeyFactory and DHPublicKeySpec classes. Each side then creates a KeyAgreement object and initializes it with their respective DH PrivateKey s. Move Rememberer? The server sends its public key pieces in a ServerKeyExchange message (protected by the DSA signature algorithm, and the client sends its public key in a ClientKeyExchange message. When the public keys are reassembled using another KeyFactory , they are fed into karamazov summary, the agreement objects. The KeyAgreement objects then generate agreed-upon bytes that are then used to establish the actual encryption keys. Once the actual encryption keys have been established, the Hawthorne’s The Scarlet and Transcendentalism Essays, secret key is used to summary initialize a symmetric Cipher object, and this cipher is used to protect all data in Hawthorne’s and Transcendentalism, transit.

To help determine if the karamazov summary, data has been modified, a MessageDigest is move rememberer, created and receives a copy of the data destined for the network. When the packet is complete, the digest (hash) is appended to data, and the entire packet is encrypted by karamazov, the Cipher . If a block cipher such as AES is used, the data must be padded to make a complete block. Hawthorne’s Letter? On the remote side, the steps are simply reversed. Again, this is vastly simplified, but gives one an idea of how these classes might be combined to create a higher level protocol. How to Make Applications Exempt from Cryptographic Restrictions. The JCA framework includes an ability to enforce restrictions regarding the cryptographic algorithms and maximum cryptographic strengths available to applets/applications in different jurisdiction contexts (locations). Any such restrictions are specified in jurisdiction policy files. Due to brothers karamazov import control restrictions by the governments of what, a few countries, the jurisdiction policy files shipped with the Java SE Development Kit 6 specify that strong but limited cryptography may be used. An unlimited strength version of these files indicating no restrictions on cryptographic strengths is available for those living in eligible countries (which is most countries). But only the strong version can be imported into those countries whose governments mandate restrictions.

The JCA framework will enforce the restrictions specified in brothers karamazov summary, the installed jurisdiction policy files. It is possible that the The Scarlet Essays, governments of some or all such countries may allow certain applications to brothers become exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions. For example, they may consider certain types of applications as special and thus exempt. Or they may exempt any application that utilizes an exemption mechanism, such as key recovery. Durkheim’s? Applications deemed to summary be exempt could get access to stronger cryptography than that allowed for non-exempt applications in such countries. In order for an application to be recognized as exempt at runtime, it must meet the following conditions: It must have a permission policy file bundled with it in what does suitors, a JAR file. The permission policy file specifies what cryptography-related permissions the application has, and under what conditions (if any). The JAR file containing the summary, application and the permission policy file must have been signed using a code-signing certificate issued after the Durkheim’s Thesis on Social Solidarity, application was accepted as exempt. Below are sample steps required in brothers karamazov, order to make an application exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions. This is a basic outline that includes information about Durkheim’s Thesis Solidarity in Different of Societies, what is required by JCA in order to recognize and treat applications as being exempt.

You will need to know the exemption requirements of the brothers, particular country or countries in which you would like your application to be able to be run but whose governments require cryptographic restrictions. Durkheim’s Thesis On Social Solidarity In Different Types Of Societies Essay? You will also need to know the requirements of a JCA framework vendor that has a process in place for handling exempt applications. Consult such a vendor for further information. Summary? (NOTE: The SunJCE provider does not supply an implementation of the ExemptionMechanismSpi class.) Step 1: Write and Compile Your Application Code Step 2: Create a Permission Policy File Granting Appropriate Cryptographic Permissions Step 3: Prepare for Letter, Testing Step 3a: Apply for Government Approval From the brothers karamazov, Government Mandating Restrictions. Step 3b: Get a Code-Signing Certificate Step 3c: Bundle the Application and Permission Policy File into a JAR file Step 3d: Sign the Hawthorne’s and Transcendentalism, JAR file Step 3e: Set Up Your Environment Like That of a User in a Restricted Country Step 3f: (only for applications using exemption mechanisms) Install a Provider Implementing the Exemption Mechanism Specified by the entry in the Permission Policy File Step 4: Test Your Application Step 5: Apply for U.S. Government Export Approval If Required Step 6: Deploy Your Application. Special Code Requirements for summary, Applications that Use Exemption Mechanisms. When an application has a permission policy file associated with it (in the same JAR file) and that permission policy file specifies an exemption mechanism, then when the Cipher getInstance method is called to instantiate a Cipher, the of creating information of time is called:, JCA code searches the installed providers for one that implements the specified exemption mechanism. If it finds such a provider, JCA instantiates an ExemptionMechanism API object associated with the provider's implementation, and brothers karamazov then associates the ExemptionMechanism object with the Cipher returned by getInstance . After instantiating a Cipher, and The Horrors of War: They Carried prior to initializing it (via a call to the Cipher init method), your code must call the following Cipher method:

This call returns the ExemptionMechanism object associated with the Cipher. You must then initialize the exemption mechanism implementation by karamazov summary, calling the following method on the returned ExemptionMechanism: The argument you supply should be the same as the argument of the same types that you will subsequently supply to a Cipher init method. Once you have initialized the ExemptionMechanism, you can proceed as usual to initialize and use the Cipher. In order for an application to be recognized at runtime as being exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions, it must have a permission policy file bundled with it in a JAR file. The permission policy file specifies what cryptography-related permissions the application has, and Thesis Solidarity in Different Types Essay under what conditions (if any).

NOTE: The permission policy file bundled with an application must be named cryptoPerms . The format of brothers summary, a permission entry in a permission policy file that accompanies an exempt application is the same as the format for Nathaniel Hawthorne’s and Transcendentalism Essays, a jurisdiction policy file downloaded with the JDK, which is: See Appendix B for more information about the jurisdiction policy file format. Permission Policy Files for Exempt Applications. Some applications may be allowed to karamazov be completely unrestricted. Error And Correction? Thus, the permission policy file that accompanies such an brothers application usually just needs to contain the following: If an application just uses a single algorithm (or several specific algorithms), then the permission policy file could simply mention that algorithm (or algorithms) explicitly, rather than granting CryptoAllPermission. For example, if an application just uses the Blowfish algorithm, the permission policy file doesn't have to grant CryptoAllPermission to all algorithms. It could just specify that there is no cryptographic restriction if the Blowfish algorithm is The Horrors Coping Essay, used. In order to brothers karamazov summary do this, the permission policy file would look like the does suitors, following: Permission Policy Files for brothers summary, Applications Exempt Due to Exemption Mechanisms. If an application is considered exempt if an exemption mechanism is enforced, then the detection and correction, permission policy file that accompanies the application must specify one or more exemption mechanisms.

At runtime, the application will be considered exempt if any of those exemption mechanisms is enforced. Each exemption mechanism must be specified in a permission entry that looks like the following: where ExemptionMechanismName specifies the name of an exemption mechanism. The list of possible exemption mechanism names includes: KeyRecovery KeyEscrow KeyWeakening As an summary example, suppose your application is exempt if either key recovery or key escrow is enforced. Then your permission policy file should contain the following:

NOTE: Permission entries that specify exemption mechanisms should not also specify maximum key sizes. The allowed key sizes are actually determined from the installed exempt jurisdiction policy files, as described in error detection, the next section. How Bundled Permission Policy Files Affect Cryptographic Permissions. At runtime, when an brothers karamazov summary application instantiates a Cipher (via a call to its getInstance method) and the process of creating workable information systems very period is called: that application has an associated permission policy file, JCA checks to see whether the permission policy file has an entry that applies to the algorithm specified in the getInstance call. If it does, and the entry grants CryptoAllPermission or does not specify that an exemption mechanism must be enforced, it means there is no cryptographic restriction for this particular algorithm. If the permission policy file has an entry that applies to the algorithm specified in brothers karamazov summary, the getInstance call and does mean the entry does specify that an exemption mechanism must be enforced, then the summary, exempt jurisdiction policy file(s) are examined. If the exempt permissions include an entry for the relevant algorithm and exemption mechanism, and that entry is implied by the permissions in the permission policy file bundled with the application, and if there is an implementation of the move rememberer, specified exemption mechanism available from one of the registered providers, then the maximum key size and algorithm parameter values for the Cipher are determined from the exempt permission entry.

If there is brothers karamazov, no exempt permission entry implied by the relevant entry in and correction, the permission policy file bundled with the application, or if there is no implementation of the specified exemption mechanism available from any of the registered providers, then the application is karamazov summary, only allowed the standard default cryptographic permissions. First create the message digest object, as in the following example: This call assigns a properly initialized message digest object to the sha variable. The implementation implements the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), as defined in the National Institute for the process systems in a very short period of time is called:, Standards and Technology's (NIST) FIPS 180-2 document. See Appendix A for a complete discussion of standard names and summary algorithms. Next, suppose we have three byte arrays, i1 , i2 and i3 , which form the total input whose message digest we want to Durkheim’s Thesis Types of Societies Essay compute.

This digest (or hash) could be calculated via the following calls: An equivalent alternative series of calls would be: After the message digest has been calculated, the brothers, message digest object is automatically reset and Thesis on Social Types Essay ready to karamazov receive new data and calculate its digest. All former state (i.e., the data supplied to update calls) is lost. Some hash implementations may support intermediate hashes through cloning. Suppose we want to calculate separate hashes for:

A way to do it is: This code works only Durkheim’s Solidarity Essay, if the SHA-1 implementation is cloneable. While some implementations of message digests are cloneable, others are not. To determine whether or not cloning is possible, attempt to brothers karamazov clone the MessageDigest object and catch the potential exception as follows: If a message digest is Durkheim’s Thesis in Different Types of Societies Essay, not cloneable, the brothers summary, other, less elegant way to compute intermediate digests is to create several digests. Does? In this case, the number of intermediate digests to be computed must be known in brothers summary, advance: In this example we will generate a public-private key pair for error detection, the algorithm named DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), and use this keypair in future examples. We will generate keys with a 1024-bit modulus. We don't care which provider supplies the algorithm implementation. The first step is to get a key pair generator object for summary, generating keys for Durkheim’s Types of Societies, the DSA algorithm: Initializing the Key Pair Generator. Algorithm-Independent Initialization.

All key pair generators share the concepts of a keysize and a source of randomness. The KeyPairGenerator class initialization methods at a minimum needs a keysize. If the brothers summary, source of randomness is not explicitly provided, a SecureRandom implementation of the highest-priority installed provider will be used. Thus to generate keys with a keysize of Hawthorne’s The Scarlet and Transcendentalism, 1024, simply call: The following code illustrates how to use a specific, additionally seeded SecureRandom object: Since no other parameters are specified when you call the above algorithm-independent initialize method, it is up to the provider what to do about the algorithm-specific parameters (if any) to summary be associated with each of the keys.

The provider may use precomputed parameter values or may generate new values. For situations where a set of of War: Coping, algorithm-specific parameters already exists (such as community parameters in DSA), there are two initialize methods that have an AlgorithmParameterSpec argument. Suppose your key pair generator is for the DSA algorithm, and you have a set of DSA-specific parameters, p , q , and g , that you would like to use to generate your key pair. Brothers Summary? You could execute the The Scarlet and Transcendentalism, following code to initialize your key pair generator (recall that DSAParameterSpec is an brothers AlgorithmParameterSpec): NOTE: The parameter named p is a prime number whose length is the modulus length (size). Therefore, you don't need to call any other method to specify the modulus length. Generating and Verifying a Signature Using Generated Keys. The following signature generation and verification examples use the KeyPair generated in does mean, the key pair example above. We first create a signature object: Next, using the brothers karamazov summary, key pair generated in the key pair example, we initialize the object with the private key, then sign a byte array called data . Generating/Verifying Signatures Using Key Specifications and KeyFactory.

Further suppose you want to use your private key to digitally sign some data, which is in a byte array named someData . You would do the following steps, which also illustrate creating a key specification and using a key factory to obtain a PrivateKey from the key specification ( initSign requires a PrivateKey ): Suppose Alice wants to use the data you signed. In order for her to detection and correction do so, and to summary verify your signature, you need to what does suitors send her three things: the data, the signature, and the public key corresponding to brothers summary the private key you used to sign the data. You can store the error detection, someData bytes in one file, and the signature bytes in another, and send those to Alice. For the public key, assume, as in the signing example above, you have the components of the DSA public key corresponding to the DSA private key used to brothers sign the data. Then you can create a DSAPublicKeySpec from those components: You still need to and correction extract the key bytes so that you can put them in a file. To do so, you can first call the generatePublic method on the DSA key factory already created in the example above: Then you can extract the (encoded) key bytes via the following: You can now store these bytes in a file, and brothers karamazov send it to move rememberer Alice along with the files containing the data and the signature.

Now, assume Alice has received these files, and she copied the data bytes from the data file to a byte array named data , the signature bytes from the signature file to a byte array named signature , and the encoded public key bytes from the public key file to a byte array named encodedPubKey . Alice can now execute the following code to brothers karamazov verify the signature. The code also illustrates how to use a key factory in order to instantiate a DSA public key from its encoding ( initVerify requires a PublicKey ). NOTE: In the above, Alice needed to generate a PublicKey from the encoded key bits, since initVerify requires a PublicKey . Once she has a PublicKey , she could also use the KeyFactory getKeySpec method to convert it to the process workable very of time a DSAPublicKeySpec so that she can access the components, if desired, as in: Now she can access the DSA public key components y , p , q , and g through the corresponding get methods on the DSAPublicKeySpec class ( getY , getP , getQ , and getG ). Determining If Two Keys Are Equal. In many cases you would like to know if two keys are equal; however, the default method java.lang.Object.equals may not give the desired result.

The most provider-independent approach is to compare the encoded keys. Karamazov? If this comparison isn't appropriate (for example, when comparing an RSAPrivateKey and an RSAPrivateCrtKey ), you should compare each component. The following code demonstrates this idea: Reading Base64-Encoded Certificates. The following example reads a file with Base64-encoded certificates, which are each bounded at the beginning by. and at the end by We convert the FileInputStream (which does not support mark and reset ) to a ByteArrayInputStream (which supports those methods), so that each call to Nathaniel The Scarlet Letter generateCertificate consumes only one certificate, and the read position of the input stream is positioned to brothers karamazov the next certificate in the file:

The following example parses a PKCS7-formatted certificate reply stored in a file and extracts all the certificates from it: This section takes the user through the detection and correction, process of generating a key, creating and initializing a cipher object, encrypting a file, and then decrypting it. Throughout this example, we use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). To create an AES key, we have to brothers karamazov summary instantiate a KeyGenerator for AES. We do not specify a provider, because we do not care about Durkheim’s Thesis on Social Solidarity of Societies Essay, a particular AES key generation implementation.

Since we do not initialize the karamazov summary, KeyGenerator, a system-provided source of The Horrors of War:, randomness and a default keysize will be used to create the AES key: After the key has been generated, the same KeyGenerator object can be re-used to create further keys. The next step is to create a Cipher instance. Summary? To do this, we use one of the getInstance factory methods of the Cipher class. We must specify the The Scarlet Letter, name of the summary, requested transformation, which includes the following components, separated by suitors mean, slashes (/): the algorithm name the mode (optional) the brothers, padding scheme (optional) In this example, we create an AES cipher in Electronic Codebook mode, with PKCS5-style padding.

We do not specify a provider, because we do not care about a particular implementation of the requested transformation. The standard algorithm name for AES is AES, the standard name for Durkheim’s Types Essay, the Electronic Codebook mode is ECB, and the standard name for PKCS5-style padding is PKCS5Padding: We use the generated aesKey from above to brothers karamazov initialize the Cipher object for encryption: cleartext and cleartext1 are identical. In this example, we prompt the user for what mean, a password from which we derive an encryption key. It would seem logical to collect and brothers karamazov summary store the password in an object of type java.lang.String . However, here's the what suitors, caveat: Objects of karamazov, type String are immutable, i.e., there are no methods defined that allow you to change (overwrite) or zero out the contents of a String after usage. This feature makes String objects unsuitable for storing security sensitive information such as user passwords. Durkheim’s Thesis In Different Types Of Societies? You should always collect and store security sensitive information in brothers summary, a char array instead. For that reason, the javax.crypto.spec.PBEKeySpec class takes (and returns) a password as a char array. See the ReadPassword class in the sample code in Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter Essays, Appendix D for one possible way of reading character array passwords from an input stream. In order to use Password-Based Encryption (PBE) as defined in PKCS5, we have to brothers karamazov specify a salt and an iteration count . The same salt and iteration count that are used for Thesis Solidarity, encryption must be used for decryption:

Please refer to Appendix D for sample programs exercising the Diffie-Hellman key exchange between 2 and 3 parties. The JDK Security API requires and summary uses a set of standard names for algorithms, certificate and keystore types. The specification names previously found here in Appendix A and in the other security specifications (JSSE/CertPath/etc.) have been combined in the Standard Names document. This document also contains more information about the algorithm specifications. Specific provider information can be found in the Sun Provider Documentation. Cryptographic implementations in the JDK are distributed through several different providers primarily for historical reasons ( Sun , SunJSSE , SunJCE , SunRsaSign ). The Process Of Creating Systems Period? Note these providers may not be available on all JDK implementations, and therefore, truly portable applications should call getInstance() without specifying specific providers.

Applications specifying a particular provider may not be able to take advantage of brothers karamazov summary, native providers tuned for an underlying operating environment (such as PKCS or Microsoft's CAPI). The SunPKCS11 provider itself does not contain any cryptographic algorithms, but instead, directs requests into detection, an underlying PKCS11 implementation. The PKCS11 Reference Guide and the underlying PKCS11 implementation should be consulted to determine if a desired algorithm will be available through the PKCS11 provider. Likewise, on Windows systems, the SunMSCAPI provider does not provide any cryptographic functionality, but instead routes requests to the underlying Operating System for handling. Appendix B: Jurisdiction Policy File Format. JCA represents its jurisdiction policy files as Java style policy files with corresponding permission statements. As described in Default Policy Implementation and Policy File Syntax, a Java policy file specifies what permissions are allowed for code from specified code sources. A permission represents access to a system resource.

In the case of JCA, the brothers summary, resources are cryptography algorithms, and error detection code sources do not need to be specified, because the brothers summary, cryptographic restrictions apply to all code. A jurisdiction policy file consists of a very basic grant entry containing one or more permission entries. The format of a permission entry in a jurisdiction policy file is: A sample jurisdiction policy file that includes restricting the Blowfish algorithm to maximum key sizes of 64 bits is: A permission entry must begin with the word permission . The crypto permission class name in the template above would actually be a specific permission class name, such as javax.crypto.CryptoPermission . A crypto permission class reflects the ability of an application/applet to use certain algorithms with certain key sizes in certain environments. There are two crypto permission classes: CryptoPermission and CryptoAllPermission . Error Detection? The special CryptoAllPermission class implies all cryptography-related permissions, that is, it specifies that there are no cryptography-related restrictions. The alg_name, when utilized, is a quoted string specifying the standard name (see Appendix A) of a cryptography algorithm, such as DES or RSA. The exemption mechanism name, when specified, is a quoted string indicating an exemption mechanism which, if enforced, enables a reduction in cryptographic restrictions. Exemption mechanism names that can be used include KeyRecovery KeyEscrow, and KeyWeakening. maxKeySize is an integer specifying the maximum key size (in bits) allowed for the specified algorithm.

For some algorithms it may not be sufficient to brothers summary specify the algorithm strength in terms of just a key size. For example, in the case of the RC5 algorithm, the number of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, rounds must also be considered. For algorithms whose strength needs to be expressed as more than a key size, the permission entry should also specify an AlgorithmParameterSpec class name (such as javax.crypto.spec.RC5ParameterSpec ) and brothers karamazov summary a list of parameters for constructing the specified AlgorithmParameterSpec object. Items that appear in suitors mean, a permission entry must appear in the specified order. An entry is terminated with a semicolon. Case is unimportant for the identifiers ( grant , permission ) but is significant for the crypto permission class name or for summary, any string that is passed in as a value. NOTE: An * can be used as a wildcard for any permission entry option. Workable? For example, an * (without the quotes) for an alg_name option means all algorithms. Appendix C: Maximum Key Sizes Allowed by Strong Jurisdiction Policy Files.

Due to import control restrictions, the summary, jurisdiction policy files shipped with the detection and correction, Java SE Development Kit allow strong but limited cryptography to be used. Brothers Summary? For more info, please see Import Limits on Cryptographic Algorithms.

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A brief introduction on applied sociology. By Dr Zuleyka Zevallos, 23 May 2009. 1. The aim of this article is to broadly sketch what it means to karamazov summary be working as an move rememberer, applied sociologist. I begin with a general introduction into brothers the discipline of of creating information systems in a period of time is called:, sociology, before providing a definition of its applied branch. I then provide a concise background history of the brothers different practices that might be considered under the rubric of applied sociology.

Lastly, I present an outline of the professional skills that a degree in sociology can offer its graduates. My discussion on does mean applied sociology refers to those professionals who use the principles of sociology outside a university setting in order to summary provide their clients with an in-depth understanding of some specific facet of society that requires information gathering and The Scarlet Letter analysis. Applied sociologists work in various industries, including private business, government agencies and not-for-profit organisations. The work of applied sociologists is summary especially concerned with changing the current state of social life for the better. This can include anything from increasing the health and wellbeing of of War: Coping Things Essay, a disadvantaged community group; working with law enforcement organisations to implement a rehabilitation program for brothers, criminal offenders; assisting in planning for suitors mean, natural disasters; and enhancing existing government programs and policies. I will show that a degree in sociology has several career benefits, but I specifically focus on the strong communication, research and interpersonal skills that prove advantageous to brothers karamazov summary sociology graduates looking for work. I argue that applied sociology can help to improve any professional sector that might benefit from move rememberer, a critical evaluation of how a particular social issue, group or organisation works. Photo: michele0188, via Flickr. In a very general sense, sociology can be defined as the study of the bases of social membership (Abercrombie, Hill and brothers summary Turner 2000: 333).

That is, sociology is the study of what it means to be a member of Essays, a particular society, and it involves the brothers summary critical analysis of the different types of social connections and social structures that constitute a society. This includes questions about how and why different groups are formed and the various meanings attached to different modes of social interaction, such as between individuals or social networks; face to face versus online communications; local and global discourses, and so on. Sociology also encompasses the study of the social institutions that shape social action. A social institution is a complex, but distinctive, sub-system of society that regulates human conduct (Berger 1963: 87). Move Rememberer? For example, the media acts as a social institution that can influence the way in which facts are represented and interpreted; the law and politics impact on the ways in which different cultural groups define what is deemed right and brothers summary moral; the Nathaniel and Transcendentalism institutions of economy and education affect social status (that is, wealth and inequality among individuals); and the institution of family shapes our ideas about brothers karamazov summary partnership, work, gender, sex, childrearing, and our bodies, as well as various other aspects of our lives. Sociology can therefore be used to study all the social experiences that human beings are capable of move rememberer, imagining from practices of childbirth, to brothers summary the use technologies, to our attitudes and Thesis in Different rituals regarding death and everything else in between. People usually understand their problems in reference to brothers summary their own personal life story and they are not always aware of the complex links between their own lives and the rest of the worlds history (Mills 1959: 5).

The sociological imagination helps us to make sense of the connections between history, biography and place (Mills 1959: 6). Sociology is the study of society. Error? It involves the critical analysis of the different types of summary, social memberships, connections institutions that constitute society across place time. Sociology allows us to study individual behaviour in a broader context, to does suitors mean take into consideration how societal forces might impact upon individuals, as well as the ways in which individuals construct the world around them, and how they manage to resist existing power relationships in order to achieve social change. In this light, sociology represents a transformation of consciousness (Berger 1963: 21). Sociology questions taken-for-granted assumptions about the world we live in brothers karamazov, (what we see as familiar and normal within the move rememberer context of our everyday lives), and it provides a new and more critical perspective of the summary world, through the use of scientific theories, concepts and empirical evidence. Sociology is often perceived as an academic profession, but there are many places outside of universities where sociology can be used to enhance personal and professional development. A definition of applied sociology. Applied sociology is a term that describes practitioners who use sociological theories and methods outside of Hawthorne’s Letter and Transcendentalism, academic settings with the aim to produce positive social change through active intervention (Bruhn 1999: 1). Brothers Summary? More specifically, applied sociology might be seen as the translation of sociological theory into practice for specific clients. That is, this term describes the use of mean, sociological knowledge in answering research questions or problems as defined by specific interest groups, rather than the researcher (Steele and Price 2007: 4).

Applied research is sometimes conducted within a multidisciplinary environment and in collaboration with different organisations, including community services, activist groups and brothers karamazov sometimes in partnership with universities. Suitors? Some applied sociologists may not explicitly use sociological theories or methods in their work, but they may use their sociological training more broadly to inform their work and summary their thinking. Applied Sociology: using sociological theories methods beyond academia to answer client questions. I will now go on to provide a broad overview of the history of applied sociology, including some of the professional roles that sociologists have traditionally taken on, and the variations of sociological practices that exist today. History and applications of sociological practice. Harry Perlstadt (2007) traces the history of applied sociology to 1850, and the work of Auguste Comte, one of does, sociologys founding figures. Perlstadt writes that Comte divided the discipline of sociology in two parts: social statics , the summary study of social order, and social dynamics , the study of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s, social progress and brothers karamazov development (2004: 342-343). Error? Perlstadt argues that Comtes theory lends itself to two types of sociologies: basic research and karamazov summary social interventionism. Basic researchers educate and influence public debate, and move rememberer social interventionists are political activists who are responsible for actively enforcing social change (2004: 343). According to Perlstadt, Comte saw applied researchers as occupying a translational role in-between these two positions. Nevertheless, almost 160 years later, there remains a long-standing divide between the so-called pure and practical research traditions in sociology.

While these differences may appear to be artificial, ambivalence persists between academic and applied sociologies, despite the fluidity and intersections between these practices (see Gouldner 1965; DeMartini 1982; Rossi 1980). Hans Zetterberg (1964) argues that practical sociological knowledge might be distinguished into karamazov summary five roles: decision-maker, educator, social critic, researcher for clients, and consultant. First, the sociologist as decision-maker is Durkheim’s Thesis on Social Solidarity in Different someone who uses social science in order to shape policy decisions (1964: 57-58). The sociologist as an educator is a person who teaches sociology to brothers students, typically in a university setting (1964: 28-60), although sociology is the process workable systems in a is called: now increasingly taught in high schools and as part of specialist courses. The sociologist as a commentator and social critic is someone who writes for brothers summary, a wider public through books and articles aimed at an educated public, with a view of influencing public opinion (1964: 61-62). The sociologist as researcher for clients might be someone who works with public or private organisations, such as mental health groups, banks, or some other company that commissions research on very specific topics (1964: 61-62). Finally, the sociologist who acts as a consultant works to answer a specific and Durkheim’s Solidarity of Societies practical problem as defined by a particular client, using their clients language and by making specific reference to their clients problem, rather than a broader social problem or grand social theory (1964: 62-63). Zetterberg positions applied sociologists as fulfilling the latter two roles: client work and consultancy . Applied Sociology Roles: Decision-maker, educator, social critic, researcher for clients, consultant. Variations of karamazov, Applied Sociological Practices. Joseph DeMartini (1979) identifies that applied sociology can take on two variations. First, applied researchers might use basic empirical methods in collecting information in order to help shape informed decisions, such as in the creation of social policy.

In this meaning, sociologists might be directly working within government agencies, or they might work for private research organisations, or they might be contracted for what suitors mean, one or the other. He lists the following activities as examples of this applied methodological approach: evaluation research, program evaluation, cost/benefit analysis, systems analysis, community ethnography, public opinion polling, and market analysis (1979: 333). While these sociologists might employ scientific theories and concepts, their specialisation is actually the application of sociological research techniques in order to gather specific information, rather than the application of sociological theories per brothers se (1979: 334). Second, applied researchers might be employed more specifically for their knowledge of sociological concepts and theories in order to The Horrors of War: In The Things They help their clients better understand a narrowly defined issue. Activities might include assessing the determinants of observed phenomena, such as the causes of crime, explaining demographic changes, and evaluating the shifts in social movements. Alternatively, applied sociologists might propose a course of action in order to achieve targeted change, such as by increasing the summary economic outcomes of a disadvantaged community, reforming illegal behaviours, or developing a framework in order to prepare a local community in the advent of a natural disaster (1979: 334).

To clarify the distinction between these two applied practices, DeMartini uses the example of social policy: in the first case, where methods take primacy, applied sociological research techniques are employed in error and correction, order to brothers summary create and inform new social policies; in the second instance, where theories and concepts have greater relevance to the clients, applied sociological knowledge is used to evaluate existing social policies. DeMartini notes, however, that this differentiation is for illustration purposes, and workable systems in a short period is called: that, in fact, applied practices run along a continuum in brothers summary, between these two practices (1979: 333). Methods and theories cannot be used in Solidarity, isolation, but some jobs might require more emphasis on karamazov one than the other. Applied sociological practices. Distinguishing Academic and Applied Sociology. Howard Freeman and and correction Peter Rossi (1984) argue that the brothers karamazov summary application of sociological knowledge is different for academic and applied sociologists. They see that some of the work that academics do might be considered to Nathaniel Letter and Transcendentalism be applied, particularly as universities are seeking more external revenue, and so they encourage academics to brothers carry out of War: Coping In The Things They Essay contract work. Nevertheless, by summary, and large, Freeman and on Social Solidarity in Different Rossi see that academic and applied sociologists are distinguished in summary, six ways. First, applied sociologists careers rely less on publishing in academic journals, and, instead, they focus more on the utility of their work to a specialised (non-academic) audience . Since, they are hired by external stakeholders, their rewards are judged by their sponsors, on the basis of whether these clients see the work as being useful to them (1984: 572).

Academics rely more on Nathaniel Hawthorne’s and Transcendentalism Essays peer-evaluations, and there is high prestige in brothers summary, publishing in Thesis Essay, academic journals. Second, Freeman and Rossi argue that applied sociologists have narrow constraints on their time and the specificity of brothers summary, their work outputs , while academic sociologists are more free to of War: Coping Things Essay choose their research topic (notwithstanding the politics of grant funding and the publishing potential of brothers karamazov summary, certain topics) (1984: 572-573). Third, applied sociologists adhere to of War: In The Carried Essay absolute norms of rigorous scholarship only to the extent necessary to achieve usable results (1984: 573; my emphasis). There is sometimes a swift turnover expected of the work by applied researchers, while academics generally have a longer time-frame with which to develop their scholarship. Fourth, applied sociologists are more concerned with external validity, that is, the extent to karamazov which their conclusions speak directly to the process of creating workable very their specific clients topic area , rather than to some general social problem or broader group. Academics tend to focus more on internal validity to making a contribution to the academic literature, and the judgements of their peers (1984: 573). Fifth, applied sociologists are driven by the practical payoffs of their activities, such as their clients judgement of the brothers karamazov utility of this applied work to the clients situation, while academics are required to defend the merits of their work in relation to their theoretical contribution.

In connection, the final difference between applied and academic sociologists is Solidarity in Different Types that the former judges the success of their work on their clients adoption of brothers summary, their proposed solutions , and their ability to influence their stakeholders decision-making , while the conclusions proposed by academics do not always lend themselves to specific actions (1984: 573). Freeman and Rossis distinctions between the work of academic and In The Carried applied sociologists are, in reality, not so absolute, but these points do identify some of the broad facets of brothers karamazov, applied sociology. In summary, applied sociologists work for Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Letter and Transcendentalism, specific stakeholders, their research topics and brothers summary time is Durkheim’s Thesis on Social in Different Types Essay often constrained by karamazov, their sponsors needs and wishes, their work is less concerned with making a contribution to academic scholarship, and they are more interested in practical payoffs that will have a direct influence on The Horrors of War: Coping Carried Essay their clients. There are various other sociological practices that fall under the applied rubric. For example, clinical sociology is a term that has been used since the 1930s to describe sociologically based interventions, usually in reference to sociological work done across the health sector, in social work, and even in forensic settings (Bruhn and Rebach 1996: 3). This work includes collaborating with medical practitioners, nurses, psychologists, psychiatrists and nutritionists, as well as advocacy and support in mental health programs, including through counselling, interpersonal therapy, intervention programs with youth, substance abuse services, and group grief counselling. The term social engineering describes the applied research activities that are used in social planning, and summary it is workable information in a very period is called: also used to critique the karamazov value judgements made about what constitutes pure and applied research (Gouldner 1965; Israel 1966).

Jonathan Turner (1998) runs with the idea of sociological engineering to describe the type of sociology that tries to deal with the real world (1998: 246). He argues that applied sociological knowledge lends itself to a systems engineering approach. He sees that applied sociology should be used to break abstract theoretical principles into rules of thumb about social structures, in order to identify how societies are built, how to and correction evaluate the problems of brothers karamazov, a given social structure, and Durkheim’s Thesis in Different Types of Societies how to break down the brothers summary structures that are not working well (1998: 248). Whatever we choose to call it, applied sociologists use of what suitors mean, methods and theories has one central goal: to change some specific facet of social life. One thing that practitioners seem to agree on is that their work needs to be carried out in a way that is karamazov both accessible to their clients and They Carried devoid of academic jargon. In this connection, applied sociology has some synergy with public sociology , the branch of sociology that aims to engage lay audiences, including neighborhood groups and brothers grassroots organisations, with the aim of stimulating informed public dialogue (Burawoy 2004: 5-6). Rita Simon (1987) argues that communication skills are quintessential in an applied context; sociologists who work in non-academic sectors should therefore be able to express themselves in plain language and not in sociologese (using phrases that only people with a sociology degree might understand). She writes, Basically, I think graduate students have to be taught that scientific writing is The Scarlet Letter Essays not a thing apart from ordinary prose; the aim is still to communicate efficiently, effectively, and karamazov if possible, aesthetically (1987: 34). The next section takes up this issue of graduate careers in applied sociology.

Employers place a strong value in sociological training, including our methodological excellence in conducting research and analysis, our ability to evaluate a wide variety of resources, and our effective communication skills, both written and oral (Germov and Poole 2006: 12). Moreover, sociologists are trained to appreciate different world-views, and so our interpersonal skills also give us an advantage in the job marketplace (cf. Sabin 1987: 396). Most job advertisements (at least in Australia) will indicate two requirements that are nowadays almost universal in Durkheim’s in Different Types, professional sectors: reflexive social skills and the ability for workers to adhere to brothers summary equity and diversity laws. Of War: Coping Things They Essay? Sociology graduates are well placed to get along with their co-workers, to respect diversity in the workplace, and to foster good client relationships with various different public groups due to our disciplines comparative focus on other cultures, and our critical appreciation of social context (both in terms of summary, history and place). Despite their marketable qualities, sociology graduates do not always understand the types of career pathways available to them outside of academia. Few jobs that sociologists do are labelled under the category of error and correction, sociologist.

Nevertheless, the karamazov reality is that sociologists general skills are useful in a wide range of professional contexts. For example, Edward Sabin (1987) writes that in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet and Transcendentalism Essays, Washington, USA, of the 1.6 million non-academic jobs that were listed in karamazov, 1980, only 560 were identified as sociologists. The rest of the people in this sample were employed predominantly as professional and Hawthorne’s technical workers (113,640 people), systems analysts (19,850), and as writers and/or editors (8,690). A smaller proportion of workers were employed as public relations specialists (3,750), statisticians (2,870), statistical clerks (1,040), and urban and summary regional planners (760) (1987: 396). Hawthorne’s And Transcendentalism Essays? Sabin argues that the position of systems analyst holds great potential for applied sociologists, as it involves data processing, as well as an karamazov, understanding of how organisations and businesses work. He writes, Sociologists have a head start in understanding how people, procedures, and automated systems fit together, which is the focus of the systems analyst (1987: 397). As far as the professional and technical workers category is concerned, Sabin sees that the general skills of a sociologist, rather than their specialist knowledge in one niche area (such as the topic of their thesis), is more likely to open up employment opportunities. So, while employers may not advertise for sociologists, they might instead ask for the various roles identified above, as well as some of the positions listed below (although this is by no means an what does mean, exhaustive list): public policy assistant,

urban development adviser, human rights officer, impact planning or evaluations officer, Sociology graduates therefore need to have a broader understanding of the different types of career paths that are out there waiting for them, and they need to better recognise that sociologists can be employed in the most (seemingly) unlikely places. For further discussion of applied sociology in the Australian context, and summary some examples of these practitioners work, see our online journal, Working Notes. Jobs in Applied Sociology. Applied sociological work can fit in move rememberer, well within any professional context; wherever people work, sociologists can help them grow by better understanding their business, their workers, their work practices, or whatever issues are of interest to brothers karamazov summary their organisation. Rather than having a narrow focus on of War: Coping Things They the types of companies and brothers groups that might hire sociologists, sociology students and the wider public need to better recognise that sociologists are employed across a multitude of business, government and private industries. The quality of their work is exemplary, and, moreover, it can make a substantial contribution to the way the world works.

Visit our Working Notes section to read articles about applied sociology written by applied sociologists, or watch our videos with applied researchers and activists. See our other resources. 1. At the what does suitors time of writing, Zuleyka was employed as a Social Scientist in the Australian public service, and she was an Adjunct Research Fellow with the Swinburne Institute of Social Research, Australia. She remains in brothers, her Adjunct position but now works as an applied sociologist elsewhere. What Does? This article was last updated 5th June 2014: added sub-headings and images. Paragraphs broken up into smaller chunks. Added Further Resources section. No text in the body of the article has been otherwise altered. Thank you to Lucy Nelms for commenting on an earlier draft of this article. Abercrombie, N., S. Karamazov? Hill and B. Move Rememberer? S. Turner (2000) The Penguin Dictionary Of Sociology , 4th ed.

London: Penguin Books. Berger, P. (1963) Invitation To Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective . New York: Anchor Books. Bruhn, J. Karamazov? G. Of Societies? (1999) Introductory Statement: Philosophy and Future Direction, Sociological Practice 1(1): 1-2. Bruhn, J. G. and H. M. Karamazov Summary? Rebach (1996) Clinical Sociology: An Agenda For Action . New York: Plenum Press. Burawoy, M. (2004) Public Sociologies: Contradictions, Dilemmas, And Possibilities, Social Forces 82(4): 1-16. DeMartini, J. R. (1979) Applied Sociology: An Attempt At Clarification And Assessment, Teaching Sociology 6(4): 331-354.

DeMartini, J. R. Thesis In Different Types? (1982) Basic And Applied Sociological Work: Divergence, Convergence, Or Peaceful Co-existence?, The Journal Of Applied Behavioural Science 18(2): 203-215. Freeman, H. E. and P. H. Rossi (1984) Furthering The Applied Side Of Sociology, American Sociological Review 49(4): 571-580. Germov, J. and M. Poole (2006) The Sociological Gaze: Linking Private Lives To Public Issues pp. 3-20 in J. Germov and M. Poole (Eds) Public Sociology: An Introduction To Australian Society . Crows Nest: Allen Unwin. Gouldner, A. W. (1965) Explorations In Applied Social Science, pp. 5-22 in brothers karamazov summary, A. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Letter? W. Karamazov Summary? Gouldner (Ed) Applied Sociology: Opportunities And Problems . New York: Free Press. Israel, J. (1966) Remarks On The Sociology Of Social Scientists, Acta Sociologica 9(3-4): 193-200. Mills, C. W. (1959) The Sociological Imagination . Error Detection? New York: Oxford University Press. Perlstadt, H. (2007) Applied Sociology, pp.

342-352 in C. D. Bryant and D. L. Peck (Eds) 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook . Karamazov? Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Rossi, P. H. (1980) Presidential Address: The Challenge And Opportunities Of Applied Social Research, American Sociological Review 45(6): 889-904. Sabin, E. (1987) Hidden Jobs: Good News For Sociologists, The American Sociologist 18(4): 394-399. Simon, R. J. (1987) Graduate Education In Sociology: What Do We Need To Do Differently?, The American Sociologist 18(1): 32-36. Steele, S. F. and J. Price (2007) Applied Sociology: Terms, Topics, Tools And Tasks, 2nd ed . Nathaniel The Scarlet Letter And Transcendentalism Essays? Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth Publishing. Turner, J. H. (1998) Must Sociological Theory And Sociological Practice Be So Far Apart?: A Polemical Answer, Sociological Perspectives 41(2): 243-258.

Zetterberg, H. L. (1964) The Practical Use Of Sociological Knoweldge, Acta Sociologica 7(2): 57-72.

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1313 Words Free Sample Essay on Olympic Games. The Olympic Games were first instituted by the Greeks in the year 776 B.C. It is also the date from which the brothers karamazov, Greeks began to keep their calendar by #8220;Olympiads#8221; of four years#8217; span between one round of games and another. These games were combined with other patriotic, religious and athletic festivals held every four years. These games were held every four years at a place called Olympus in of War: Coping They Essay, Greece. Atheletes from all over Greece used to go to these games. Brothers Karamazov! In the modem age, the Olympic Games were first of all organised in 1896 at The Horrors Things Carried Athens, in Greece. The credit for the revival of these Games goes to Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a French educator. The underlying objective of reviving these Games was to create a better international understanding through the universal medium of youth#8217;s love for games.

Since 1896 A.D. the Olympic Games have been held more or less every fourth year. The venue of these Games is brothers karamazov changed from country to country depending upon does, the capability and karamazov summary resources of the country to host such Games. These Games have not been held in India so far. The Olympic Games are held in error and correction, high esteem by all countries. Thousands of athletes from brothers karamazov summary all over the world assemble to participate in these Games. These Games foster international brotherhood and understanding.

The Olympic symbol depicts five rings or circles. These rings symbolise the five continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America. Each ring is of a different colour i.e., blue, yellow, black, green and red. These rings are linked together. The Olympic Flag has interlocking rings on a plain white background. The Olympic Flame represents the The Horrors Coping They, continuity between the brothers, ancient and the modern Games. First of all, the torch is move rememberer lit by the Sun#8217;s rays at Olympus in Greece. Then with the help of this torch, the Olympic Flame is kindled and carried to the venue of the summary, Games by relays of winners. This flame is kept burning till the last day of the Games. At the the process of creating systems in a of time is called:, outset, 6very athlete of the host country recites the oath that he will participate#8217; In the brothers karamazov, Olympic Games respecting and error abiding by the rules which govern these games.

In ancient times, the Olympic heroes were honoured with Laurel Wreaths. But in modern times, the winners are awarded medals and certificates. Those who stand first are given a gold medal; a silver medal is given to the second and a bronze medal to the player standing third. At present, 38 sports are played at the Olympic Games. The 24th Olympic Games were held in the year 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. U.S.S.R. topped the medal tally by clinching 55 golds while GD.R. And U.S.A. secured second and brothers karamazov summary third place respectively by claiming 37 and 36 gold medals each.

India failed to win even a single medal. Does Mean! Sportspersons like Kristine Otto of GD.R. in swimming and Florence Griffith-Joyner of U.S.A. in the tracks won the hearts of sports-loving persons throughout the world. The other important thing about this Olympics was that after a very long time both America and Soviet Union participated in it. The 25th Olympic Games were held at Barcelona in 1992, while the 26th Olympic Games were held at Atlanta in brothers, U.S.A. from July 19 to on Social Types, August 4, 1996. It was the centenary year of the Modern Olympics. The United States topped the medal tally by winning 44 golds followed by Russia and Germany.

The hero of the Atlanta Olympics was Carl Lewis who jumped to his 9th Olympic gold at karamazov the age of 35. India continued its dismal performance in Essay, these Olympics too. India participated in 13 events. Barring lawn tennis, the Indians fell by brothers karamazov summary, the wayside in all individual events. The 23-year-old Leander Paes won an Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Letter and Transcendentalism Essays Olympic bronze for brothers karamazov lawn tennis.

Paes made a kind of history in India#8217;s dismal Olympic record by becoming the only second Indian ever to win a medal for an individual event. The 27th Olympic Games were held in Sydney, Australia from September 15 to the process of creating workable information in a very short of time is called:, October 1, 2000. Brothers! Australia was indeed the ideal choice to host this big event as it is one of the three countries which have attended every Game since 1896. Sydney Olympics 2000, the first Olympiad of the New Millennium as also of the 21st Century, was the greatest show on Earth with the participation of The Horrors They Carried, a record number of brothers karamazov, athletes (over 10,300) and approximately 5,100support staff, representing the largest ever number of countries (199) competing in Durkheim’s Thesis Solidarity of Societies, a record number of 300 events in 28 sports disciplines. The XXVII Sydney Olympics 2000-rated as the brothers summary, #8220;Best Olympics ever#8221; by and correction, IOC President, Mr. Juan Antonio Samaranch-can claim many distinctive features. The 14-storied Stadium Australia, the main Olympic Stadium and the largest outdoor venue in Olympic history (which hosted both the Opening and Closing Ceremonies) accommodating 1, 10,000 spectators was the main attraction.

The Olympic village, a model environment-friendly residential site which housed over brothers karamazov summary 10,300 athletes and over 5000 officials, was the first and the largest solar-powered housing complex where all the participants were accommodated in the process information short period of time, one Olympic village for the first time in the history of the Games. The Opening Ceremony on September 15, 2000 in Sydney Australia was witnessed by brothers summary, over one lakh spectators, while thousands of others were glued to big screens set up across the detection and correction, city and another 3.7 billion sports lover watched the inaugural event of the XXVII Modern Olympics live on their TV sets the brothers summary, world over. The closing ceremony pageant was as spectacular as the opening ceremony. Out of the 199 participating countries of Sydney Olympics 2000, 80 made it to the medal chart, topped by detection, the United States with 39 gold, 25 silver and 33 bronze and followed by Russia and China. The New Millennium#8217;s first Olympics saw India at the rock bottom, sharing the last position (70th) along with ten other countries in the medal tally. Athens Olympics 2004 got off to a grand start in brothers karamazov summary, Greece#8217;s capital, Athens, on August 13, 2004, with an impressive opening ceremony that brought the myths of ancient Greece back to life through the magic of 21st century technology, thus marking the return of the Olympic Games to their spiritual home. The grand show enacted the story of early Greece and the birth of the Olympic Games through music, dance and pageantry and provided an suitors insight into Modern Olympics that were revived 108 years ago in Athens itself. In the Olympic Games 2004, U.S.A. Karamazov! topped the final medals tally with a total of 103 medals (35 Gold, 39 Silver and 29 Bronze) followed by and China with 63 medals (32 Gold, 17 Silver, 14 Bronze) and Russia with 92 medals (27 Gold, 27 Silver and 38 Bronze). Major Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore became the first Indian sportsperson to win an individual Olympics Silver medal. The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to the process in a short is called:, August 24, 2008.

A total of 10,708 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 302 Gold medals in 38 events. Three nations participated in the Olympics for the first time. China became the 22nd nation to host the Olympic Games and the 18th to hold a Summer Olympic Games. In the Olympic Games 2008, China won 51 Gold medals followed by the USA, which got 36 Gold medals. Russia bagged 23 Gold medals. On August 11, 2008, Abhinav Bindra won the gold medal in the men#8217;s 10m air rifle shooting event.

In doing so, he won the first ever individual gold medal for India and summary the first medal in any event for India the Beijing Games. Sushil Kumar won the second ever wrestling medal (bronze) for India. Vijender Kumar won a bronze medal in the middleweight boxing category. This was India#8217;s first-ever Olympic medal in boxing. What Suitors! Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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Essay on Communalism in brothers summary, Indian Politics. In this essay we will discuss about the communalism in Indian politics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Role of Communalism in Indian Politics 2. Communal Politics after Partition of India 3. What Does Suitors Mean. Causes Responsible for Communalism. List of Essays on Communalism in Indian Politics. Essay on the Role of Communalism in Indian Politics Essay on Communal Politics after Partition of India Essay on the Causes Responsible for Communalism. 1. Essay on the Role of Communalism in Indian Politics: For centuries people belonging to different religious communities have been living together in India without any friction or ill will.

Major communities in India being the Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs, the brothers, Christians, the Parsees, the Jains, the Buddhists, etc. All these communities lived with each other in perfect toleration. It was only at the turn of the century that the British rulers in does, India followed policy of karamazov summary, divide and rule and with that the gulf between various religious communities very considerably increased. The device of giving separate representation to each major community in elected bodies and civil services widened the gap, particularly among two major Indian communities, namely, the mean, Hindus and the Muslims. When late Muhammed Ali Jinnah expounded his two nation theory, gap between these communities still more widened. The result of brothers karamazov summary, all this was that there was communal hatred. Does Suitors Mean. Before the brothers karamazov, partition of the country, there were communal riots in some parts of the country resulting in the killing of several hundred people and looting and burning property worth crores of move rememberer, rupees.

Everything inhuman and brothers karamazov unhuman was done in the name of religion. The country had to be partitioned because the Muslim League, under the leadership of M.A. Jinnah made it clear that the Muslims and the Hindus were two separate nations, which could not live together and partition of India was the only solution of communal and political problems of the of creating workable in a, country. 2. Essay on brothers karamazov, Communal Politics after Partition of India: In 1947, India was partitioned and with that migration of population started. Conditions in the country were such that it was almost impossible for the Hindus to respectfully live in the areas which formed Pakistan and thus they had to migrate. From India some of the Muslims migrated but a vast majority decided to remain in the county.

When constitution was being enacted there was a demand that the Hindus should have full control over political life of India because the country had been partitioned 011 the basis of two nations theory and that the Muslims had got their home land. They should migrate there and if they decided to live in India they should remain as second rate citizens. But leadership at that time firmly stood against this view point. It was made clear that religion should have no part and role to play in Coping Things They Carried Essay, Indian politics. It had already done sufficient harm and could not be allowed to do more harm to our polity. It was, therefore, decided that India will be a secular state and karamazov subsequently this was incorporated even in the preamble of the constitution itself. Several clauses in The Horrors In The They Essay, the constitution accordingly provided that no distinction between religious communities in any walks of life will be made on karamazov, the basis of religion.

In other words, constitution fathers were determined to see that religion did not become a heavy weight on political life of the country. In order to lessen the what does, influence of religion on politics under the Representation of brothers summary, Peoples Act, it was made clear that influencing of voters in the name of move rememberer, religion or exploitation of religious sentiments to get votes, was liable to even make the election of successful candidate invalid. No such symbol will be allotted to any political party, which is likely to karamazov summary, exploit religious sentiments of any religious community or injure those bf any other. There will be no religious instructions in any state owned controlled or fully or partly financed educational institution. Similarly none in the state will in any way get preference in any way simply because of religion. But unfortunately much which was expected by constitution fathers about the role of move rememberer, religion in politics has not come true.

Some of the orthodox religious minded persons could not reconcile themselves to the idea of a secular India in which the Hindus were to be placed on equal footings with other religious communities. But they had no popular base support and strength and it was accepted by a vast majority of Indias population that the country should be a secular state. But in spite of all this in India there have been communal riots from time to karamazov summary, time between two major religious communities; namely, the Hindus and the Muslims. These indicate that even after the lapse of such a long time some in The Horrors Coping They Essay, India, belonging to both the communities, have not fully reconciled themselves to brothers, the basic idea and of creating short of time is called: philosophy of secularism. After the partition of the country, when there was turmoil, for about a decade or so, there were no communal riots in India and it appeared that all was going well, but situation began to gradually change thereafter. It was, however, in brothers, October, 1961, that communal riots broke out in Aligarh Muslim University and the trouble spread outside the university and in some parts of U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

It was with great difficulty that situation could be controlled. To the satisfaction of move rememberer, all, for some time there were no riots in brothers karamazov summary, the country till 1963 when communal riots broke out in J K. In December of that year it was reported that sacred hair of Prophet Mohammed was missing from Hazratbal Mosque in Srinagar. There were hartals, demonstrations and violence as well as lawlessness in the process information very of time, the state. The relic was recovered and certified as the original one. But some orthodox Muslims did not accept its genuineness and continued demonstrations which spread in some part of the East Pakistan. Large number of the karamazov summary, Hindus was killed and their properties looted. Thousands of them were forced to leave the country to migrate to India. It is estimated that more than 5 lakhs Hindus and move rememberer those belonging to other religious minorities were forced to cross over to brothers, India.

There were riots in some parts of Bengal and Bihar as well. It was again with great difficulty that communal harmony could be restored. Communal riots again broke out at Washim in Maharashtra in 1966. On October 2, i.e. on The Horrors Things Carried, the birth of brothers summary, Mahatma Gandhi, the prophet of non-violence. It is Nathaniel Letter and Transcendentalism Essays said that some members of a religious community threw stones on the processionists of the other community who were taking out a procession in brothers karamazov, support of cow protection. This resulted in opening of fire by the police, in which several persons were killed. In 1967, there were again serious communal troubles. The issue of trouble was that a girl belonging one community was converted and married to a boy belonging to the other community. The former did not tolerate this. The agitation gradually spread to some other parts of the state and resulted in several casualties. The Process Of Creating Systems Short Period Is Called:. The troops had to be called out to control the situation.

But in October of the karamazov summary, same year there were riots in the state. On Social Types Essay. This time the point of infuriation was that it was alleged that some torn pages of holy Quran were found in a latrine. Again police had to be called out. Four days later Jan Sangh also organised a demonstration and thus situation became tense and was tactfully brought under control. In 1968, there were riots in four states, namely, U.P., Assam, West Bengal and Bihar. In U.P. early in the year in January some people belonging to one community are alleged to have attacked a political meeting of the other community and in the riots that followed 17 persons were killed. On March 15 riots broke out in Allahabad on Holi day resulting in the death of three persons. In Assam riots broke out on March 2,1968 on a stray cow incident and in that seven persons were killed. A few days later cow became the cause of karamazov, communal riots at Tinsukia. But serious riots broke out in Bihar in 1968 over period is called: the issue of Urdu to be given the brothers karamazov, status of the process of creating workable systems in a very period, second official language. This was opposed by Jan Sangh, a constituent unit in the government.

The riots were of so serious magnitude that more than 150 Persons are stated to have been killed. In Calcutta, in March of the same year there was some quarrel between a Hindu and a Muslim, which took a communal turn. In order to brothers, control the situation, police had to be given shoot at sight orders. In Aurangabad riots broke out when a Muslim baker killed a cow. This infuriated the Thesis on Social Types of Societies Essay, Hindus who looted property and destroyed bakery. Several houses were burnt and thus considerable damage was done to brothers, public and error and correction private property.

In 1969, serious communal riots broke out in Ahmedabad in September of that year. In this case again cow became cause of trouble. It is stated that a herd of cows which belonged to a Hindu Temple injured few Muslim boys near a mosque. The Muslims in turn drove the cows in the temple to which these belonged. This infuriated the Hindus, who retaliated and as a consequence tension developed which shortly became riots. According to some sources about brothers, 600 persons were killed, while others estimate it at 1200. Several political leaders and Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, who happened to be in detection, India at that time, went on brothers summary, fast to touch the conscience of the people to give up communal hatred. But in May 1970, communal riots broke out at Bhiwandi near Bombay, when it is alleged that a procession being taken out in honour of Shivaji was stoned by some miscreants. These infuriated the processionists and in the riots that broke out about a thousand houses were destroyed and what does some 80 persons were killed.

In a statement issued by the then Union Minister of State in the Ministry of karamazov summary, Home Affairs in the year 1973 as many as 242 incidents of communal violence took place in the country. One serious riot of the year broke out in December of The Horrors of War: Coping Things They Carried, that year in Meerut, in which political parties charged each other for the outbreak of riots in which nine persons were killed. In May 1974, serious riots broke out in Delhi and in order to control the situation Border Security Force had to be called out. During 1975-77 India was under emergency and on communal fronts there were no riots. But trouble again started after Janata Government came to power in 1977. In 1978, there were serious riots in Aligarh resulting in loss of brothers karamazov summary, many lives. There were incidents of communal violence in some other parts of the country as well. Communal trouble again started in August 1980 on what mean, Id day at summary, Moradabad. The Horrors Carried. It is alleged that when prayers were going on some stray animal went in brothers summary, the mosque. It became the source of trouble. In the subsequent communal trouble about 150 persons including some police men were killed.

As a consequence communal trouble also started in Delhi on 15th August, 1980 soon after the Prime Minister had finished her speech from the ramparts of Red Fort on independence day. The same spread in some parts of and correction, Gujarat and J K. But few days later trouble also started at Allahabad and in some other parts of U.P. Brothers Karamazov Summary. including Sambal and Aligarh. At every place there was loss of life and property. To control the situation army had to be called and Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter curfew imposed. In recent years as many as 180 communal incidents took place during 1986. Of these about karamazov, 50% broke out in Gujarat alone. It has been estimated that about 200 lives were lost in these incidents.

In 1987, serious communal riots broke out in Meerut which resulted in heavy loss of life and property. But communal tension in India very much increase because of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Letter and Transcendentalism Essays, Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid dispute. When the brothers karamazov, masjid was demolished on 6th December, 1992 there were riots in some parts of the country and even outside India resulting in heavy losses of lives and property. In 1993, there were communal riots in Bombay in which hundreds were killed and The Scarlet property worth crores was looted. The riots are always a matter of concern both for the society as well as the government but these are becoming of great serious concern because the karamazov, country side which used to be free from communal tension is now becoming victim of the process very period is called:, communal disharmony. In addition, earlier younger generation kept away from communal politics.

It did not much care for caste and religion but now that generation too is getting involved in this ugly politics. 3. Essay on the Causes Responsible for karamazov Communalism: There is no denial that under the existing conditions in The Horrors of War: Coping They Essay, India, all major Indian communities must live in close harmony with each other, in case both these communities as well as the brothers karamazov, nation as a whole wants to make rapid progress. Each communal riot results in loss of The Horrors Coping Things They Carried, life of the people, creating problems for the families left behind. There is looting of property and its destruction in the wake which creates serious social and economic problems for the individuals as well as the society. Brothers Karamazov Summary. It creates tensions for Durkheim’s on Social Solidarity of Societies Essay the neighbours who had been otherwise living very peacefully. Heavy strain is put on the civil administration, which is forced to divert its resources to the riot torn areas. The task of maintaining law and order becomes very difficult and all developmental activities come to a stand still for summary some time.

The task of reconstruction and rehabilitation of those who are affected by communal fury is in no way easy. The irony is of creating information systems period is called: that no religious, social or political leader of brothers, any community openly supports communal disharmony. As soon as riots break out these leaders invariably issue prompt statements for maintaining communal harmony. They tour riot effected areas and form peace committees and serve on these as well. And yet riots break out.

Then another tragedy is that all this is move rememberer done in the name of brothers, religion, whereas no religion propagates either communal hatred or disharmony or violence or looting of move rememberer, property and killing of the people. A very important question, therefore, arises as to brothers, why communal disharmony is Thesis on Social Solidarity in Different Types of Societies presisting between major religous communities, though the brothers summary, constitution has established a secular set up. Some of the important causes responsible for this are as under: Under the constitution, India has been declared a secular state. The constitution fathers had hoped that all religious communities, including the suitors, Muslims will join the main stream of national life and that they will contribute to the task of national-reconstruction. In fact, soon after the karamazov, partition of the country many Muslim leaders appealed to the Muslims to actively associate themselves in mean, the task of national development which laid before the country. But unfortunately quite a vast majority has not come closer to Hindu majority and brothers general impression and stigma that the Muslims in India were responsible for the partition of the Thesis, country in the past continues. Brothers Karamazov Summary. Some of the Muslims have organised themselves in detection, such organisations as Jamaite-Islami; Jamait-ul-ulama-i-Hind; Muslim Majlis, Muslim League of India and so on. Though these bodies today have no significant role to play in karamazov, national politics, yet the fact remains that by and large the Muslims remain aloof from the majority community and thus the scope for appreciating and understanding each others view point is considerably reduced.

In this way communal harmony is hindered. Then another serious problem is religious orthodoxy of the Muslims. In every society religion, of course, plays a big role but at the same time each society is Nathaniel The Scarlet Letter and Transcendentalism Essays likely to receive a serious set back unless it modernises itself. But there are certain organisations among the Muslims which still preach orthodoxy and do not approve of modernisation. These stress on medieval glories of Islam and supremacy of religion in the life of the individual. These organisations still stress on basic differences which exist between the brothers summary, Hindu and the Muslim ways of living and thinking.

These are not prepared to bring about any change in suitors, Muslim personal laws, in spite of the fact that in some Muslim countries these laws are being reviewed and changed. Not only karamazov this, but they threaten that if any attempt is made to Hawthorne’s The Scarlet and Transcendentalism, change these laws then the Muslims will not hesitate to karamazov summary, make any sacrifice to save that. They want that Art 44 of the constitution, which provides for a uniform civil code should not be applied to the Muslims. These organisations have good following among the Muslims and as such differences between the two communities are made to continue. iii. The Process In A Short. Economic Backwardness of the Muslims:

During the British regime whole of India was economically backward, but even in those days the Muslims were comparatively economically more backward, as compared with the Hindus. It was hoped that after independence when equal opportunities would be provided to all, the Muslims in India would also take the fullest advantage of that. But even now the percentage of Muslims going to educational, technical, medical and brothers karamazov summary other professional institutions is much less than their population. The result is that they are educationally backward, do not occupy high offices and also economically lag behind in business. As such they are today economically backward. This economic disparity between the two communities is creating wide gap and The Horrors Coping In The Things They Carried many misunderstanding; one community feeling that it is being constantly exploited by the other or that the richness of one is brothers karamazov summary only at the cost of poverty of the other.

Pakistan was created on Carried, the basis of two nation theory, i.e., that the brothers karamazov, Hindus and the Muslims were are separate nations, which can not live together. With the creation of Pakistan, the Muslims got their homeland and move rememberer those Muslims who did not wish to live in India migrated to brothers karamazov, Pakistan. It was very much hoped that after the what mean, creation of this new state both the countries will attend to their domestic problems and karamazov devote themselves to the task of national reconstruction, not interfering in the internal affairs of other country. But from the very beginning Pakistan tried to play the role of guardian of the Muslims in India. On the least pretext it tries to provocate the Muslims of detection and correction, India. Brothers Karamazov Summary. In every communal riot it holds the Hindus of India responsible. It always tries to show the world that the Muslims of move rememberer, India are deliberately being kept backward and in a state of slavery. Pakistan radio and press constantly propagates that the Muslims of India are at the mercy of the brothers, Hindus and Durkheim’s on Social of Societies Essay that all crimes against brothers, the Muslims of India are committed in a planned way and with indirect approval of the does suitors mean, government.

In this way many Muslims fall into the trap of propaganda of Pakistan and carry some misconceived notions which do not help bringing the two nations as closer to each other, as otherwise these would have come. v. Responsibility of the Government: Many have held government responsible for the continuance of communalism. Brothers. They point out that Ministers both at the Centre and move rememberer states make such statements at times to win favour of religious communities which result in disharmony, raise un-necessary hopes and make false promises which they cannot keep. These governments so far have failed to find out real causes of communal riots. Ministers approach religious leaders for getting their blessings and request them to appeal to their followers for casting their votes in their favour, etc. All this encourages communalism. Not only this, but it is alleged that quite often law enforcing agencies fail to quickly control communal riots, thus, creating many apprehensions in the minds of worst affected religious community. India has decided to be a secular state in which communal politics should play no role and summary there should be no communal parties.

But even then such communal parties as Jamait-i-Islam, Itahadul Musalmeen, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, etc., are formed which play with religious sentiments of the people belonging to their community. They try to develop narrow out Hawthorne’s The Scarlet and Transcendentalism look among them. They do not hesitate to spread communal violence to maintain their existence and brothers karamazov summary if need be spread even communal hatred. Their leaders know that their leadership is closely linked with creating communal disharmony among various religious communities living in India. Even before the partition of India, when two nation theory was being preached by the Muslim League, there were Hindu organisations which always stressed that India was essentially a land of the Hindus and that the Muslims had come to the country as invaders only. But after the partition of the country many among the Hindus forcefully argued that since the Muslims had got their homeland, India which was now left behind, should be the land of the error detection, Hindus. They talked of Hindu Rashtra, Hindu Sanskriti, Hindu Maryada and so on.

They wanted that high offices in India should exclusively be the monopoly of the Hindus. According to summary, them the Muslims should be Indianised, if they are to become nationalists. Some preached that the Hindus of India should not only remain Hindus but fanatic Hindus as well, so that they could preserve Hindu culture and Thesis Solidarity in Different Types Essay civilisation. Some of these leaders declared that the Muslims in karamazov, India were taking undue advantage of the the process in a very of time, endurance of the Hindus and that this should in no way be allowed to summary, linger on. They charge the government of following policy of appeasement towards the Muslims. When some of the Muslims demanded separate electorates for themselves the Hindu Chauvinists very sharply reacted to the demand and demanded that these Muslims still believed in of creating workable information very short period, two nation theory and should be sent to Pakistan. They characterise the Muslims as dangerous and the biggest den of karamazov, communal and anti-national activities. This attitude of these Hindus creates many apprehensions among the minds of the Muslims and thus widens the gap between the two communities. India is a democracy in error and correction, which each political party tries to catch maximum voters for itself. But in India unfortunately political parties try to have religious communities as a vote bank, which means that community as a whole should vote for it. These try to appease them and leave an impression that interests of one religious community are not safe in the hands of other.

For this the parties try to summary, create communal ill feelings and many misunderstandings as well. ix. Ever Increasing Muslim Population: By and Thesis of Societies Essay large, the Muslims of India have not accepted family planning and welfare programmes launched by the Government of India with the result that their population has rapidly increased. This has created many apprehensions in the minds of the Hindus who feel that in case this tendency is not checked, Muslim population in the country will so much increase that demand will once again be made for the partition of the country. This widens the gap between the two communities resulting in disharmony and apprehensions. Lastly, then comes the attitude of the government. Though at times there have been communal riots in the country, yet the causes of brothers karamazov, problem have not been fully diagnosed. Every time the ruling parties everywhere satisfy themselves by Durkheim’s Thesis on Social of Societies Essay saying that the riots had been masterminded by the opposition parties.

In some cases Jana Sangh and R.S.S. are held responsible whereas in other cases blame is brothers karamazov thrown on Muslim League and detection and correction other Muslim dominated parties. Brothers Summary. But nothing concrete has been done to find out real causes and also remedies of communal disharmony. Nathaniel The Scarlet Letter. This casual attitude of the government does not help in finding real solution of the problem but perpetuates that. xi. Suggestions for Checking Communalism: Thus several causes combined together are responsible for the gap which exists between two major religious communities in karamazov summary, India. In case it is desired that this gap should be abridged for detection that concrete and solid steps will have to summary, be taken. The task is suitors mean difficult, but the satisfaction is that both the communities have not shown any disunity or major differences at the times of emergencies say e.g., during Indo-Pakistan wars. The Muslims and the Hindus stood side by side with each other and did not hesitate to brothers, sacrifice their lives for the sake of mother India. It will be most appropriate, if such religious and political parties are legally banned which propagate communal hatred and live on the exploitation of the religious sentiments of the The Horrors Coping In The They, people, both directly and indirectly. The government should invigorate its propaganda machinery to make the brothers karamazov summary, masses realise the Durkheim’s Solidarity of Societies Essay, harm which these parties are likely to do to national unity and karamazov integrity.

Community festivals which help promoting national unity should be encouraged. It has been found that quite often riots take place at the time of taking out of processions. Elaborate arrangements should be made on these occasions for maintaining law and order. In addition, a code should be developed for all processionists which should be strictly enforced. Rumours should not be allowed to move rememberer, play any role and immediate counter rumours steps should be taken. Those who play important role in curbing communalism and communal riots should be publicly honoured. Mohalla Samitis should be organised, consisting of non-political and non-communal minded persons. Immediate steps should be taken to remove mistrust, if any, between the communities living in the area. No time should be allowed to lapse because that increases mistrust.

In maintaining law and brothers karamazov order police authorities should seek maximum co-operation of the minorities and weaker section of society. Those police officers who have communal feelings should not be posted in communal sensitive areas. Need, importance and Thesis on Social Solidarity of Societies utility of communal harmony should be propagated vigorously. An eye should be kept on the activities of communal militant organations and where necessary checks should be applied. Brothers. It should be ensured that religious places are not used for preaching communal disharmony or hatred. These should not be allowed to be used for storing weapons.

Where riots frequently break out Letter and Transcendentalism Essays collective fines should be imposed so that all feel the punch of communal fury. It is only then that religion will not become a heavy weight on the political life of India, but will become a cementing force for nations unity and territorial integrity. Those preachings of all religions which aim at communal harmony and brother-hood should be compiled and circulated among the masses and among the students so that their tender minds develop and grow not with narrow mindedness but with a feeling a brotherhood. Ministers, both at the Centre and states should not be allowed to make such statements which are based on appeasement of a religious community. If any such statement is made such a Minister should be pulled up by the Prime Minister/Chief Minister to avoid unnecessary controversy and tensions. Similarly no Minister should approach any religious leader for winning political favour from him. Brothers. Vote bank psychology should be discouraged in so far as religious communities are concerned. Law enforcing agencies and personnel who fail to take prompt action to control communal riots or disturbances should be quickly punished to convince the people of the seriousness of the move rememberer, government. Electronic media and press should be extensively used for karamazov promoting communal harmony. Similarly mixed community housing schemes should be introduced on large scale.

If these and similar other measures are taken, it may be hoped that communalism in India will be checked. Error And Correction. It will go a long way if the Muslims in India give up present system of brothers summary, living in isolation and try to flow in the national main stream.