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Bachelor Thesis Vorstellung meiner Abschlussarbeit. The Loons Summary? Im Sommersemester 2012 erlangte ich den Hochschulabschluss zum Bachelor of coconut uti, Science Informatik. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Die dazugehorige Abschlussarbeit habe ich bereits im Wintersemester 2011 / 2012 am Fraunhofer IGD geschrieben. For Betrayal? In diesem Artikel stelle ich die Thesis vor. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Meine Arbeit tragt den Titel Visual-aided selection of where years, reactive elements in margaret summary, intelligent environments (Visuell gestutzte Selektion reaktiver Elemente in outline, intelligenten Umgebungen) und behandelt die Problematiken bei der Interaktion zwischen Menschen und Computern mittels Gestensteuerung. The Loons Margaret? Die Problemstellung und die damit verbundene Aufgabenstellung wandelten sich wahrend der Bearbeitungsphase.

In der ursprunglichen Aufgabenstellung sollte ich untersuchen, welche Art von Ruckmeldung der Mensch benotigt, um in coffee bean outline, einer intelligenten Umgebung mit reaktiven Elementen mittels Gesten zu interagieren. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Normalerweise ist das Verstandnis einer Interaktion mit einem Computer folgende: Man hat ein Eingabegerat und ein Ausgabegerat alles was man mit dem Eingabegerat anstellt hat eine mehr oder minder direkte Auswirkung auf das Ausgabegerat. The Center And Bioterrorism? Beim handelsublichen Computer ware das Eingabegerat z.B. The Loons? die Maus, das Ausgabegerat der z.B. See Yourself Years? Monitor. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Wahle ich nun ein Programmsymbol mittels der Maus aus, so sehe ich auf dem Bildschirm irgendeine optische Reaktion auf meine Tat z.B. Latino? blinkt und springt das Symbol.

Klicke ich auf das Symbol, passiert eine weitere Reaktion, welche ich auf dem Monitor angezeigt bekomme z.B. The Loons? ein Programm wird gestartet und angezeigt. Latino Rights Movement 1960s? In der heutigen Zeit verlagern sich Computersysteme jedoch immer mehr vom ursprunglich festen Arbeitsplatz, wie dem Schreibtisch, in margaret laurence summary, alle Bereiche unserer Umgebung; sie werden Mobil wie z.B. Coffee Bean Outline? durch das Smartphone oder ein Tablet-PC, oder integrieren sich sogar in laurence summary, Haushaltsgegenstande wie z.B. Essay? Kuhlschranke, Fernseher oder gar Mobel. Margaret Laurence? Wahrend nun ein solches mobiles Gerat beispielsweise ein Smartphone weiterhin einen Bildschirm enthalt und die Interaktion direkt uber den Touchscreen erfolgt, muss dies nicht fur einen Kuhlschrank, oder ein Sofa gelten. The Center And Bioterrorism? Doch was soll das sein, ein intelligentes Sofa? Was kann ich damit machen? Wie interagiere ich damit? Wahrend man einen Kuhlschrank noch recht praktisch mit einem Bildschirm ausstatten konnte (Betonung liegt auf konnte), mag man dies bei einem Sofa als unpraktisch oder nicht durchfuhrbar erachten. Margaret Laurence? Ich will darauf hinweisen, dass ich an standards of proficiency for nurse and midwife dieser Stelle nicht auf die moglichen Funktionen eines intelligenten Sofas eingehen mochte ebenso wenig wie ich daruber spekulieren mochte, was eine intelligente Kaffeemaschine fur das Wohlbefinden ihres Besitzers machen kann; dies ist dem Leser und seiner Fantasie uberlassen.

Wichtig zum Verstandnis ist, dass der Computer in the loons, unserem Alltag nicht mehr nur die graue Kiste unterm Schreibtisch mit Monitor, Maus und Tastatur auf dem Schreibtisch ist, sondern sich mittlerweile uberall in german expressionism, unserem Lebensraum verbreitet und integriert hat [1]. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Und genau diese allgegenwartigen, intelligenten Zeitgenossen haben zumeist keine, keine einheitliche, oder keine intuitive Moglichkeit gesteuert, oder nach ihrem aktuellen Zustand befragt zu werden. Fukushima Power Essay? Noch gravierender wird es, wenn die einzelnen Gerate miteinander kommunizieren und Daten untereinander austauschen. The Loons? So ist es bereits heute im Living Lab einer intelligenten Wohnumgebung die als Test- und Demobereich fur Ambient Intelligence Forschung am Fraunhofer IGD dient moglich durch das Einnehmen bestimmter Sitzpositionen auf dem Sofa die Lichtstimmung im Raum zu verandern. For Betrayal? Dieses Beispiel einer indirekten Steuerung zeigt, dass es nicht immer offensichtlich sein muss, welche Reaktion auf eine Aktion folgt. Eine nicht instruierte Person kann die Moglichkeit der Veranderung der Lichtstimmung erst durch das erstmalige Hinsetzen bemerken.

Welche Lichtstimmungen moglich sind, muss sie durchs Probieren herausfinden. Laurence? Um dem zumindest im Bereich der Gestensteuerung entgegenzuwirken sollte ich nicht nur das Problemfeld naher betrachten, sondern meine Erkenntnisse zur Verbesserung der Situation auch durch eine funktionale Umsetzung demonstrieren. Where See Yourself In 10? Dank der Markteinfuhrung von Microsofts Kinect und der aktiven Gemeinschaft unabhangiger Entwickler, stand eine sehr preisgunstige und fur meine Zwecke ideale Technologie zum Erkennen und Verarbeiten von Gesten bereit. Margaret Laurence? Die Tiefenkamera von Microsoft erkennt die Silhouetten davorstehender Personen und berechnet aus diesen ein vereinfachtes Skelettmodell mit allen benotigten dreidimensionalen Werten. For Disease Control Example? So kann man z.B. The Loons Laurence Summary? die Zeigerichtung im Raum erkennen und fur die Interaktion nutzen.

Die Art der Eingabe abseits von Maus und Tastatur war also vorhanden, doch wie sollte die Ausgabe aussehen, so dass kein stationarer, oder mobiler Bildschirm benotigt wurde? Die Nutzung eines solchen stationaren Ausgabegerates hatte zwei gravierende Nachteile, die ich in standards of proficiency for nurse prescribers, meiner Arbeit aufzeigen und vermeiden wollte. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Zum Einen musste ein mobiler Bildschirm immer in Nuclear, irgend einer Art und Weise mitgefuhrt werden, was wiederum der Unaufdringlichkeit einer intelligenten Umgebung entgegenwirken wurde, zum Anderen konnte ein stationarer Bildschirm, wie z.B. Laurence Summary? der Fernseher im Wohnzimmer, nicht uberall fur die benotigte Ruckmeldung genutzt werden, weil er z.B. Civil Movement 1960s? nicht im Blickfeld steht. Auch andere Ausgabevarianten, wie akustische Meldungen, oder Vibrationsmotoren in the loons margaret laurence summary, der Kleidung um nur zwei zu nennen schieden aus. Latino Civil Movement? Diese wurden entweder aufdringlich in the loons margaret laurence, den Wahrnehmungsbereich einer zweiten Person, welche mit der Interaktion nichts zu tun hat, dringen, oder mussten wiederum standig mitgefuhrt werden. Of Proficiency? Das Ruckmeldesystem sollte somit vor Ort aber nicht stationar, mobil aber nicht am Korper des Benutzers und uberall im Raum verfugbar, aber nicht aufdringlich und storend sein. Margaret Summary? Die Losung, welche mir am geeignetsten erschien, war also eine optische Darstellung der Ausgabe mittels Projektion. See Yourself In 10? Im Rahmen der Bachelorarbeit baute ich einen kleinen Laserprojektor, der mittels Modellbau-Motoren ausgerichtet und durch einen Arduino Mikrocontroller und einem umfangreichen Softwarepaket gesteuert wurde. The Loons Laurence Summary? Das projizierte Licht lieferte eine kleine LED Laserdiode. Nuclear Power Plant Essay? Als Resultat entstand das Environmental Aware Gesture Leading Equipment (E.A.G.L.E.) System.

Den Projektionsroboter taufte ich E.A.G.L.E. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Eye. Blood? Die Implementierung des gesamten Systems erforderte einen erheblichen Teil meiner dreimonatigen Thesis-Zeit, viele graue Haare, noch mehr schlaflose Nachte und einen nicht unbedeutenden Anteil meines Nervenkostums, doch das Resultat sollte sich auszahlen. The Loons Summary? Bezuglich der detaillierten Implementierung der Hardware und Software werde ich mich an blood dieser Stelle kurz fassen. Einige interessante Aspekte der Umsetzung bieten aber Stoff fur weitere Artikel auf meinem Blog und sollen dann auch den dafur notigen Rahmen erhalten. Margaret Laurence? Um ein Verstandnis der technischen Umsetzung zu erhalten kann man die Funktionsweise des E.A.G.L.E. And Midwife Prescribers? Systems in margaret, folgenden Punkten beschreiben: Die Kinect erkennt den Benutzer und erstellt eine virtuelle Skelettdarstellung Das Skelett wird dazu benutzt die Zeige und Auswahlgesten zu erkennen. Prescribers? Diese Gesten werden mit einer virtuellen Reprasentation des Raums und seiner Gerate in margaret laurence summary, Relation gesetzt. The Center Control And Bioterrorism? Die erkannte Zeigegeste in the loons margaret laurence, diesem virtuellen Raum bzw. Fukushima Power? die Auswahl eines Gerates in the loons margaret, diesem wird als Befehlssatz an movement 1960s das E.A.G.L.E. Margaret Laurence Summary? Eye gesendet. Blood? Das E.A.G.L.E.

Eye richtet den Laserpunkt auf die Position im reellen Raum aus. Eine reine Zeigegeste im Raum z.B. Margaret Summary? fur die Navigation bzw. Prescribers? Orientierung wird von der eigentlichen Selektion eines Gerates z.B. Margaret Laurence? zur Steuerung bzw. Civil Movement? Statusabfrage mittels verschiedener Licht- und Blinkvarianten unterschieden: Dauerhaftes Leuchten beim Zeigen in the loons margaret, den Raum Blinken beim Zeigen auf ein reaktives Gerat Schnelles Blinken bei erfolgter Auswahl des Gerates [2] Wie ich oben bereits erwahnt habe, war die ursprungliche Idee der Bachelor Thesis die Herausarbeitung verschiedener Feedback-Varianten. The Center Control? Angedacht war zu untersuchen ob komplexere Menustrukturen notig sind und in margaret summary, wieweit diese die gestenbasierte Interaktion mit einem Gerat beeinflussen. Power Plant Essay? Des Weiteren sollte herausgefunden werden, wie komplex eine solche Menustruktur mindestens sein muss, oder hochstens sein darf, damit sie trotz Gestensteuerung noch gut bedienbar bleibt.

Der Schwerpunkt anderte sich jedoch immer mehr, je weiter die Entwicklung am E.A.G.L.E. System voranschritt. The Loons Laurence? Gleich nach den ersten Testlaufen durch meine beiden Betreuer Andreas Braun, Alexander Marinc und mir selbst stellte sich eine ganz andere Frage: Mit welchem Teil meines Arms zeige ich wohin in for nurse and midwife, den Raum? Diese Frage mag verwundern, zeigen wir Menschen doch Tag ein, Tag aus irgendwo hin und irgendwo drauf und werden zumeist ohne weiteres von unseren Mitmenschen verstanden falls nicht, erklaren wir unsere Intention auf einem anderen Wege wie z.B. Margaret Summary? verbal. Outline? So bedeutungslos die Frage somit auch klingen mag, so tiefgehend beeinflusste sie die Testlaufe: Drei Personen testeten den E.A.G.L.E Prototypen, drei Personen waren komplett unterschiedlicher Meinungen daruber mit welchen Teilen ihres Oberkorpers sie auf welchen Punkt im Raum zeigten.

Diese Diskrepanz wird dadurch ausgelost, dass auf der anderen Seite der Interaktionskette kein Mensch sondern ein Computersystem sitzt. Margaret Summary? Bereits die wichtigste Komponente dieser Kette macht einer intuitiven Interaktion einen Strich durch die Rechnung: Die Kinect! Dieses fur die Thesis interessante, weil kostengunstige und gut programmierbare Gerat liefert ein sehr einfaches Skeletmodel aus den Bilddaten, uber welches man die Zeigegesten interpretieren muss. For Betrayal? Zur Anschauung dient folgende Abbildung und die drei moglichen Wege eine einfache Zeigerichtung zu bestimmen: Al s Linie zwischen Kopf und Handgelenk Als Linie zwischen Schultergelenk und Handgelenk Als Linie zwischen Ellbogen und Handgelenk. The Loons? Und ausgerechnet die dem Menschen am meisten bevorzugte Variante, das Zeigen uber die Gelenke des Zeigefinders, kann nicht genutzt werden.

Zur Darstellung der Finger ist die Kinect (der ersten Generation) nicht technisch in latino civil movement, der Lage es ware unter bestimmten Vorraussetzungen moglich, aber fur mein Aufgabenfeld nicht umsetzbar. Margaret Summary? Doch auch wenn die Technik diese Beschrankung nicht inne hatte, ware die Problematik langst nicht vom Tisch. Coffee Bean Outline? So hat sich schnell herausgestellt, dass der eine Proband immer uber die Augen zur Spitze seines Zeigefingers zeigt, wahrend ein anderer Proband gerne den Unterarm als Verlangerung seines #8222;Zeigegerates#8220; benutzt. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Viel gravierender als diese benutzerspezifische Vorliebe beim Zeigen ist der Unterschied zwischen der gedachten und der vom System erkannten Zeigerichtung und dem daraus resultierenden Zeigeziel. The Center For Disease Example? Wahrend der Mensch der Meinung ist seinen Korper und seine Hand-Augen-Koordination perfekt zu beherrschen, entlarvt das Computersystem jedes Zittern und jeden Drift z.B. The Loons Laurence Summary? durch Ermudung der Muskeln. Fukushima? Diese Veranderungen mogen fur den Menschen unmerklich gro? sein, wirken sich aber numerisch bereits so gravierend aus, dass bereits auf wenigen Metern ein Versatz von mehreren Dezimetern entstehen kann. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Anstelle somit auf den Fernseher zu zeigen, zeigt man auf die Blumenvase daneben und wundert sich, wieso der Fernseher nicht reagiert. Fukushima Power Plant? Die technische Umsetzung der Kinect steuert zu dieser Variant sicherlich ihren Teil bei, doch auch eine prazisere Sensortechnik nicht zu 100% mit der Intention des Benutzers ubereinstimmen. Nutzt man nun ein klassisches System, wie den oben genannten Desktop PC mit der Maus als Zeigegerat, so hat man mehrere begunstigende Faktoren sein Ziel auch zu erreichen.

Die Maus liegt recht stabil auf der Unterlage. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Lasst man sie los, so bleibt sie zumeist auch dort liegen. Bean? Bewegt man die Maus, so bewegt man zwar faktisch seine Hand, folgt aber dem Mauszeiger auf dem Bildschirm. The Loons? Ohne diesen Zeiger und ohne eine stabile Ruheposition ware es auch hier nicht moglich prazise mit dem PC zu interagieren. German Expressionism In Film? Wenn aber der Mensch am PC in laurence, der Lage ist einem Mauszeiger zu folgen, der raumlich so drastisch getrennt vom physikalischen Zeigegerat ist, wieso sollte das nicht auch im reellen Raum mittels Zeigegesten funktionieren? Muss der Mensch nicht einfach nur verstehen was der PC erkennt und interpretiert, um sich an latino diesen anzupassen? Ist die Adressierung der Anpassung von Seiten des Menschen nicht deutlich einfacher, als wenn man komplexe Algorithmen schreibt, welche man an the loons laurence summary den Menschen anpassen muss? Diesen Fragen in of proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers, Kombination mit der banal anmutenden Frage Wo zeige ich eigentlich hin? widmete ich von diesem Zeitpunkt an the loons margaret summary meine Bachelorarbeit.

Nun war es nicht mehr wichtig verschiedene Darstellungen zu erproben und zu schauen wie komplex diese werden mussen, sondern einfach darum uberhaut einen anstandig funktionierenden Navigations- und Auswahlprozess im intelligenten Raum mittels Zeigegesten zu ermoglichen. Control And Bioterrorism Essay Example? Das E.A.G.L.E. The Loons Laurence? System wurde dahingehend erweitert, dass genau dieser Prozess der Navigation und der Gerateauswahl anstandig und in The Center for Disease, annahernder Echtzeit funktioniert. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary? Meine Hypothese: Der Mensch ist ohne ein angemessenes Ruckmeldesystem nicht in coconut oil for, der Lage eine durchgehend erfolgreiche Auswahlaktion im Raum mittels Gesten durchzufuhren, auch wenn man ihn detailliert uber die Berechnungsweise seiner Zeigegeste instruiert. Margaret Summary? Die Aussicht auf Erfolg dieses Prozesses lasst sich durch ein geeignetes Ruckmeldesystem signifikant verbessern. Standards For Nurse And Midwife? Dazu ist es im letzteren Fall nicht einmal mehr notig das System durch komplexere Algorithmen intelligenter zu gestalten. Zur Evaluation lud ich zwanzig Testkandidaten ein, welche einen festgelegten Parcours bestehend aus acht Zielen verschiedener Gro?e, Orientierung und Position im Raum mit einer Zeigegeste ansteuern und durch zwei Sekunden langes Halten dieser Zeigegeste auswahlen sollten. The Loons Summary? Zehn dieser Personen mussten den Parcours erst ohne, dann mit der Unterstutzung des Laserprojektors durchfuhren, die anderen zehn Personen genau in Essay, umgekehrter Reihenfolge.

Neben dem Nachweis der Hypothese erhoffte ich mir zusatzlich, dass die Nutzung des E.A.G.L.E. Margaret Summary? Systems einen gewissen Lerneffekt fur den Durchlauf ohne das System auf die Kandidaten haben wurde. Nuclear Plant Essay? Die Hypothese konnte ich mit absoluter Zufriedenheit beweisen. Laurence Summary? Alle Personen waren mit der Unterstutzung des Lasers zu 100% in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, der Lage die Zielscheiben anzuvisieren und auszuwahlen. The Loons Margaret Laurence? Auch wenn es manchmal nicht auf den ersten Fingerzeig geklappt hat, so wussten die Kandidaten um ihren Fehler und konnten diesen korrigieren. Oil For? Ohne die unterstutzende Projektion waren erfolgreiche Auswahlaktionen hingegen ein Akt des Zufalls. Margaret? Sogar die gro?en Ziele mit 3060 Quadratzentimetern die Gro?e eines DinA3 Blattes wurden nur selten erfolgreich ausgewahlt. So signifikant wie dieses Ergebnis ausfiel, so wenig konnte ich uber einen Lerneffekt herausfinden. Where In 10? Die festgestellten Unterschiede waren nicht aussagekraftig genug. Laurence Summary? Ein Fall fur weitere Untersuchungsanstrengungen?! Nichtsdestotrotz war ich sehr zufrieden mit dem Ausgang der Evaluation.

Die Bachelorarbeit gefiel anscheinend ebenso meinem betreuenden Professor Arian Kuijper, sowie meinen beiden Betreuern Andreas Braun und Alexander Marinc: Die Thesis wurde mit einer glatten 1.0 bewertet. Movement? Wer sich detaillierter fur meine Bachelor Thesis oder derer Prasentation interessiert, der kann sie sich unter folgendem Link herunterladen und durchlesen. Margaret? Als positiver Nebeneffekt der erbrachten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse wurde meine Bachelorarbeit in for Disease and Bioterrorism example, einem Paper auf der diesjahrigen Cyberworld veroffentlicht und prasentiert. Besonderen Dank mochte ich meiner lieben Frau Lida zukommen lassen, welche mich ausgehalten und unterstutzt hat obwohl sie als damals Schwangere wohl genug mit sich selbst zu tun hatte. The Loons Laurence? Des Weiteren mochte ich mich bei meinem Kumpel (und Chef) Felix Kamieth bedanken, der mich wahrend der Abschlussarbeit nur ganz gering mit Arbeit zugeschuttet und moralisch oft unterstutzt hat. For Betrayal? [1] Diese Verbreitung wird als allgegenwartige ( ubiquitous ) und verschwindende ( vanishing ) bzw. The Loons Laurence Summary? unaufdringliche ( unobtrusive ) Computerisierung bezeichnet. German Expressionism In Film? Ein Raum, in the loons margaret summary, welchem die verschiedensten Gerate nicht nur fur sich computergestutzt arbeiten, sondern auch miteinander kommunizieren und Daten austauschen, um irgend eine komplexere Funktionalitat auszufuhren (z.B. Civil Rights? eine Reaktion auf das Wohlbefinden eines Bewohners), hei?t intelligenter Wohnraum ( intelligent environment ). Margaret Laurence Summary? Arbeitet am Fraunhofer-Institut fur Graphische Datenverarbeitung in oil for, Darmstadt im Bereich intelligente Umgebungen. The Loons Summary? Themenschwerpunkte sind kapazitive Sensoren zur beruhrungslosen und Marker-freien Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion.

Studiert zudem als Teilzeitstudent Informatik im Master-Studiengang der TU Darmstadt, mit den Schwerpunkten Software Engineering und Human Computer Systems, sowie IT-Management als Anwendungsfach.

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NOVORAPID 100 U/mL Solution injectable Boîte de 1 Flacon de 10 ml. NovoRapid est indiqué dans le traitement du diabète de l'adulte, de l'adolescent et de l'enfant à partir de 2 ans. NOVORAPID : pathologies pour lesquelles il peut-tre prescrit. La teneur en insuline des analogues de l'insuline, y compris l'insuline asparte, est exprimée en unités, alors que la teneur en insuline de l'insuline humaine est exprimée en unités internationales. La posologie de NovoRapid dépend de chaque individu et est déterminée en fonction des besoins du patient. Margaret Summary. En règle générale, NovoRapid s'utilise en association avec une insuline à action intermédiaire ou prolongée. The Center Essay. De plus, NovoRapid peut être utilisé en perfusion sous-cutanée continue d'insuline (PSCI) dans une pompe ou être administré par voie intraveineuse par un professionnel de santé. The Loons Margaret. Un contrôle glycémique et un ajustement de la dose de l'insuline sont recommandés afin d'obtenir un équilibre glycémique optimal. Les besoins individuels en insuline chez l'adulte et chez l'enfant se situent généralement entre 0,5 et 1,0 unité/kg/jour. Standards Of Proficiency For Nurse. En cas d'administration dans un schéma de type basal-bolus, 50 à 70 % de ces besoins peuvent être couverts par NovoRapid et le restant par de l'insuline à action intermédiaire ou prolongée.

Un ajustement de la dose peut être nécessaire si le patient augmente son activité physique, modifie son régime alimentaire habituel ou en cas de maladie concomitante. NovoRapid peut être utilisé chez les patients âgés. II est nécessaire d'intensifier le contrôle glycémique et d'ajuster la dose d'insuline asparte de façon individuelle chez les patients âgés. Sujets atteints de troubles rénaux ou hépatiques. Les troubles rénaux ou hépatiques peuvent réduire les besoins du patient en insuline. Il est nécessaire d'intensifier le contrôle glycémique et d'ajuster la dose d'insuline asparte de façon individuelle chez les patients atteints de troubles rénaux ou hépatiques. Chez les enfants et les adolescents âgés de 2 ans et plus, NovoRapid peut être préféré à l'insuline humaine soluble dans le cas où un délai d'action rapide peut se révéler utile comme par exemple, pour planifier les injections par rapport aux repas (voir rubriques Propriétés pharmacodynamiques et Propriétés pharmacocinétiques ). La sécurité et l'efficacité de NovoRapid chez les enfants âgés de moins de 2 ans n'ont pas été établies. Margaret Laurence Summary. Aucune donnée n'est disponible. En remplacement d'autres insulines.

Lors du remplacement d'autres insulines, un ajustement de la dose de NovoRapid et de l'insuline basale pourra être nécessaire. Fukushima. NovoRapid présente un délai d'action plus rapide et une durée d'action plus courte que l'insuline humaine soluble. The Loons Margaret Laurence. En cas d'injection sous-cutanée dans la paroi abdominale, l'insuline commence à agir dans les 10-20 minutes qui suivent l'injection. Power. Son effet maximal apparaît de 1 à 3 heures après injection. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary. Sa durée d'action est de 3 à 5 heures. Il est recommandé de surveiller attentivement la glycémie lors du changement de traitement et durant les premières semaines (voir rubrique Mises en garde et précautions d'emploi ). NovoRapid est un analogue de l'insuline d'action rapide. NovoRapid est administré par voie sous-cutanée par injection dans la paroi abdominale, la cuisse, le haut du bras, la région deltoïde ou la région fessière. Fukushima Nuclear Essay. Une rotation des sites d'injection devra toujours être effectuée au sein d'une même région afin de diminuer le risque de développer une lipodystrophie.

L'absorption est plus rapide si l'injection est effectuée en sous-cutané dans la paroi abdominale plutôt que dans un autre site d'injection. The Loons Margaret. Quel que soit le site d'injection, le délai d'action de NovoRapid reste plus rapide que celui de l'insuline humaine soluble. Expressionism. La durée d'action varie en fonction de la dose, du site d'injection, du débit sanguin, de la température et de l'intensité de l'activité physique. En raison de son délai d'action plus rapide, NovoRapid doit généralement être administré immédiatement avant un repas. Margaret Laurence. Si nécessaire, NovoRapid peut être injecté peu après un repas.

Administration avec une seringue. Les flacons de NovoRapid doivent être utilisés avec des seringues à insuline portant une graduation adéquate. Le flacon de NovoRapid est accompagné d'une notice dont les instructions détaillées doivent être respectées. Perfusion sous-cutanée continue d'insuline (PSCI) NovoRapid peut être administré par PSCI à l'aide d'une pompe à perfusion d'insuline. The Center For Disease And Bioterrorism Essay. La PSCI doit être administrée dans la paroi abdominale. The Loons Laurence Summary. Les sites de perfusion doivent être alternés. En cas d'utilisation dans une pompe à perfusion d'insuline, NovoRapid ne doit jamais être mélangé à une autre insuline. Les patients traités par PSCI recevront des instructions détaillées sur l'utilisation de la pompe et utiliseront le réservoir et la tubulure adaptés à la pompe (voir rubrique Instructions pour l'utilisation, la manipulation et l'élimination ). Expressionism In Film. Le matériel de perfusion (tubulure et canule) doit être remplacé conformément aux instructions données dans la notice d'information jointe au matériel de perfusion.

Lorsque NovoRapid est administré par PSCI, le patient doit disposer d'un autre système d'administration d'insuline qu'il utilisera en cas de panne de la pompe. Si nécessaire, NovoRapid peut être administré par voie intraveineuse par des professionnels de santé. Par voie intraveineuse, les systèmes de perfusion contenant NovoRapid 100 unités/ml à des concentrations d'insuline asparte allant de 0,05 unité/ml à 1,0 unité/ml dans des solutés de perfusion de chlorure de sodium à 0,9 %, de glucose à 5 ou 10 % avec 40 mmol/l de chlorure de potassium restent stables à température ambiante durant 24 heures dans une poche à perfusion en polypropylène. Malgré leur stabilité dans le temps, une certaine quantité d'insuline s'adsorbera dès le départ à la poche à perfusion. Laurence Summary. La glycémie doit être contrôlée durant la perfusion d'insuline. La solution est limpide, incolore et aqueuse. Classe pharmacothérapeutique : médicaments utilisés dans le diabète.

Insulines et analogues pour injection, d'action rapide. The Center Example. Code ATC : A10AB05. Mécanisme d'action et effets pharmacodynamiques. L'effet hypoglycémiant de l'insuline asparte est dû à la liaison de l'insuline aux récepteurs des cellules musculaires et adipeuses facilitant ainsi l'assimilation du glucose et à l'inhibition simultanée de la production hépatique de glucose. NovoRapid possède un délai d'action plus rapide que l'insuline humaine soluble ; de plus, la glycémie se maintient à des valeurs plus basses dans les quatre heures qui suivent le repas. The Loons Laurence Summary. Après injection sous-cutanée, la durée d'action de NovoRapid est inférieure à celle de l'insuline humaine soluble. Administré par voie sous-cutanée, NovoRapid commence à agir dans les 10 à 20 minutes qui suivent son injection. Fukushima Nuclear Essay. Son effet maximum apparaît de 1 à 3 heures après l'injection. The Loons Margaret Summary. Sa durée d'action est de 3 à 5 heures.

Chez des patients diabétiques de type 1, les essais cliniques ont montré que la glycémie postprandiale avec NovoRapid était inférieure à celle obtenue avec l'insuline humaine soluble. Expressionism In Film. Lors de deux essais à long terme réalisés en ouvert chez des patients diabétiques de type 1 incluant respectivement 1070 et 884 patients, NovoRapid a réduit les concentrations d'hémoglobine glycosylée de 0,12 % [95 % I.C. The Loons Margaret Summary. 0,03 ; 0,22] et de 0,15 % [95 % I.C. Do You See Yourself In 10 Years. 0,05 ; 0,26] par rapport à l'insuline humaine ; la significativité clinique de ces résultats n'est pas démontrée. Chez les patients diabétiques de type 1, les essais cliniques ont montré que le risque d'hypoglycémie nocturne était moins important avec l'insuline asparte qu'avec l'insuline humaine soluble. The Loons Margaret. Le risque d'hypoglycémie diurne n'augmente pas de façon significative. Une étude PK/PD randomisée, en double aveugle, en cross-over, comparant l'insuline asparte à l'insuline humaine soluble a été réalisée chez des patients âgés diabétiques de type 2 (19 patients âgés de 65 à 83 ans, âge moyen : 70 ans).

Les différences relatives de propriétés pharmacodynamiques (Vitesse de Perfusion du Glucose max , ASC VPG 0-120 min ) entre l'insuline asparte et l'insuline humaine chez les sujets âgés étaient similaires à celles observées chez les sujets sains et les sujets diabétiques plus jeunes. Un essai clinique comparant l'insuline humaine soluble administrée en préprandial à l'insuline asparte. administrée en postprandial a été réalisé chez des enfants en bas âge (20 patients âgés de 2 à moins de 6 ans dont 4 âgés de moins de 4 ans, étude de 12 semaines) et une étude de PK/PD en dose unique a été réalisée chez des enfants (6 à 12 ans) et des adolescents (13 à 17 ans). Expressionism. Le profil pharmacodynamique de l'insuline asparte était similaire chez les enfants et les adultes. Un essai clinique comparant la sécurité et l'efficacité de l'insuline asparte versus l'insuline humaine dans le traitement du diabète de type 1 chez la femme enceinte (322 femmes enceintes exposées (insuline asparte : 157 ; insuline humaine : 165)) n'a pas montré d'effets délétères de l'insuline asparte sur la grossesse ou sur la santé du foetus/nouveau-né. Par ailleurs, un essai clinique comparant l'insuline asparte et l'insuline humaine mené chez 27 femmes présentant un diabète. gestationnel (insuline asparte : 14 ; insuline humaine : 13) a montré des profils de sécurité similaires entre les traitements. Conduite tenir pour les conducteurs de vhicules.

Les capacités de concentration et les réflexes du patient peuvent être diminués en cas d'hypoglycémie. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary. Ceci pourrait constituer un risque dans les situations où ces facultés sont indispensables (par exemple la conduite automobile ou l'utilisation de machines). Les patients doivent être informés des précautions à prendre afin d'éviter toute hypoglycémie pendant la conduite de véhicules. The Center For Disease And Bioterrorism Essay. Ceci est particulièrement important chez les patients peu ou mal familiarisés avec les signes précurseurs d'hypoglycémie ou sujets à de fréquents épisodes hypoglycémiques. The Loons. Dans de telles circonstances, l'aptitude à conduire des véhicules doit être ré-évaluée. Hypersensibilité au principe actif ou à l'un des excipients (voir rubrique Composition ). NOVORAPID : ses prcautions d'emploi. Avant de voyager dans des pays avec des fuseaux horaires différents, le patient devra consulter son médecin dans la mesure où il devra éventuellement prendre son insuline et ses repas à des horaires différents. Une posologie inadaptée ou un arrêt du traitement, en particulier chez les diabétiques de type 1, peut entraîner une hyperglycémie et une acidocétose diabétique. Latino Civil Movement. En général, les premiers symptômes de l'hyperglycémie apparaissent progressivement, en quelques heures ou quelques jours. Laurence. Il s'agit d'une sensation de soif, de mictions plus fréquentes, de nausées, de vomissements, de somnolence, de sécheresse et rougeur cutanée, de sécheresse buccale, de perte d'appétit et d'odeur acétonique de l'haleine.

Dans le diabète de type 1, les épisodes hyperglycémiques non traités peuvent éventuellement conduire à une acidocétose diabétique, potentiellement létale. L'omission d'un repas ou un exercice physique important non prévu peut entraîner une hypoglycémie. Une hypoglycémie peut survenir si la dose d'insuline est trop élevée pour les besoins du patient. Latino Civil Movement 1960s. En cas d'hypoglycémie ou si une hypoglycémie est suspectée, NovoRapid ne doit pas être injecté. Laurence. Après stabilisation de la glycémie du patient, un ajustement de la dose devra être envisagé (voir rubriques Effets indésirables et surdosage). Les patients dont le contrôle glycémique est nettement amélioré, par exemple dans le cadre d'une insulinothérapie intensifiée, peuvent constater un changement des signes précurseurs habituels d'hypoglycémie et doivent être avertis de cette éventualité. Movement 1960s. Les signes précurseurs habituels peuvent disparaître chez les patients présentant un diabète ancien.

Compte tenu du mécanisme d'action (pharmacodynamie) des analogues de l'insuline à action rapide, un épisode hypoglycémique peut survenir plus rapidement après l'injection de cette insuline qu'après l'injection d'une insuline humaine soluble. Dans la mesure où NovoRapid doit être administré immédiatement avant ou après un repas, il faudra tenir compte de son délai d'action rapide chez les patients atteints de maladies concomitantes ou prenant d'autres traitements et chez lesquels l'absorption de nourriture est susceptible d'être retardée. Les maladies concomitantes, en particulier les infections et états fébriles, augmentent généralement les besoins en insuline du patient. Margaret Laurence. Les maladies concomitantes au niveau des reins, du foie ou des glandes surrénales, hypophysaire ou thyroïdienne peuvent nécessiter un ajustement de la dose d'insuline. Si le patient change de type d'insuline, les symptômes précurseurs d'hypoglycémie peuvent être modifiés ou devenir moins prononcés que ceux survenus avec leur précédente insuline. En remplacement d'autres insulines. En cas de changement de type ou de marque d'insuline, le patient devra faire l'objet d'un suivi médical attentif. Rights. Les changements de concentration, de marque (fabricant), de type, d'origine (animale, insuline humaine ou analogue de l'insuline humaine) et/ou de méth ode de fabrication (ADN recombinant ou insuline d'origine animale) peuvent nécessiter un changement de dose.

Les patients qui passent à NovoRapid en remplacement d'un autre type d'insuline pourront nécessiter une augmentation du nombre d'injections quotidiennes ou une modification de la dose par rapport à leurs insulines habituelles. Margaret Laurence Summary. Si un ajustement de la dose s'avère nécessaire, il pourra être effectué dès la première injection ou pendant les premières semaines ou les premiers mois. Réactions au site d'injection. Comme avec toute insulinothérapie, des réactions au site d'injection peuvent survenir et se traduisent par l'un des signes suivants : douleur, rougeur, urticaire, inflammation, ecchymose, tuméfaction et prurit. German In Film. Une rotation continue des sites d'injection dans une même région diminue le risque de développer ces réactions. Margaret Laurence Summary. Ces réactions disparaissent généralement en l'espace de quelques jours à quelques semaines. Latino Civil 1960s. Dans de rares cas, les réactions au site d'injection peuvent nécessiter l'arrêt de NovoRapid. Association de NovoRapid avec la pioglitazone.

Des cas d'insuffisance cardiaque ont été rapportés lorsque la pioglitazone était utilisée en association avec de l'insuline, en particulier chez les patients présentant des facteurs de risque de survenue d'une insuffisance cardiaque. Laurence. Ceci doit être pris en compte si un traitement associant la pioglitazone et NovoRapid est envisagé. Where Do You In 10. Si une telle association est instaurée, il sera nécessaire de surveiller, chez ces patients, la survenue de signes et de symptômes d'insuffisance cardiaque, de prise de poids et d'oedème. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary. La pioglitazone devra être arrêtée si une aggravation des symptômes d'insuffisance cardiaque survient. L'administration d'insuline peut induire la formation d'anticorps. Rights 1960s. Dans de rares cas, la présence d'anticorps anti-insuline peut nécessiter un ajustement de la dose d'insuline afin de corriger une tendance à l'hyperglycémie ou à l'hypoglycémie. Un certain nombre de médicaments sont connus pour interagir avec le métabolisme du glucose. Antidiabétiques oraux, inhibiteurs de la monoamine-oxydase (IMAO), bêtabloquants, inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine (IEC), salicylés, stéroïdes anabolisants et sulfamides.

Les substances suivantes peuvent augmenter les besoins en insuline du patient : Contraceptifs oraux, thiazidiques, glucocorticoïdes, hormones thyroïdiennes, sympathomimétiques, hormone de croissance et danazol. Les bêtabloquants peuvent masquer les symptômes d'hypoglycémie. Certaines substances mélangées à NovoRapid peuvent entraîner une dégradation de l'insuline asparte, par exemple si le médicament contient des thiols ou des sulfites. The Loons Laurence Summary. Ce médicament ne doit pas être mélangé à d'autres médicaments, excepté avec l'insuline NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) et les liquides de perfusion décrits dans la rubrique Posologie et mode d'administration : Par voie intraveineuse, les systèmes de perfusion contenant NovoRapid 100 unités/ml à des concentrations d'insuline asparte allant de 0,05 unité/ml à 1,0 unité/ml dans des solutés de perfusion de chlorure de sodium à 0,9 %, de glucose à 5 ou 10 % avec 40 mmol/l de chlorure de potassium restent stables à température ambiante durant 24 heures dans une poche à perfusion en polypropylène. Pour les insulines, il n'existe pas de définition spécifique du surdosage. The Center For Disease Example. Cependant, une hypoglycémie peut évoluer par étapes successives si de trop fortes doses sont administrées par rapport aux besoins du patient : • Les épisodes d'hypoglycémie modérée peuvent être traités par administration orale de glucose ou de produits sucrés.

On conseille donc aux patients diabétiques d'avoir toujours sur eux des produits sucrés. • Les épisodes d'hypoglycémie sévère, avec perte de connaissance, peuvent être traités par administration intramusculaire ou sous-cutanée de glucagon (0,5 à 1 mg) par une personne formée à cet effet, ou par administration intraveineuse de glucose par le personnel médical. Laurence. Si le patient ne répond pas au glucagon dans un délai de 10 à 15 minutes, du glucose devra être administré par voie intraveineuse. Standards Of Proficiency. Dès que le patient a repris connaissance, une prise orale de glucides est recommandée afin de prévenir une rechute. Chez la femme enceinte diabétique (diabète de type 1, diabète de type 2 ou diabète gestationnel), il est recommandé d'intensifier le contrôle glycémique et la surveillance tout au long de la grossesse ainsi qu'en cas de projet de grossesse. The Loons Margaret Summary. Les besoins en insuline chutent habituellement au cours du premier trimestre, puis augmentent au cours des deuxième et troisième trimestres. Fukushima Essay. Après l'accouchement, les besoins en insuline reviennent généralement rapidement au niveau antérieur à la grossesse.

L'administration de NovoRapid pendant l'allaitement ne fait l'objet d'aucune restriction. The Loons Margaret. L'insulinothérapie de la mère qui allaite ne présente aucun risque pour le bébé. Civil 1960s. Il peut cependant être nécessaire d'adapter la dose de NovoRapid. Les études de reproduction effectuées chez l'animal n'ont pas révélé de différences entre l'insuline asparte et l'insuline humaine sur la fertilité. NOVORAPID : ses effets indsirables. Les effets indésirables observés chez les patients traités par NovoRapid sont le plus souvent dus à l'action pharmacologique de l'insuline. L'effet indésirable le plus fréquemment rapporté lors du traitement est l'hypoglycémie. The Loons Margaret. La fréquence des hypoglycémies varie en fonction de la population de patients, des doses utilisées et du niveau du contrôle glycémique (voir la rubrique Effets indésirables , Description de certains effets indésirables).

Au début du traitement par insuline, des anomalies de la réfraction, des oedèmes et des réactions au site d'injection (douleur, rougeur, urticaire, inflammation, ecchymose, tuméfaction et prurit au site d'injection) peuvent survenir. Latino Movement 1960s. Ces réactions sont habituellement transitoires. Margaret Laurence Summary. Une amélioration rapide de l'équilibre glycémique peut être associée à une neuropathie douloureuse aiguë qui est habituellement réversible. Do You In 10 Essay. Une intensification de l'insulinothérapie avec une amélioration soudaine de l'équilibre glycémique peut être associée à une aggravation transitoire de la rétinopathie diabétique, tandis que l'amélioration de l'équilibre glycémique à long terme diminue le risque de progression de la rétinopathie diabétique. Liste tabulée des effets indésirables. Les effets indésirables répertoriés ci-dessous sont issus des données des essais cliniques et classés par fréquence MedDRA et selon le système de classification par organe. Margaret Laurence. Les catégories de fréquence sont définies selon les conventions suivantes : très fréquent (≥ 1/10) ; fréquent ( ≥ 1/100, 1/10) ; peu fréquent ( ≥ 1/1 000, 1/100) ; rare ( ≥ 1/10 000, 1/1 000) ; très rare ( 1/10 000), fréquence indéterminée (ne peut être estimée sur la base des données disponibles).

Affections du système immunitaire. Peu fréquent - Urticaire, rash, éruptions. Très rare - Réactions anaphylactiques* Troubles du métabolisme et de la nutrition. Affections du système nerveux. Rare - Neuropathie périphérique (neuropathie douloureuse) Peu fréquent - Anomalies de la réfraction. Peu fréquent - Rétinopathie diabétique.

Affections de la peau et du tissu sous-cutané Peu fréquent - Lipodystrophie* Troubles généraux et anomalies au site d'administration. Peu fréquent - Réactions au site d'injection. * voir la rubrique Effets indésirables , Description de certains effets indésirables. Description de certains effets indésirables.

La survenue de réactions d'hypersensibilité généralisée (notamment des éruptions cutanées généralisées, démangeaisons, sueurs, troubles gastro-intestinaux, oedème angioneurotique, difficultés respiratoires, palpitations et baisse de la pression artérielle) est très rare mais ces réactions peuvent potentiellement menacer le pronostic vital. L'effet indésirable le plus fréquemment rapporté est l'hypoglycémie. The Center And Bioterrorism Essay. Celle-ci survient lorsque la dose d'insuline est trop importante par rapport aux besoins insuliniques. Summary. L'hypoglycémie sévère peut entraîner une perte de connaissance et/ou des convulsions et peut causer une altération transitoire ou définitive des fonctions cérébrales, voire le décès. For Nurse And Midwife. Les symptômes de l'hypoglycémie surviennent habituellement de manière soudaine. The Loons Margaret Laurence Summary. Ils peuvent inclure : sueurs froides, pâleur et froideur cutanée, fatigue, nervosité ou tremblement, anxiété, asthénie ou faiblesse inhabituelles, confusion, difficulté de concentration, somnolence, sensation de faim excessive, troubles visuels, maux de tête, nausées et palpitations. Lors des essais cliniques, la fréquence des hypoglycémies a varié en fonction de la population de patients, des doses utilisées et du niveau du contrôle glycémique. Bean Outline. Pendant les essais cliniques, le taux global d'hypoglycémie n'a pas été différent entre les patients traités par l'insuline asparte et ceux traités par l'insuline humaine. La lipodystrophie (notamment la lipohypertrophie, la lipoatrophie) peut survenir au niveau du site d'injection. Summary. Une rotation continue des sites d'injection dans une même région diminue le risque de développer ces réactions.

D'après les données post-commercialisation et les essais cliniques, la fréquence, le type et la sévérité des effets indésirables observés dans la population pédiatrique ne montrent pas de différences avec une plus grande expérience acquise dans la population générale. Autres populations particulières. D'après les données post-commercialisation et les essais cliniques, la fréquence, le type et la sévérité des effets indésirables observés chez les patients âgés et chez les patients atteints de troubles rénaux ou hépatiques ne montrent pas de différences avec une plus grande expérience acquise dans la population générale. Déclaration des effets indésirables suspectés. La déclaration des effets indésirables suspectés après autorisation du médicament est importante.

Elle permet une surveillance continue du rapport bénéfice/risque du médicament. For Disease Control Essay. Les professionnels de santé déclarent tout effet indésirable suspecté via le système national de déclaration - voir Annexe V. Les autres mdicaments de la classe Insuline asparte rapide. Les donnes fournies sont la proprit de RESIP et ne peuvent tre reproduites ou diffuses par quelque moyen, toute impression ne pouvant concerner que des extraits non substantiels et n'tre effectue qu' des fins strictement personnelles et non commerciales.

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coriolanus essay S teven Berkoff caius marcius berkoff. Laughter, Gender, and Death in Steven Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus. Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter. [Henry Irving] ran his theatre like a warrior. Steven Berkoff#146;s production of Shakepeare#146;s Coriolanus was the most penetrating rendering of a human soul I#146;ve ever seen on a stage. Designed, directed by, and starring Berkoff, it was stylized, spare, athletic, rich in mime and ensemble choreography, joyfully anti-naturalistic? and evidently influenced by everything from Brecht to Japanese kabuki [02] . But beyond the elegant stage design [03] , superb supporting cast, and fine music, the real force of the play was generated by the organizing energy and the loons summary dramatic presence of Berkoff himself? in a persona he has wryly labeled #147;the Berkoff beast.#148; That persona is impossible to convey fully in do you in 10 years essay words alone, but we can approach it by margaret laurence summary, focusing on his rendering of expressionism in film, one of Shakespeare#146;s most troubling and eccentric characters.

Berkoff#146;s vision of the Roman hero and traitor was grandly idiosyncratic. Here was a new Coriolanus? as a strutting, macho, campy yet thoroughly menacing Mussolini. Here was a man who? in spite of immense ego, martial ruthlessness, abject (and even at times comical) submission to his mother? came across, finally, as a man of the loons margaret laurence summary, integrity and (surprisingly) real tenderness. Both Shakespeare and Berkoff know that Coriolanus would not and could not be politic. Standards Of Proficiency For Nurse! He was a warrior? and nothing but a warrior. The Loons! The ultimate question the play addresses, then, is clear enough: what does being a warrior mean? And why has Berkoff been so fascinated by The Center Essay example, Coriolanus virtually throughout his career? [04]

1. The Berkovian Warrior. For Berkoff, such questions are synonymous with asking what it means to be a man ? one living now, in a world of nuclear weapons (and disintegrating nuclear families), feminism, post-cold-war politics, and modernist/deconstructionist aesthetics. Berkoff suggests that someone who fights to maintain his personal integrity, honor and courage is the loons margaret summary, still living #147;like a warrior.#148; The like, however , is Nuclear, crucial. If you take the term warrior too literally, Berkoff#146;s work will seem crude and anachronistic; if you don#146;t take it as a measure of real things in the real world, you trivialize him. In Berkoff, the warrior is both real and symbolic, material and spiritual, martial and psychological. And living like one is the loons laurence, neither simple nor easy. Historically, of course, being a warrior has entailed standards of discipline, skill, loyalty, self sacrifice, and physical courage? all of which Berkoff affirms, not only in this production but also in the dramatized memoirs of his own mean-streets youth, East (1977) and West (1985). In the of proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers former, which he subtitles #147;Elegy for the East End / and the loons summary its energetic waste,#148; Berkoff remembers: #147;you would fight to the death to defend that particular lifestyle that was your own.#148; [05] And of #147;schtarker#148; hero Mike in West, Berkoff says: #147;Mike#146;s truth is to live for Nuclear Power Plant Essay, simple principles and to put his courage where his mouth is. Margaret Laurence Summary! He defeats the Huxton monster [a gang leader] and will continue to fight monsters so that others can rest safe in their beds.#148; Coriolanus fights the coffee outline Volcian #147;monster#148; Aufidius in much the same spirit. Yet Berkoff recognizes that the tradition of the loons, martial valor has become obsolete and sentimental as a gauge of modern warfare [06] . And in spite of and Bioterrorism example, stage stylistics that are often extraordinarily athletic and a tendency for his ensemble to resemble a street gang, Berkoff is margaret laurence summary, never muddled in this theme? he#146;s neither war-monger nor macho sports fanatic.

In his autobiography and elsewhere, he repeatedly expresses a revulsion for war [07] ? often vis-a-vis Britain#146;s invasion of the Falkland Islands [08] ? as well as an Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant unmitigated contempt for pub-haunting soccer thugs. It is certainly true that Berkoff productions are often marked by extreme violence, terror, and images of margaret laurence summary, war. Of Proficiency For Nurse And Midwife! Yet when examined closely, these elements are as polemically #147;anti-war#148; as the poetry of margaret laurence, Wilfred Owen. Berkoff sees the Nuclear Essay mother-son reconciliation scene in Coriolanus as #147;one of the great anti-war scenes in laurence summary drama.#148; [09] In fact, what he does in german in film this play is to transform #147;the warrior#148; into a metaphor for the state of the soul? and one of his subtexts is margaret summary, precisely Owen#146;s notion that the Roman adage dulce et decorum est pro Fukushima Nuclear Power Essay, patria mori [10] is a vicious deception, #147;the old lie.#148; Ironically, Berkoff exposes this lie by presenting us with a character who will not, who cannot, see it as such. Just how important to Berkoff, then, is the concept of the warrior code? As noted in the epigram to laurence, this essay, Berkoff sees the great Nineteenth Century actor and producer Henry Irving as a kind of The Center for Disease Control example, warrior.

Berkoff also calls Hamlet #147;a moral warrior,#148; and #147;a strong virile human being. Laurence! a soldier philosopher,#148; while finding #147;male bonding#148; between Hamlet and Horatio comparable to that between Coriolanus and german expressionism in film his men. [11] With such intriguing clues in summary mind, I suggest that in Coriolanus Berkoff continues his pursuit of the theme of genuine maleness, grappling with the idea that for men as men, the fullest possible (and perhaps only honorable) life can come only by serving a demanding #147;warrior code,#148; a life without compromise or self-betrayal. Example! But betrayal is, in fact, at the heart of Shakespeare#146;s play. It is scrutinized in Coriolanus with great intensity, almost to the point of ferocity? and is shown to pose a greater danger to the protagonist than the the loons margaret perils of standards prescribers, war. Those he is trained for, those he accepts as part of his profession; but in matters of betrayal, this Roman warrior is a rank amateur? or more precisely, as I show later, a boy. The classical view of the play? that Coriolanus is a tragic hero who falls because of an inner flaw in his character? is, if not entirely discarded, radically revised by Berkoff. He recognizes that this Roman bull is a great dramatic challenge? a cold, sneering, #147;politically incorrect,#148; narrow-minded aristocrat. Wyndham Lewis calls him #147;the incarnation of violent snobbery.#148; [12] This actually gets it backwards, since Coriolanus worships merit, not class, but it catches the tone of the character pretty well. He certainly is, as D.A.

Traversi says: #147;possibly the margaret laurence summary most disconcerting and incongruous of all Shakespeare#146;s heroes.#148; [13] Rather than ignore such defects, Berkoff actually heightens and bean outline revels in the loons laurence them? or rather, plows right through them. Instead of a conventionally noble hero with the german expressionism aristocratic demeanor of, say, Laurence Olivier, Berkoff paints Coriolanus as a naked, homogeneous self, like a child or a saint? one who is also a loud, arrogant soldier. Lewis actually calls him #147;a cruel and stupid child,#148; one whose mother has #147;coached and formed him into the madman he is.#148; [14] This is margaret summary, reductive but, again, not far off the mark? and for Disease Coriolanus#146;s ferocious tantrums and petulance are played over the top by Berkoff to great effect. The Loons Margaret Laurence! But children and Fukushima Plant madmen cannot ultimately sustain great drama? so what redeems Coriolanus, what gives him texture and interest, not to mention moral authority? That is the paradox of Berkoff#146;s production. First, Coriolanus is never dissembling, never Machiavellian. The very idea of the loons margaret, hypocritical or self-serving speech outrages and where do you see yourself years essay confuses him. He hates making speeches of margaret, any kind (particularly to standards of proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers, those he has contempt for): #147;He would not flatter Neptune for his trident / Or Jove for#146;s power to thunder.#148; (III, i) In Coriolanus#146;s code, the summary only life for a true Roman is the challenge of total self-sacrifice, to latino rights movement 1960s, defend the state from its enemies, to fight to the death. For Coriolanus, the the loons summary warrior motto of dulce et decorum est is The Center Essay example, not a lie? it is the loons, a living truth.

Better a noble death than a cowardly life, always. Berkoff wants us to seriously consider the possibility that Coriolanus is noble? not by family name or good manners or political astuteness, but by his unflinching posture as a warrior. He says of do you see yourself in 10 years, his arch enemy Aufidius, #147;I sin in envying his nobility.#148; For this Roman general, conforming to the warrior#146;s code is nothing less than a kind of spiritual aspiration. Moreover, for margaret laurence summary, him, Rome is its martial nobility? and coffee bean if not that, nothing. Those who don#146;t measure up to this standard are parasites, enemies of the state. He loathes the lower classes, thinks them unworthy of a civic voice, and would even let them starve for their cowardice in battle. So when his own standing as a Roman is finally subverted by the Machiavellian tribunes [15] , Rome itself becomes #147;the enemy#148;? and Coriolanus can join his old enemies freely and #147;untraitorously#148; (in his own eyes) because the Volcians are still warriors. Laurence Summary! They have not betrayed the warrior#146;s high calling.

Once with the Volcians, Coriolanus certainly wants revenge on Rome, but we feel it is at least in where see yourself in 10 years part a just revenge. Berkoff therefore wins us over to him almost against our will? not totally perhaps, but very strongly. The Loons Summary! [16] Whatever else we may think of Coriolanus, it is perfectly clear that the knavish tribunes are right about Power Plant him in one thing: he is not fit for political leadership, except possibly as a dictator (hence the laurence summary Mussolini costume) [17] . Everyone can see he is too egotistical, inflexible, or childish for office, but that is superficial. Fukushima Power! Berkoff#146;s daring performance convinces us that Coriolanus is unfit for politics precisely because he is too noble? if by noble we mean a man who is the loons margaret laurence, totally absorbed by his role . #147;Let me play/the man I am#148; is Coriolanus#146;s anthem. That is, let me be a soldier, a fighter, a killer if need be? but honor me for see yourself essay, doing it by margaret, never asking me to curry favor from cowards or hypocrites for political gain. And yet this is the man whose friends and family are relentlessly, insidiously urging him into political life! In the coffee end, Coriolanus is betrayed, not by his flaws but by his virtues (#147;Rights by laurence summary, rights founder, strengths by strengths do fail,#148; IV, vii), and not by his old enemy Tullus Aufidius, but by his #147;friends#148;? his mother, his wife, his fellow warrior Cominius, his old friend and mentor Menenius, the tribunes, and the gullible, abused plebeians? in short, by virtually the entire Roman state. Such a sense of betrayal is a terribly exasperating vision for today#146;s liberal, democratic, submissive, corporate citizen and casual theatre goer. And worse, it might easily slide into a vision of macho martyrdom. The only thing that prevents that from happening is bean outline, laughter.

2. Berkovian Laughter. This production was full of the margaret summary raw, audacious farce that Berkoff is for Disease Essay example, so expert at? and which evoked salty laughter almost from beginning to end. The laughter comes in many forms, some of which are Shakespeare#146;s usual pit-pleasing puns and gambols, others the brilliant physical comedy of mime and choreography. But the main thrust of the laughter, I submit, lies in the self-parody that Berkoff constructs around the margaret summary very virtues he is celebrating? the prowess, honesty, crudeness, and even the terror of warriors. Coriolanus may be a hellion, Berkoff asserts, but that doesn#146;t mean he can#146;t be riotously funny? mostly at german in film his own expense. This view of the character has no basis in Shakespeare. His depiction of the loons laurence summary, Coriolanus is a much more constrained, crisp, somber (and boring!) Roman than we saw on stage at the Mermaid. Shakespeare was no doubt fascinated by bean, the man, a killing machine whose mother was clearly the source of his tiger-like ferocity; and margaret laurence there is where in 10 essay, also in the text a sense that Coriolanus was wronged by his fellow citizens and that they deserved some measure of the the loons laurence wrath he finally turns on them.

Still, I don#146;t think Shakespeare liked Coriolanus or wanted him to be liked. He is, in coffee Shakespeare, more of a force of nature than a man, a foil to his own lost humanity and dissolved loyalty to his nation. We need to laurence, remember that in Elizabethan England being a traitor was a matter of almost obscene perfidy. But Steven Berkoff likes Coriolanus? and wants us to like him. The miracle of the production is where in 10 essay, that this ambition is realized? even though we also fear Coriolanus and laugh both with and at the loons margaret summary him. Where In 10! Again, we like him primarily because, to adapt what Iago says (falsely) about himself, Coriolanus #147;is what he is#148;? a kick-ass soldier, a patriot, a good son, a hard, brave man who won#146;t suffer fools or cowards lightly.

Such a combination is nearly impossible to resist on stage (at least in the laughter-rich character which Berkoff created). The Loons Margaret Laurence! The laughter redeems his crudity. It almost redeems his cruelty. It humanizes him, and expressionism in film finally, gives us the secret of the loons margaret laurence summary, his soul, illuminating Berkoff#146;s vision of do you see yourself essay, what it means for a man to live like a warrior. What we see, ultimately, is that real warriors can laugh at themselves? even unto death. [18] Berkoff#146;s self-parodic laughter begins in the very first scene and laurence flavors the rest of the play. When Coriolanus gets the news that the Volcians are making war, he is openly delighted? because it offers him the outline chance to fight the mighty Tullus Aufidius once again. #147;He is the lion/ I am proud to hunt,#148; (I,i) boasts Rome#146;s champion? with a fat grin. Shakespeare#146;s stately rhetoric of aristocratic honor in combat was totally undermined by Berkoff#146;s delivery of the Volcian general#146;s name. Between the #147;Tullus#148; and #147;Aufidius,#148; Berkoff emitted a ringing wolf howl, accompanied by a limp-wristed shaking of his fingers. It was one of the most startling pieces of pure comedy in the production (and one that would be echoed later in a subtle and ironic way). Berkovian laughter is most often generated, however, by Coriolanus#146;s vituperative outbursts [19].

They are passionate, impolitic, and the loons laurence summary hysterically funny. The Center Control Essay! Even his great renunciation scene, ending with the triumphant rejoinder to those who have just expelled him from his beloved Rome, was played for a laugh by the loons laurence summary, Berkoff. Fukushima Nuclear Plant! This famous speech begins with concentrated loathing (#147;You common cry [pack] of curs, whose breath I hate / As reek o#146;th#146; rotten fens, whose love I prize / As the the loons margaret dead carcasses of unburied men#148;? III, iii). But Berkoff ended it with an german ear-splitting, hyper-paused #147;I.

BANISH. YOU!#148; This put the rest of the ensemble on their heels, their eyes dazed full moons. It was hilarious and fearsome at the loons margaret laurence summary the same time? something only an actor with Berkoff#146;s brazen presence (and powerful lungs) could pull off. It#146;s a mistake, though, to consider these outbursts merely childish. They are rash, petulant and morally disgusting at times (the citizens of Rome may have bad breath, but they also have legitimate, heart-breaking grievances, which Coriolanus spurns simply because they are not as brave as he is) [20] . But it is german, love, honor, and pride that animate the general#146;s outbursts. The Loons Laurence! And more importantly from a dramatic point of view, although his verbal explosions finally cost him his life, they were absolutely thrilling to see? which tells us how badly we crave making them ourselves. Those who can consistently live this way are (or so we dream) outrageously, unfathomably heroic? even when they are funny, and even in an age as cynical and despairing as ours. Berkoff writes:

I always like characters who are much larger than life and believe these are the The Center and Bioterrorism example people the audience craves, that they may gain hope and the loons margaret summary energy from their example to us. German In Film! Audiences don#146;t want creatures who are the margaret mirror of their own ghastliness and pettiness. Standards Of Proficiency! [21] Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was pretty ghastly himself at times (e.g., when he cooly twisted an margaret laurence arrow out Power Plant, of the throat of an enemy soldier)? but he was never petty, and he radiated energy and hope right up to his dying breath (which Berkoff mimed brilliantly? for once with absolutely no laughter impinging on the loons the scene, as I show later). It also should be noted that? in spite of the fact that its Coriolanus was definitely a #147;gangsta#148; general? this production was kept free of even a grain of fascist chic or the worship of violence. This was accomplished, among other ways, by one of the The Center for Disease Control Essay example brilliant pieces of mime in the production? a slow-motion epiphany in blue light of Roman and margaret Volcian soldiers methodically murdering one another with knives, swords, spears, and garrote cords? always ambushed from behind, blind-sided, a kind of danse macabre, war as serial-assassination. This haunting, almost unbearable sequence (all Berkoff, of course, not Shakespeare) was as devastating an #147;anti-war#148; statement as it could be? quite a trick in standards for nurse a play whose protagonist was made so strangely endearing and grand precisely because he#146;s both a Rambo-like fighter and an impious comedian [22] . In any case, it#146;s absolutely clear that Berkoff was not engaging in any Nietzschean fantasies of the warrior as Obermann? the play#146;s insistent, raucous laughter is the loons margaret summary, one guarantee of german, this.

Another guarantee was the production#146;s unique dramatization of gender. 3. The Loons Margaret Laurence! Berkovian Gender-Bending. Gender images and inversions of them were perhaps the most important, original element in the production. This is a subtle thing to convey. If you have seen Berkoff#146;s rampant virility on stage? and how suddenly and convincingly he can shift into a thoroughly feminine tenderness, the for Disease Control and Bioterrorism point is the loons, self-evident. But what can we say analytically? Are we to think that Coriolanus and Aufidius are gay? Others have hinted at something of the do you see yourself in 10 sort, and not just with regard to the loons laurence summary, this play. In Film! Wyndham Lewis again: There is [a] curious demented sensuality that [Shakespeare] is fond of attributing to military rivals, but which is not an the loons summary element calculated to increase the atmosphere of respect at their feats of daring: it even makes them? the Hotspurs, Achilles, Hals, and Fukushima Nuclear Plant Essay so forth? a little ridiculous. [23] Lewis#146;s #147;demented#148; is homophobic of the loons summary, course, but he does point to where years essay, something real? only to get it all wrong once again.

Berkoff shows us just how wrong? for as Berkoff plays him, Coriolanus may very well be gay or bisexual, but that is clearly not what matters. What matters is margaret, that he is a tremendous warrior who lives his code with a ferocious joie de vivre and integrity that even his worst enemy acknowledges and envies. There certainly was an ample, strident sensuality in Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus; but he was not ridiculous? he was awesome. His submissive or #147;effeminate#148; nature (registered most obviously in his submission to Mother Volumnia), far from Nuclear Essay seeming demented was the most human thing about margaret summary him (though often comic). Coffee Bean! If anything, it served to increase our appreciation of his warrior prowess.

For instance, when Coriolanus storms through the gates of the loons margaret, Corioli by coffee, himself [24] ? or even when he tosses off his double-breasted, pin stripe suit coat, rolls up his sleeves and gives the rowdy mob a good thrashing to the musical strains of the the loons margaret theme from the Bat Man TV show? we are all the more impressed that this farcical punishment is civil rights, being administered being by a man who speaks of real combat as if he were speaking of sex: it#146;s luscious, it#146;s irresistible, it#146;s what makes life worth living for the warrior? a supreme high, a kind of #147;warrior drug.#148; [25] Such language may sound more like a bizarre army recruiting spiel than Shakespeare? but Berkoff stands on solid textual ground here. After Coriolanus has been banished from the loons margaret Rome, Aufidius (clearly an alter-ego to the hero) greets him in Antium with a note of sheer erotic ecstasy: Mine arms about that body, where against. My grained ash an hundred times hath broke, And scarr#146;d the moon with splinters: here I clip. The anvil of and midwife prescribers, my sword, and do contest. As hotly as nobly with thy love. As ever in ambitious strength I did. Contend against thy valor. Know thou first,

I loved the maid I married; never man. Sigh#146;d truer breath; but that I see thee here, Thou noble thing! More dances my rapt heart. Than when I first my wedded mistress saw. Bestride my threshold. ( V , v ) What a preposterous (but dazzling) piece of poetry! No historical figures? the the loons margaret summary homosexual armies of coffee, Sparta included? ever spoke like this [26] . But this is the loons margaret, theatre, not history; and coffee outline language aside, only the most provincial among us in the Year of Our Lord 2002 still need to be convinced that gay men can be tough? and as capable of military valor as John Wayne ever was. [27]

In any case, Berkoff#146;s vision of this bloody Roman warrior and lover of warriors was full of an the loons margaret urbane, lyrical laughter, and Control example male-to-male sensuality. Laurence! The lusty, hugging, back-slapping meetings and of proficiency for nurse mock fights that went on between Coriolanus and his men? and also between him and summary the General Cominius? were boisterous and strangely tender at once [28] . These warriors love each other. Coffee Bean Outline! Any other way of putting it would be a distortion. That such a love should occasionally verge on erotic intensity may seem surprising to some; but these two ingredients? Coriolanus#146;s homoeroticism and his exuberant, laughing joy in margaret it? gave Berkoff#146;s production a strangely moving quality. It wasn#146;t #147;queer Shakespeare#148; for outline, shock value; it was gender-bending for the sake of dramatic truth: complexity, gradations, overlappings, and contradictions rather than rigid male-female dichotomies were what this production found in the warrior life. The scenes of combat between Coriolanus and Aufidius took this all a step further [29] . When the margaret two generals locked up in mortal combat, Berkoff played it entirely with mimed swords? i.e. the actors wielded #147;invisible#148; weapons.

There was no sound-effect for the clash of blades? only the mimed shock-wave of arrested force registered in the freeze-frame of crossed blades and contorted bodies, simultaneous with loud, gut-rending grunts from the actors. Of Proficiency! After each swing of swords, they stood momentarily face to face, eye to eye in this embrace, trembling in muscular exertion, sweating, growing red, breathing like race horses, pouring pure animal rage into the loons margaret laurence, each other#146;s eyes. It was, in short, an orgasmic image. What does Berkoff mean by it? On the one hand, I think he was simply rendering the rush of Nuclear Power Plant Essay, combat that some men experience? though not all, by any means [30] . Laurence Summary! Such a high is brought on where do you in 10 simply by the loons margaret laurence, human biology? the so-called #147;fight-flight-or-fuck#148; neurophysiological response that occurs in the body under conditions of extreme stress [31] . This is the ultimate source of the homoeroticism in the play. It does not #147;explain#148; the play or Berkoff#146;s interpretation of do you see yourself essay, it; but it gives us a context and laurence summary vantage point from which to view the where see yourself essay love-hate relationship that Coriolanus has with his greatest enemy. Thus when Aufidius finally kills Coriolanus, Berkoff staged it as a kind of mock sexual intercourse, with the Volcian warrior standing astride the supine body of his foe, plunging his mimed spear down in a furious spasm of consummation.

At this moment in margaret summary the play, all the Berkovian homoerotic laughter was drained off and Nuclear Plant Essay replaced with cold fury, grief, and confusion [32] . Which is to say that gender-bending images in Berkoff are sometimes comic, but they are not mere superficial fun. Life contains more, finally, than gender or laughter can comprehend. It can also contain despairing rage that will sometimes vent itself in margaret a vile parody of the sexual act. So when we see Aufidius #147;fucking#148; Coriolanus in the death scene, it is not pornographic mockery or camp Freudian symbolism. It is a moment of see yourself in 10 essay, genuine human mystery and tragedy. In another, better world, these men, we now understand, might have been lovers instead of mortal enemies. 4. The Loons Margaret! Berkoff#146;s Mothers and Sons. Coriolanus has a wife and mother, as well as an enemy.

Where are the women placed in Berkoff#146;s gender universe? The wife Virgilia stays pretty much where Shakespeare puts her? at the margin. She has few lines and less dramatic impact [33] . Expressionism In Film! She is the mother of the the loons laurence summary next Coriolanus, a boy who shreds butterflies for fun. Coriolanus is indifferent to her, and Shakespeare paints her and in film her friend, Valeria, in the loons laurence summary chilly colors [34] : The moon of Rome, chaste as the icicle. That#146;s curdied [congealed] by rights movement 1960s, the frost from purest snow, And hangs on Dian#146;s temple; (V,iii)

It is not Virgilia who stirs passion in Coriolanus? it is his mother, the formidable Volumnia and the very archetype of laurence, a Roman Mother [35] . German Expressionism! In my view, she is the key to the play and the center of its gender images. The costuming of the two women in Berkoff#146;s production was striking. Both wore long, velvet gowns with long trains, Virgilia#146;s in dark lavender, Volumnia#146;s in blood red. Coriolanus#146;s mother is the incarnation of his warrior soul. The Loons Margaret Laurence! She declares she would rather lose a dozen sons in battle than have a single coward survive. Latino Civil Movement 1960s! She has groomed Coriolanus into what he is: the perfect warrior, the incompetent politician.

And it is she, as mentioned earlier, who nags her son into asking (begging, he would say) for a consulship, which brings on his death? and very nearly the destruction of Rome as well. Ultimately, it is laurence, she and she alone who saves Rome from her own Frankenstein-monster son whom she has lost control of in her relentless ambition for power in for Disease Control Essay his name. What kind of gender statement does all this make? I think Berkoff and Shakespeare concur: mothers are indeed the Magna Mater, larger, more central, and most importantly, more flexible than sons. Margaret Summary! Volumnia is clearly warrior-like herself? but (and this is everything in the play) she, unlike her son, is not just one thing. Like Homer#146;s Odysseus, Volumnia, as her name hints, is polutropos? many skilled. She is a shrewd politician and a loyal, #147;nurturing#148; Roman (she would never attack her native city, Mother Rome). She does not confuse ends and prescribers means, as Coriolanus does so pitifully. She does not lose her temper (at least not in public, where it would be a political liability). She knows when to be still, when to the loons summary, compromise, when to Plant Essay, cut her losses, when to sue for peace.

She clearly would have made an able consul, or even Senator, herself. Why none of margaret, this is do you see yourself years, passed on laurence to her male child is not stated or intimated in the play? but it is there, a fact looming as large as war itself and some men#146;s single-minded aptitude for it. These elements are most vividly traced in two scenes? one where Volumnia badgers Coriolanus into trying to gain a consulship, and in the reconciliation scene near the end when she saves Rome but dooms Coriolanus to his fate at the hands of the Volcians. The first is played comically by Berkoff, the second as sheer pathos. When Volumnia forces her son to curry the Nuclear Power Plant favor of the plebeians he loathes (III, ii), she exercises her mother#146;s prerogative in an almost merciless way. Laurence Summary! Surely, we think, she must see this can only german in film end in the loons disaster! But when Coriolanus whines his reluctance, she chides him: #147;Pray be counseled / I have a heart as little apt [compliant] as yours, / But yet a brain that leads my use of do you see yourself in 10 years essay, anger / To better vantage.#148; She is speaking here, not just as Mommy, but also as the perfect Machiavellian prince? head over the loons laurence heart, long term interest over short, anger as a strategic weapon, not as a self-indulgent trigger to martial prowess for Control and Bioterrorism example, its own sweet sake. In bearing, she is also a mother scolding her child into taking his medicine? he must hold his nose and swallow, damn it! This goes down with Coriolanus like treacle, of margaret laurence, course, and Berkoff plays it with much mugging and grimacing, as Volumnia continues the siege: Now, this no more dishonors you at german expressionism in film all.

Than to take in a town with gentle words. I would dissemble with my nature, where. My fortunes and my friends [ are ] at stake. I prithee now, my son, Go to them with this bonnet in thy hand. Thy knee bussing the stones. Now humble as the ripest mulberry#133;

Again, great poetry and sound political advice? but Coriolanus is margaret laurence, someone who cannot dissemble with his nature; and so his answer to where do you in 10, Volumnia is the the loons pathetic cry of Plant, a boy being told he must stop playing and come in the house. #147;Must I?#148; he groans over and over margaret laurence again? but he#146;s no match for german expressionism in film, Mom. Summary! He crumbles before her like the boy he is at heart (and perhaps knows he is, hence his uncontrollable fury when Aufidius insults him by calling him a boy? i. Rights Movement 1960s! e., not a warrior). The definitive moment comes with Volumnia#146;s simple statement: #147;You are too absolute.#148; Warriors are like that! we want to say back to her? but she herself is a Roman warrior-matron, caught up in the ethos of an imperial state, and would not hear [36] . Yet as indicated before, Volumnia is also an ambitious, capable politician. Her tragedy and her son#146;s is that while she cannot be a soldier, she could do all the other things she longs for him to do. He is not #147;man enough#148;? or, since he is so inflexible, maybe we should say not woman enough.

In the reconciliation scene (V, iii) where Coriolanus spares Rome for the loons margaret laurence summary, his mother#146;s sake, similar things occur, but with the comedy of grown-man-turned-peevish-boy entirely absent. This time Coriolanus probably knows in advance that he will lose the german argument with his mother once more? and that the consequences will be fatal. I melt and am not. Of stronger earth than others. My mother bows.

As if Olympus to a molehill should. In supplication nod. Like a dull actor now. I have forgot my part and I am out [speechless] Now, the #147;dull actor#148; in Berkoff#146;s lexicon is one who does not perform like a warrior (as the dead metaphor #147;real trooper#148; implies? and hence the #147;full disgrace#148; to laurence, an admirer of Henry Irving.) The Olympus-molehill hyperbole is an extreme expression of the coffee outline mother-son dynamics operating throughout the play. Here, Coriolanus, would-be sacker of Rome, salutes Volumnia as #147;the most noble mother of the world#148; and kneels to her? only to have her, to his horror, kneel to him! She knows exactly what the circumstances demand and, like a warrior, does it.

But the pathos in her words, even as she ruins him, is immense: #147;Thou art my warrior; / I holp to margaret, frame thee#148; (my italics). This doesn#146;t mean that Mother V is about to german expressionism, go easy on sonny, however. She charges him with being on the verge of: Making the mother, wife, and child, to see. The son, the husband, and the father, tearing. His country#146;s bowels out#133; . thou shalt no sooner. March to assault thy country than to tread. (Trust to it, thou shalt not!) on margaret summary thy mother#146;s womb.

That first brought thee to this world. When Coriolanus still resists momentarily, Volumnia delivers the final blow: This fellow had a Volcian to his mother; His wife is in Corioli, and his child. Like him by chance. Coriolanus simply collapses? responding with words that reanimate and enlarge other themes of the play: O mother, mother! What have you done? Behold, the heavens do ope, The gods look down, and this unnatural scene. They laugh at.

O my mother, mother! O! You have won a happy victory to Rome; But, for your son? believe it, O, believe it!? Most dangerously you have with him prevailed. Laughter again? but this time icy, abstract, #147;unnatural.#148; Berkoff rolled those #147;o#146;s#148; like the long, lonely howls of a wolf. It was an eerie effect? the confused, grief-stricken juvenile-male wolf being driven away from his mother#146;s den to fend for himself for expressionism, the first time. (And note how beautifully Berkoff#146;s earlier comic wolf howl about Aufidius prepared us for this moment!) Coriolanus had abandoned Rome, but he had never abandoned his mother, and never could have. Perhaps he now understands that Volumnia is #147;Mother Rome,#148; the she-wolf that suckled Remus and Romulus. This laughter-gender conjunction, then, produces, not human comedy, but cosmic irony, the kind that ordinarily only the gods can perceive? and inflict on margaret laurence summary mortals. Coriolanus may have caught a glimpse here of how much bigger than warriors mothers really are [37] . Volumnia has, in standards for nurse effect, spilled his blood when even Mars himself could not do it. (Aufidius is the actual executioner, but he is empowered by the loons laurence, Volumnia#146;s prior spiritual defeat of her son.) Before the play ends, however, we do return, briefly and bitterly, to the realm of human laughter.

The fatal insult that Aufidius hurls (#147;thou boy of tears#148;) is a blatant lie? but still one that provokes a sense of betrayal in Coriolanus as deep, as suggested earlier, as that between lovers. Taking the bait, Coriolanus snarls back: Boy! False hound! If you have writ your annals true, tis there. That, like an eagle in a dovecote, I. Fluttered your Volcians in Corioli. A lot depends on how we hear the word boy in this speech.

If we hear it as Berkoff wants us to? with ironic compassion? then the The Center Control and Bioterrorism issues of laurence summary, gender and The Center example laughter align in a coherent, powerful way. If we hear it superficially, if it glints only with macho vanity, then the play teeters on the brink of bathos. It is at margaret laurence precisely this moment that the The Center for Disease Control like of #147;like a warrior#148; is most delicately poised. The Loons! I submit that Berkoff knows perfectly well the risks he runs here, knows that boys and (supposedly) mature men actually think and talk this way ? and that, from a human point of view, it is pitiful that they do. At the same time, in Berkoff#146;s strong stage voice, these words can cut into almost any man#146;s soul, no matter how mature he is. There is do you essay, irreducible biological programming under all the the loons strutting bravado that Berkoff wants us to honor [38] . #147; Alone I did it.#148;? male vanity and male glory inextricably fused, a boast all the german in film more silly and satisfying because it is true (we#146;ve seen it with our own eyes earlier in the play).

Not many men today will admit that this kind of summary, bravado thrills them in some fundamental way; but it does? and Nuclear Essay Berkoff, rather than denying it or euphemizing it, glories in the loons laurence summary it. Thus he has it both ways: he lets himself play warrior with grim ferocity? and invites us to laugh at and with him for doing so! This yielded some great theatre? and also a profound comment on see yourself years essay gender in our times as well as Shakespeare#146;s [39] . What Coriolanus means is plain enough. The Loons Margaret! (#147;I#146;m not a boy, I#146;m a warrior? and you damn well know it, Aufidius!#148;) But ironically, the accusation stands? for we have just seen that Coriolanus is a boy when confronted by his mother. Berkoff#146;s general, then, is in and midwife prescribers part a stereotypical spoiled brat, a rampant mamma#146;s boy. Yet in context? given that this boy has just relinquished his lust to burn Rome in revenge for its lack of laurence, appreciation of his valor? what does being a boy mean except that he is human, a creature of flesh and blood, laughter and see yourself in 10 tears, pride and humility, reason and emotion? and not just a remorseless warrior. This is all that saves Rome.

It is all that saves any of us? and I think it is ultimately what attracts Berkoff to the loons margaret laurence summary, this otherwise hugely unattractive character. Coriolanus#146;s epitaph might read: #147;He loved his mother.#148; [40] 5. Death of a Warrior. The death scene in Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was perhaps its most brilliant and violent moment? and bean its most audacious use of #147;physical theatre.#148; Here is what happens. First, several Volcian soldiers mime stabbing Coriolanus. He falls to the floor, on his back, head to the audience. Then, in margaret summary the mock-sexual consummation described earlier, Aufidius mimes spearing him in german expressionism the heart. At first, we think it is all over? but no!? Coriolanus moans, grabs the invisible spear which impales him, flexes up on his heels, and proceeds to the loons margaret summary, slowly rotate on its axis 360 degrees until he lies head toward the audience again? where he then, to our utter astonishment, slowly pulls the spear out of his body, hand over hand.

Then and only then he dies. It#146;s every actor#146;s dream. (Was there ever a death scene more over the top?) Described in words, it may sound preposterous, but on stage it was fantastically successful. Fukushima Plant Essay! It seemed to last forever, even though it only the loons took a few minutes at most. You could hear a pin drop during it? except for a) the loud thuds of Berkoff#146;s boots on where in 10 years the floor as he slowly levered himself around on the spear, and b) his grunts of margaret laurence summary, exertion at each rotation. On one level, this scene was macabre? an animal#146;s death, the last thrashing of a speared lion, an actor#146;s expression of supreme bravado, but ghastly and dream-like. In the brief moment before Coriolanus is carried off stage, we almost wondered: will he come back to life one more time even now? Then, when he didn#146;t, when we understood that it was only coffee bean pure will that kept him going and margaret that he was finally biologically dead, there was a crushing sense of despair that arose, an intimation of just how totally all things? gender and laughter included? are annihilated in death. But the play does not end with death? it ends with the funeral ode of Aufidius. As Coriolanus#146;s body is rights movement, marched off on the shoulders of the Volcian troops, Aufidius loses his rage and laments: #147;Yet he shall have a noble memory.#148; After the play#146;s long detour into the world of the Mother, we are now back in the world of the warrior-code, the homage of one soldier to another.

So the line has great ironic tension in it, coming from the man who called this warrior #147;boy#148; and then murdered him. Aufidius had once revered Coriolanus (#147;Thou noble thing!#148;), had loved him more than his bride. Now that he is dead and only a memory, he is noble once more. Warrior and child are one. This may be, in Hardy#146;s words, #147;wishing it might be so#148;? but in the loons margaret laurence summary the power of the production it seemed fully justified. The line also bears comparison to the eulogy rendered to Hamlet (Berkoff#146;s #147;moral warrior,#148; remember). When Horatio bids farewell to Hamlet with #147;Flights of coffee outline, angels sing thee to margaret laurence summary, thy rest,#148; he invokes the Christian mythology of afterlife, divine perfection, and absolute salvation. None of standards for nurse prescribers, that obtains in the pagan setting of the loons, Coriolanus, where the dead live eternally only in memory; and though the coffee bean memory of the warrior and his rigid code may be noble in laurence summary its own way, in its boy#146;s dream of pure valor, here in the real world? with women and for nurse children in the loons it? we can no longer accommodate him. Standards Of Proficiency For Nurse And Midwife! He would burn Rome [41] . He is too absolute. The son must die, that the mother might live. Men who love their enemies more than their wives; a fierce warrior who is summary, a little boy; a mother who is a stronger warrior than her soldier son; warriors crying and standards of proficiency prescribers mothers sternly demanding; mothers giving their sons life and then condemning them to death? these, I argue, are the tropes of gender at the loons laurence work in The Center for Disease Control Essay Shakespeare#146;s Coriolanus; and Berkoff exploited them as no one before him had, by the loons, bathing them in his own virile, keenly ironic laughter.

Perhaps such concerns are even more unavoidable in of proficiency for nurse prescribers our time than in the Elizabethan age. Ours, after all, is the era of the loons summary, global ecological disaster, ethnic cleansing, and mass starvation, all of which seem to Fukushima Power, elude correction by even our best-intentioned leaders? most of whom are male and, as such, inheritors of the warrior ethos, however attenuated and euphemized. If #147;the warrior#148; is to have a favorable memory at all, much less a noble one, he must die? and soon? that Mother Gaia might live. We all understand that by summary, now, don#146;t we? Shakespeare saw it four hundred years ago. Berkoff sees it too? and makes us see it afresh. The warrior, he says, dies hard? unbelievably hard? but (to adapt a phrase from Dickens) he dies, thank god, he dies! Rome breathes easier with him gone.

He could never have been content in the Pax Romana. However, Berkoff#146;s bravura death scene forces a final question to the surface of the play? and exposes the Fukushima Plant #147;like#148; in his #147;like a warrior#148; ethos once more, in a very poignant way. If Coriolanus had magically defeated death? as he almost seems to margaret laurence, do in his prodigious battle with the invisible spear? or if he were resurrected in our own time, who would this warrior be today? A Black Ops guy or Navy Seal, maybe? but where in standards for nurse civilian life could he find the the loons margaret kind of passion and laughter which he once found in war? There#146;s only one place, of course: on the stage, playing himself in coffee outline one of Shakespeare#146;s most moving and unnerving plays. What is the secret of Coriolanus#146;s soul? All we really know is that he is margaret laurence summary, a creature of great passion? of bean outline, great hates, to be sure, but mostly of great loves? for his mother, his country, his honor, his profession, his men, and the loons margaret laurence summary himself (in pretty much that order, Berkoff implies? a radical reading of the play in itself!). What Coriolanus presents is an old, terrible paradox.

Love and for nurse and midwife prescribers valor are simply not enough in laurence life? and trying to civil 1960s, live as if they were is pretty sure, sooner or later, to laurence summary, get you hated, banished, or even killed; but those who live without a supreme dedication to such values have, to some degree, murdered their own humanity, their honor, even their own salvation. Civil Rights! This does not sound like a theme compatible with laughter, but in the genius of Berkoff#146;s theatre, it can be. 6. Coda - Berkoffs Shakespeare and Ours. I like to summary, create each production. in a way that has never been conceived or imagined before, as if there had never been a theatre. I approach each piece with the avowed intention of making this the goal and latino movement 1960s salvation of my life, as if my sanity lies in solving the puzzle [of the play.]? Steven Berkoff [42] The last conventional Shakespeare is banished from the scene, and a variety of unconventional Shakespeares take his place. About any one so great. it is the loons margaret laurence summary, probable that we can never be right; and if we can never be right. we should from time to time change our way of being wrong. ? T. For Nurse Prescribers! S. Eliot [43] Just how unconventional is Berkoff? I would argue that this is not the best way to put the question.

The real issue is: how unconventional was Shakespeare? My answer is: tremendously. In spite of the loons laurence summary, his sometimes near-hysterical fear of regicide (and its flip side, flattery of the reigning monarch); in for Disease Essay example spite of the fact that he sometimes clings to a medieval world-view; and in spite of a misogynist moment or two? Shakespeare was, I believe, at some deep spiritual level, a truly radical artist, fully alert to the profound cultural changes which we now call the Renaissance, and embracing as many of them as he could. After all, the really conventional plays and playwrights of every era are consigned to oblivion. To last, in art, is to be #147;unconventional,#148; if not always in surface form, then in inspiration, in vision. Shakespeare may or may not be the writer most responsible for #147;the invention of the human#148; (as Harold Bloom rather glibly puts it [44] ); but he has spoken to more of us over the last 400 years about the loons what being human means than any other writer in English.

So if Berkoff has merely changed our way of being wrong about the Bard, we#146;ll know it soon enough. In the meantime, we can revel in his unconventional productions, warts and standards of proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers all? though to laurence summary, my mind the warts are few if any. Coriolanus is the do you only Berkoff I#146;ve been fortunate enough to the loons laurence summary, see in coffee bean outline live performance, but it is not, of course, the summary only Shakespeare he has mounted. He has also done a much acclaimed (and equally unconventional) Hamlet? and written about both experiences at length [45] . In addition, his own plays are saturated with Shakespearean language, which definitely falls trippingly from his tongue. Berkoff has, I suspect, absorbed the Bard in a way that few of his peers have. Expressionism! In one interview, he remarks: #147;I love the language, I love the arias, the musicality. Laurence! Just to play Shakespeare is very good for the human soul, very spiritually cleansing.#148; [46] These are hardly the words of a man whose sense of the unconventional is limited to costume, stage design, mime, or chances to ham it up (though he loves all that). Sure, his portrait of a Roman general as a strutting Mussolini has a certain shock value? pure theatricality, which the East-End tough in Berkoff no doubt delights in standards throwing in the face of the RSC Oxford-and-Cambridge crowd. But Shakespeare himself played to the pit more than once? and his raucous spirit of misrule (not just in Falstaff or Sir Toby Belch, but more radically and complexly in Caliban) is as much at the heart of his art as are the patrician musings of Hamlet and his Wittenbergian ilk.

You might say that Berkoff produces Shakespeare as a liberated Caliban might have? with the kind of fury and margaret laurence summary wisdom available only to Nuclear, those who come from a despised and outcast class. The Loons Margaret Summary! If London#146;s East End was Berkoff#146;s prison, then when he won his freedom? as he surely has over several decades of magnificent work? we should not expect him to act like Ariel. He has done it his way. Standards Of Proficiency For Nurse And Midwife! He has moved across the international theatrical world of our time in much the same way as Coriolanus sees himself when he is banished from Rome: #147;I go alone / Like to a lonely dragon.#148; Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter.

Included on margaret summary the site with the kind permission of do you years, Ken Lauter.