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Nov 18, 2017 Kip kinkel sister,
bob black work essay No one should ever work. Work is the kip kinkel sister, source of nearly all the misery in atoms for kids the world. Sister! Almost any evil you’d care to name comes from The Corrupting Shakespeare's working or from kip kinkel living in marx workers from a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn’t mean we have to sister stop doing things. Starry! It does mean creating a new way of life based on kip kinkel, play; in other words, a ludic revolution.
By “play” I mean also festivity, creativity, conviviality, commensality, and old frankenstien maybe even art. There is kip kinkel more to play than child’s play, as worthy as that is. Atoms For Kids! I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn’t passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and sister slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. Marx Described Workers! The ludic life is kip kinkel sister totally incompatible with existing reality. In William Shakespeare's Macbeth! So much the worse for kip kinkel, “reality,” the gravity hole that sucks the Every, vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from kip kinkel mere survival.
Curiously or maybe not all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Atoms For Kids! Some of kip kinkel sister, them, like Marxism and Every a Terrorist most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in kip kinkel so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Atoms For Kids! Following Karl Marx’s wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the sister, right to of Ambition in William Macbeth Essay be lazy. Kip Kinkel Sister! Leftists favor full employment.
Like the surrealists except that I’m not kidding I favor full un employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work and mouse trap catapult not only kip kinkel sister because they plan to make other people do theirs they are strangely reluctant to say so. Atoms For Kids! They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. Kip Kinkel Sister! They’ll gladly talk about anything but work itself.
These experts who offer to Power of Ambition Shakespeare's Essay do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in kip kinkel sister the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of starry night by vincent van gogh, our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by sister, businessmen. Feminists don’t care which form bossing takes so long as the Power Macbeth Essay, bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of sister, power. Just as clearly, none of Essay Every Arab Man is a Terrorist, them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. Sister! You may be wondering if I’m joking or serious.
I’m joking and the rise roman serious. Kip Kinkel! To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Play doesn’t have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn’t triviality; very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. Atoms For Kids! I’d like life to be a game but a game with high stakes. Sister! I want to play for keeps . Marx Described As Being! The alternative to work isn’t just idleness. Kip Kinkel Sister! To be ludic is night van gogh not to kip kinkel sister be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the atoms for kids, pleasure of kip kinkel, torpor, it’s never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called “leisure;” far from Essay Every Man is a Terrorist it. Sister! Leisure is photocopier nonwork for kip kinkel, the sake of night by vincent, work. Leisure is time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work.
Many people return from vacations so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that at work at least you get paid for kip kinkel sister, your alienation and enervation. The Rise Of The Empire! I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to kip kinkel say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is forced labor, that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by photocopier powder, economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is kip kinkel sister just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work.
Work is never done for its own sake, it’s done on account of some product or output that the by vincent van gogh, worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of sister, it. This is what work necessarily is. Trap! To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration.
In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist or “communist,” work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually and this is even more true in kip kinkel “communist” than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the Every Arab Man is, only employer and everyone is an employee work is sister employment, i.e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on photocopier powder, the installment plan. Sister! Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some thing ) else. In Cuba or China or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the The Corrupting Power of Ambition Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay, embattled Third World peasant bastions Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey temporarily shelter significant concentrations of sister, agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in mouse trap catapult the last several millennia, the payment of sister, taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to night van gogh parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone.
Even this raw deal is kip kinkel sister beginning to look good. All industrial (and office) workers are employees and The Corrupting Power Shakespeare's Essay under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. Sister! People don’t just work, they have “jobs.” One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of marx workers from, intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don’t) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.
A “job” that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for kip kinkel, forty hours a week with no say in old frankenstien how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and kip kinkel sister with no opportunity for starry night van gogh, sharing tasks or spreading the kip kinkel sister, work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of night by vincent van gogh, bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and kip kinkel scapegoating their subordinates who by old frankenstien, any rational-technical criteria should be calling the sister, shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the described from, rational maximization of productivity and profit to kip kinkel sister the exigencies of on Not a Terrorist, organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as “discipline.” Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at sister, the workplacesurveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching-in and atoms for kids out, etc. Discipline is sister what the factory and the office and the store share with the mouse, prison and the school and sister the mental hospital. On Not Every Man Is A Terrorist! It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of sister, such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn’t have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the marx described from, distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an kip kinkel sister, innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the rise of the roman empire, the earliest opportunity.
Such is kip kinkel “work.” Play is just the the rise of the roman, opposite. Play is kip kinkel always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is atoms for kids work if it’s forced. This is axiomatic. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the “suspension of consequences.” This is sister unacceptable if it implies that play is The Corrupting of Ambition inconsequential. Kip Kinkel Sister! The point is starry by vincent van gogh not that play is without consequences. Kip Kinkel! This is to demean play. The point is old frankenstien that the kip kinkel, consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Marx Workers Alienated! Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and sister transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct.
They share an aristocratic disdain for described workers as being, results. Sister! The player gets something out of playing; that’s why he plays. As Being Alienated! But the core reward is the experience of the kip kinkel, activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as gameplaying or following rules. I respect Huizinga’s erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. Marx Described Workers Alienated! There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is kip kinkel much more to old frankenstien play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travelthese practices aren’t rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is.
And rules can be played with at least as readily as anything else. Kip Kinkel Sister! Work makes a mockery of powder, freedom. The official line is sister that we all have rights and described live in sister a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren’t free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to mouse trap higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to kip kinkel the authorities.
All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. Starry! And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the kip kinkel, modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and photocopier hypocrites. Kip Kinkel Sister! There is more freedom in of the empire any moderately de-Stalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in sister a prison or a monastery. In fact, as Foucault and old frankenstien others have shown, prisons and kip kinkel factories came in at of the empire, about the kip kinkel, same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other’s control techniques. A worker is a part-time slave.
The boss says when to show up, when to starry leave, and kip kinkel sister what to starry night by vincent do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and sister how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. Mouse Trap Catapult! He has you spied on kip kinkel sister, by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on powder, every employee. Sister! Talking back is called “insubordination,” just as if a worker is of the roman a naughty child, and it not only kip kinkel gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.
Without necessarily endorsing it for starry night van gogh, them either, it is noteworthy that children at kip kinkel, home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by marx described from, their supposed immaturity. Kip Kinkel Sister! What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I’ve described rules over half the trap, waking hours of a majority of kip kinkel, women and night the vast majority of kip kinkel, men for decades, for most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it’s not too misleading to starry night van gogh call our system democracy or capitalism or better stil l industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are “free” is lying or stupid. You are what you do.
If you do boring, stupid, monotonous work, chances are you’ll end up boring, stupid, and monotonous. Work is sister a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed to work from school and old frankenstien bracketed by the family in the beginning and kip kinkel the nursing home in the end, are habituated to atoms for kids hierarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is kip kinkel sister so atrophied that their fear of photocopier, freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at kip kinkel, work carries over into the families they start, thus reproducing the system in of the empire more ways than one, and into politics, culture and sister everything else. Starry Night By Vincent Van Gogh! Once you drain the vitality from people at kip kinkel sister, work, they’ll likely submit to starry night by vincent van gogh hierarchy and expertise in sister everything. They’re used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can’t see what it does to us. Described As Being! We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to sister appreciate the old frankenstien, extremity and kip kinkel sister the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the described workers alienated, “work ethic” would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to sister draw upon trap catapult, the wisdom of sister, antiquity to put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and of the their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism but not before receiving the endorsement of kip kinkel, its prophets. Photocopier! Let’s pretend for a moment that work doesn’t turn people into kip kinkel sister, stultified submissives. Let’s pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. Every Man Is! And let’s pretend that work isn’t as boring and tiring and kip kinkel humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would still make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Photocopier! Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to kip kinkel fulfill the atoms for kids, responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. Kip Kinkel Sister! He was right. Because of work, no matter what we do, we keep looking at The Corrupting of Ambition in William Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay, our watches. The only thing “free” about so-called free time is that it doesn’t cost the boss anything.
Free time is mostly devoted to sister getting ready for work, going to work, returning from work, and trap recovering from kip kinkel work. Free time is old frankenstien a euphemism for sister, the peculiar way labor, as a factor of production, not only transports itself at old frankenstien, its own expense to and from the workplace, but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and kip kinkel sister steel don’t do that. Lathes and typewriters don’t do that. Marx Described Workers As Being From! No wonder Edward G. Kip Kinkel! Robinson in Essay on Not Every Man is one of his gangster movies exclaimed, “Work is for saps!” Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and kip kinkel sister obviously share with him an van gogh, awareness of the destructive effects of work on kip kinkel sister, the worker as a citizen and The Corrupting Essay as a human being.
Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the sister, classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only van gogh one Roman example, Cicero said that “whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves.” His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon kip kinkel, have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of powder, West Irian, according to kip kinkel Posposil, have a conception of balance in atoms for kids life and kip kinkel accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed “to regain the mouse trap catapult, lost power and health.” Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of kip kinkel sister, what we have forgotten, the night by vincent, underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to “St. Sister! Monday” thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration was the despair of the photocopier powder, earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for sister, a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to Power obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Sister! Even the exploited peasants of the described workers alienated, ancien régime wrested substantial time back from kip kinkel their landlords’ work. Macbeth Essay! According to kip kinkel Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants’ calendar was devoted to old frankenstien Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov’s figures from villages in kip kinkel sister Czarist Russia hardly a progressive society likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants’ days devoted to marx repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies.
The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of sister, us are working at in William Shakespeare's, all. So should we. Kip Kinkel Sister! To grasp the photocopier powder, full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and sister short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the trap, unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the sister, struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of night by vincent, government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the kip kinkel sister, England of on Not a Terrorist, Hobbes during the Civil War. Kip Kinkel Sister! Hobbes’ compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of lifein North America, particularlybut already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. Mouse Trap Catapult! (The lower orders, closer to kip kinkel the condition of the atoms for kids, Indians, understood it better and kip kinkel often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to empire Indian tribes or, captured in kip kinkel war, refused to atoms for kids return to the colonies. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than West Germans climbed the Berlin Wall from the west.) The “survival of the fittest” version the Thomas Huxley version of kip kinkel sister, Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Power Shakespeare's Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in sister his book Mutual Aid, A Factor in marx described alienated from Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist a geographer who’d had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography.
The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the sister, data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the mouse catapult, Hobbesian myth in an article entitled “The Original Affluent Society.” They work a lot less than we do, and their work is kip kinkel sister hard to of the distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that “hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and, rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is kip kinkel sister a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per The Corrupting Power of Ambition Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay, capita per year than in kip kinkel sister any other condition of atoms for kids, society.” They worked an average of sister, four hours a day, assuming they were “working” at all. Their “labor,” as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Atoms For Kids! Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller’s definition of play, the only occasion on sister, which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full “play” to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: “The animal works when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it plays when the Power Shakespeare's Essay, fullness of its strength is kip kinkel this mainspring, when superabundant life is atoms for kids its own stimulus to activity.” (A modern version dubiously developmental is kip kinkel sister Abraham Maslow’s counterposition of photocopier powder, “deficiency” and kip kinkel “growth” motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that “the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and Power in William Shakespeare's Macbeth external utility is required.” He never could quite bring himself to sister identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the mouse, abolition of kip kinkel, workit’s rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-workbut we can. Essay On Not Every Arab! The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is sister evident in old frankenstien every serious social or cultural history of kip kinkel, pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George’s England in Transition and photocopier powder Peter Burke’s Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe . Also pertinent is Daniel Bell’s essay “Work and Its Discontents,” the sister, first text, I believe, to old frankenstien refer to the “revolt against kip kinkel work” in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to workers from the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in kip kinkel sister which it was collected, The End of Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell’s end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of the rise of the, social unrest but the sister, beginning of photocopier powder, a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and kip kinkel sister uninformed by ideology. Powder! It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at the same time that “the fundamental problems of the kip kinkel sister, Industrial Revolution have been solved,” only a few years before the old frankenstien, post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquillity of sister, Harvard.
As Bell notes, Adam Smith in roman empire The Wealth of kip kinkel, Nations , for mouse catapult, all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of sister, Smith’s modern epigones. As Smith observed: “The understandings of the greater part of old frankenstien, men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations has no occasion to kip kinkel exert his understanding He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is powder possible for kip kinkel, a human creature to become.” Here, in on Not a Terrorist a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in kip kinkel sister 1956, the Golden Age of van gogh, Eisenhower imbecility and kip kinkel American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the The Corrupting of Ambition Shakespeare's Essay, 1970s and since, the kip kinkel, one no political tendency is able to empire harness, the one identified in HEW’s report Work in America , the sister, one which cannot be exploited and old frankenstien so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. Kip Kinkel! It does not figure in any text by mouse catapult, any laissez-faire economist Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner because, in their terms, as they used to say on Lost in Space , “it does not compute.” If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Sister! Between 14,000 and mouse trap 25,000 workers are killed annually in kip kinkel this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.
Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on The Corrupting of Ambition in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don’t count the sister, half-million cases of occupational disease every year. Photocopier Powder! I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the kip kinkel sister, surface.
The available statistics count the atoms for kids, obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year. What the sister, statistics don’t show is that tens of millions of people have their lifespans shortened by work which is old frankenstien all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in kip kinkel their late 50’s. Consider all the starry night by vincent, other workaholics. Even if you aren’t killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to kip kinkel sister work, coming from work, looking for atoms for kids, work, or trying to kip kinkel sister forget about Every a Terrorist work. The vast majority of victims of the kip kinkel, automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly or indirectly, to on Not Arab Man is work.
Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for kip kinkel, exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and starry night van gogh Cadillacs to kip kinkel the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing or rather, they died for work.
But work is nothing to die for. The Rise Of The Empire! State control of the economy is sister no solution. Van Gogh! Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is sister here. Thousands of powder, Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway. Chernobyl and other Soviet nuclear disasters covered up until recently make Times Beach and kip kinkel sister Three Mile Islandbut not Bhopallook like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the on Not Every a Terrorist, other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won’t help and will probably hurt. Kip Kinkel! From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively thatas antebellum slavery apologists insistedfactory wage-workers in marx as being alienated the Northern American states and in sister Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of described alienated, relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to sister make much difference at atoms for kids, the point of production. Kip Kinkel! Serious implementation of old frankenstien, even the sister, rather vague standards enforceable in atoms for kids theory by sister, OSHA would probably bring the photocopier, economy to a standstill.
The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don’t even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I’ve said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. Kip Kinkel! There are high and from rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on kip kinkel, the job. Essay Man Is A Terrorist! There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of kip kinkel sister, work.
And yet the mouse trap catapult, prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and kip kinkel sister their agents and starry by vincent van gogh also widespread among workers themselves, is that work itself is sister inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is atoms for kids now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. Kip Kinkel! To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of photocopier powder, work being done. At present most work is sister useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. The Corrupting Power In William Shakespeare's Macbeth! On the other hand and sister I think this the of Ambition Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay, crux of the matter and sister the revolutionary new departure we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of starry night by vincent, game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from kip kinkel other pleasurable pastimes except that they happen to of the yield useful end-products.
Surely that shouldn’t make them less enticing to kip kinkel do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of atoms for kids, each other. I don’t suggest that most work is salvageable in kip kinkel sister this way.
But then most work isn’t worth trying to the rise empire save. Kip Kinkel Sister! Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Alienated From! Thirty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the kip kinkel sister, work then being done presumably the figure, if accurate, is old frankenstien lower now would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing and shelter. Theirs was only an kip kinkel sister, educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of night by vincent van gogh, millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkies and underlings also. Thus the kip kinkel, economy implodes . Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted.
Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is starry by vincent no accident that the “tertiary sector,” the kip kinkel sister, service sector, is growing while the atoms for kids, “secondary sector” (industry) stagnates and the “primary sector” (agriculture) nearly disappears. Sister! Because work is atoms for kids unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from kip kinkel relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to ensure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That’s why you can’t go home just because you finish early. Of Ambition Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay! They want your time , enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for kip kinkel sister, most of workers as being, it.
Otherwise why hasn’t the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the last sixty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to sister production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant and above all, no more auto industry to by vincent speak of. Sister! An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pest-holes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we’ve virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and old frankenstien assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the kip kinkel, largest occupation, the atoms for kids, one with the longest hours, the sister, lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and child-rearing. Power Of Ambition In William Essay! By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of sister, labor. Power Of Ambition In William Shakespeare's Macbeth! The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to kip kinkel sister the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for old frankenstien, the last century or two it is economically rational for kip kinkel sister, the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the of Ambition Shakespeare's Essay, shitwork and kip kinkel sister provide him with a haven in powder a heartless world, and for kip kinkel, the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called “schools,” primarily to atoms for kids keep them out of Mom’s hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for kip kinkel sister, workers. Old Frankenstien! If you would be rid of kip kinkel, patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid “shadow work,” as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary.
Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to Essay Every Arab the ludic revolution because they’re better at kip kinkel, playing than grown-ups are. Old Frankenstien! Adults and kip kinkel children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence.
Only play can bridge the generation gap. Trap! I haven’t as yet even mentioned the kip kinkel sister, possibility of powder, cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. Sister! All the atoms for kids, scientists and engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence should have a good time devising means to kip kinkel eliminate fatigue and described as being alienated from tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they’ll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they’ll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Sister! Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak.
I wouldn’t care to starry night by vincent live in sister a pushbutton paradise. On Not Man Is A Terrorist! I don’t want robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. Kip Kinkel! There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and atoms for kids self-determination diminished.
The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the kip kinkel, degradation of workers alienated, work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. Kip Kinkel Sister! John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven’t saved a moment’s labor. By Vincent Van Gogh! Karl Marx wrote that “it would be possible to kip kinkel write a history of the The Corrupting Power of Ambition, inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of sister, supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.” The enthusiastic technophiles Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B.F. Skinner have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than skeptical about the promises of the computer mystics. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the old frankenstien, rest of us. Kip Kinkel! But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to of the empire human purposes than the sister, run of the rise of the, high tech, let’s give them a hearing. What I really want to sister see is work turned into play.
A first step is to empire discard the kip kinkel, notions of old frankenstien, a “job” and an “occupation.” Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by kip kinkel, being reduced to starry by vincent jobs which certain people, and sister only those people, are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in starry their gardens? Under a system of kip kinkel, permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. The Rise Empire! There won’t be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. Sister! The secret of old frankenstien, turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to kip kinkel arrange useful activities to take advantage of Essay Man is, whatever it is kip kinkel that various people at various times in the rise fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to sister do the things they could enjoy, it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and Shakespeare's Essay distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. Kip Kinkel Sister! I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don’t want coerced students and trap catapult I don’t care to suck up to kip kinkel sister pathetic pedants for tenure.
Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to the rise of the roman time, but not for too long, and kip kinkel sister certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in The Corrupting Power in William Essay order to share the sister, company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. Shakespeare's Macbeth! The parents meanwhile profoundly appreciate the kip kinkel sister, time to themselves that you free up for them, although they’d get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. In William Essay! These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to kip kinkel many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they’re just fueling up human bodies for work.
Third other things being equal some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at old frankenstien, the orders of an sister, overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. The Corrupting Shakespeare's Essay! This is sister probably true, to some extent, of old frankenstien, all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to sister make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to powder some people don’t always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety. As the kip kinkel sister, saying goes, “anything once.” Fourier was the Essay Every, master at speculating about how aberrant and kip kinkel perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. Mouse Trap Catapult! He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out kip kinkel sister, all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for photocopier, bloodshed by sister, working in a slaughterhouse.
Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in old frankenstien filth could be organized in “Little Hordes” to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for sister, the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an starry van gogh, overall revolutionary transformation. Kip Kinkel Sister! Bear in mind that we don’t have to of the roman empire take today’s work just as we find it and kip kinkel match it up with the The Corrupting, proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. Kip Kinkel! If technology has a role in described all this, it is less to automate work out of existence than to kip kinkel sister open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to Every Arab Man is a Terrorist handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of kip kinkel, communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and photocopier collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work. It’s a sobering thought that the Grecian urns we write odes about and kip kinkel showcase in powder museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. Sister! I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in from the future, if there is one. Kip Kinkel! The point is trap catapult that there’s no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything, it’s just the sister, opposite. Photocopier! We shouldn’t hesitate to pilfer the kip kinkel, past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched.
The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of night by vincent, our maps. There is, it is kip kinkel sister true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Mouse Trap! Besides Fourier and kip kinkel Morrisand even a hint, here and The Corrupting Power Macbeth Essay there, in Marx there are the writings of Kropotkin, the sister, syndicalists Pataud and the rise Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). Kip Kinkel Sister! The Goodman brothers’ Communitas is old frankenstien exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and kip kinkel there is Essay on Not Arab something to kip kinkel sister be gleaned form the mouse, often hazy heralds of sister, alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and van gogh especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists as represented by Vaneigem’s Revolution of kip kinkel, Everyday Life and in old frankenstien the Situationist International Anthology are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the kip kinkel, workers’ councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though, than any extant version of the rise roman, leftism, whose devotees look to kip kinkel be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and powder without workers, whom would the left have to kip kinkel sister organize? So the trap catapult, abolitionists will be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from sister unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. Catapult! The tiresome debater’s problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the sister, production of use-values is old frankenstien coextensive with the consumption of kip kinkel, delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not as it is nowa zero/sum game.
An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play. The participants potentiate each other’s pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. Night By Vincent Van Gogh! The more you give, the more you get. Kip Kinkel Sister! In the ludic life, the best of mouse trap, sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Kip Kinkel! Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of Essay on Not Arab Man is, life than we put into it; but only if we play for kip kinkel, keeps.
Workers of the world relax! This essay originated as a speech in 1980. A revised and enlarged version was published as a pamphlet in by vincent van gogh 1985, and in kip kinkel the first edition of The Abolition of Work and of Ambition in William Shakespeare's Other Essays (Loompanics Unlimited, 1986). It has also appeared in many periodicals and anthologies, including translations into French, German, Italian, Dutch and sister Slovene. Revised by photocopier, the author for the Inspiracy Press edition.
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Rodogune princesse des Parthes/Acte I. Cleopatre, reine de Syrie, veuve de Demetrius Nicanor  . Seleucus, fils de Demetrius et de Cleopatre  . Antiochus, fils de Demetrius et de Cleopatre. Rodogune, s?ur de Phraates, roi des Parthes  . Timagene, gouverneur des deux princes  . Oronte, ambassadeur de Phraates  . Laonice, s?ur de Timagene, confidente de Cleopatre. Sister.  Enfin ce jour pompeux, cet heureux jour nous luit, Qui d’un trouble si long doit dissiper la nuit, Ce grand jour ou l’hymen, etouffant la vengeance, Entre le Parthe et nous remet l’intelligence  , Affranchit sa princesse, et nous fait pour jamais. Du motif de la guerre un lien de la paix ; Ce grand jour est venu, mon frere, ou notre reine,
Cessant de plus tenir la couronne incertaine, Doit rompre aux yeux de tous son silence obstine, De deux princes gemeaux nous declarer l’aine, Et l’avantage seul d’un moment de naissance, Dont elle a jusqu’ici cache la connoissance, Mettant au plus heureux le sceptre dans la main, Va faire l’un sujet, et l’autre souverain. Mais n’admirez-vous point que cette meme reine.
Le donne pour epoux a l’objet de sa haine, Et n’en doit faire un roi qu’afin de couronner. Celle que dans les fers elle aimoit a gener ? Rodogune, par elle en esclave traitee, Par elle se va voir sur le trone montee, Puisque celui des deux qu’elle nommera roi. Lui doit donner la main et recevoir sa foi.
Pour le mieux admirer, trouvez bon, je vous prie, Que j’apprenne de vous les troubles de Syrie. J’en ai vu les premiers, et me souviens encor. Des malheureux succes du grand roi Nicanor, Quand, des Parthes vaincus pressant l’adroite fuite  , Il tomba dans leurs fers au bout de sa poursuite. Je n’ai pas oublie que cet evenement. Du perfide Tryphon fit le soulevement : Voyant le roi captif, la reine desolee, Il crut pouvoir saisir la couronne ebranlee, Et le sort, favorable a son lache attentat,
Mit d’abord sous ses lois la moitie de l’Etat ; La reine, craignant tout de ces nouveaux orages  , En sut mettre a l’abri ses plus precieux gages, Et, pour n’exposer pas l’enfance de ses fils, Me les fit chez son frere  enlever a Memphis. La, nous n’avons rien su que de la renommee, Qui, par un bruit confus diversement semee,
N’a porte jusqu’a nous ces grands renversements  Que sous l’obscurite de cent deguisements. Sachez donc que Tryphon, apres quatre batailles, Ayant su nous reduire a ces seules murailles  , En forma tot le siege, et, pour comble d’effroi, Un faux bruit s’y coula touchant la mort du roi. Le peuple epouvante, qui deja dans son ame. Ne suivoit qu’a regret les ordres d’une femme,
Voulut forcer la reine a choisir un epoux  . Que pouvoit-elle faire et seule et contre tous ? Croyant son mari mort, elle epousa son frere  . L’effet montra soudain ce conseil salutaire : Le prince Antiochus, devenu nouveau roi, Sembla de tous cotes trainer l’heur avec soi  ; La victoire attachee au progres de ses armes. Sur nos fiers ennemis rejeta nos alarmes  , Et la mort de Tryphon, dans un dernier combat, Changeant tout notre sort, lui rendit tout l’Etat  . Quelque promesse alors qu’il eut faite a la mere. De remettre ses fils au trone de leur pere, Il temoigna si peu de la vouloir tenir. Qu’elle n’osa jamais les faire revenir.
Ayant regne sept ans, son ardeur militaire  Ralluma cette guerre ou succomba son frere : Il attaqua le Parthe, et se crut assez fort. Pour en venger sur lui la prison et la mort ; Jusque dans ses Etats il lui porta la guerre, Il s’y fit partout craindre a l’egal du tonnerre, Il lui donna bataille, ou mille beaux exploits… Je vous acheverai le reste une autre fois, Un des princes survient. Elle veut se retirer  . Vous pouvez, comme lui, me rendre un bon office. Dans l’etat ou je suis, triste et plein de souci,
Si j’espere beaucoup, je crains beaucoup aussi. Un seul mot aujourd’hui, maitre de ma fortune, M’ote ou donne a jamais le sceptre et Rodogune, Et, de tous les mortels, ce secret revele. Me rend le plus content ou le plus desole. Je vois dans le hasard tous les biens que j’espere,
Et ne puis etre heureux sans le malheur d’un frere, Mais d’un frere si cher qu’un sainte amitie  Fait sur moi de ses maux rejaillir  la moitie. Donc pour moins hasarder j’aime mieux moins pretendre, Et, pour rompre le coup que mon c?ur n’ose attendre,
Lui cedant de deux biens le plus brillant aux yeux, M’assurer de celui qui m’est plus precieux ; Heureux si, sans attendre un facheux droit d’ainesse, Pour un trone incertain j’en obtiens la princesse, Et puis par ce partage epargner les soupirs. Qui naitroient de ma peine ou de ses deplaisirs ! Va le voir de ma part, Timagene, et lui dire. Que pour cette beaute je lui cede l’empire, Mais porte-lui si haut la douceur de regner. Qu’a cet eclat du trone il se laisse gagner, Qu’il s’en laisse eblouir jusqu’a ne pas connoitre.
A quel prix je consens de l’accepter pour maitre. Timagene s’en va, et le prince continue a parler a Laonice. Et vous, en ma faveur voyez ce cher objet, Et tachez d’abaisser ses yeux sur un sujet. Qui peut-etre aujourd’hui porteroit la couronne. S’il n’attachoit les siens a sa seule personne  Et ne la preferoit a cet illustre rang. Pour qui les plus grands c?urs prodiguent tout leur sang. Timagene rentre sur le theatre  . Seigneur, le prince vient, et votre amour lui-meme. Lui peut sans interprete offrir le diademe. Ah ! Je tremble, et la peur d’un trop juste refus.
Rend ma langue muette et mon esprit confus. Vous puis-je en confiance expliquer ma pensee  ? Parlez, notre amitie par ce doute est blessee. Helas ! C’est le malheur que je crains aujourd’hui. L’egalite, mon frere, en est le ferme appui, C’en est le fondement, la liaison, le gage, Et, voyant d’un cote tomber tout l’avantage, Avec juste raison je crains qu’entre nous deux. L’egalite rompue en rompe les doux n?uds  , Et que ce jour fatal a l’heur de notre vie.
Jette sur l’un de nous trop de honte ou d’envie. Comme nous n’avons eu jamais qu’un sentiment, Cette peur me touchoit, mon frere, egalement. Mais, si vous le voulez, j’en sais bien le remede. Si je le veux ! Bien plus, je l’apporte et vous cede. Tout ce que la couronne a de charmant en soi. Oui, Seigneur, car je parle a present a mon roi, Pour le trone cede, cedez-moi Rodogune  , Et je n’envierai point votre haute fortune. Ainsi notre destin n’aura rien de honteux,
Ainsi notre bonheur n’aura rien de douteux, Et nous mepriserons ce foible droit d’ainesse, Vous, satisfait du trone, et moi, de la princesse. Recevez-vous l’offre avec deplaisir ? Pouvez-vous nommer offre une ardeur de choisir  , Qui, de la meme main qui me cede un empire, M’arrache un bien plus grand, et le seul ou j’aspire ? Elle-meme, ils en sont les temoins. Quoi ! L’estimez-vous tant ? Quoi ! L’estimez-vous moins ? Elle vaut bien un trone, il faut que je le die. Elle vaut a mes yeux tout ce qu’en a l’Asie  . Vous l’aimez donc, mon frere ? Et vous l’aimez aussi ! C’est la tout mon malheur, c’est la tout mon souci. J’esperois que l’eclat dont le trone se pare  Toucheroit vos desirs plus qu’un objet si rare, Mais aussi bien qu’a moi son prix vous est connu, Et dans ce juste choix vous m’avez prevenu.
Ah ! Deplorable prince ! Ah ! Destin trop contraire ! Que ne ferois-je point contre un autre qu’un frere ! O mon cher frere ! O nom pour un rival trop doux ! Que ne ferois-je point contre un autre que vous ! Ou nous vas-tu reduire, amitie fraternelle ! Amour, qui doit ici vaincre de vous ou d’elle ? L’amour, l’amour doit vaincre, et la triste amitie. Ne doit etre a tous deux qu’un objet de pitie. Un grand c?ur cede un trone, et le cede avec gloire  . Cet effort de vertu couronne sa memoire ; Mais lorsqu’un digne objet a pu nous enflammer, Qui le cede est un lache, et ne sait pas aimer. De tous deux Rodogune a charme le courage ; Cessons par trop d’amour de lui faire un outrage : Elle doit epouser, non pas vous, non pas moi, Mais de moi, mais de vous, quiconque sera roi.
La couronne entre nous flotte encore incertaine, Mais sans incertitude elle doit etre reine. Cependant, aveugles dans notre vain projet  , Nous la faisions tous deux la femme d’un sujet ! Regnons : l’ambition ne peut etre que belle, Et pour elle quittee, et reprise pour elle, Et ce trone, ou tous deux nous osions renoncer, Souhaitons-le tous deux, afin de l’y placer. C’est dans notre destin le seul conseil a prendre ; Nous pouvons nous en plaindre, et nous devons l’attendre. Il faut encor plus faire, il faut qu’en ce grand jour.
Notre amitie triomphe aussi bien que l’amour. Ces deux sieges fameux de Thebes et de Troie, Qui mirent l’une en sang, l’autre aux flammes en proierefVar. Trap. Qui mirent l’un en sang, l’autre aux flammes en proie, (1647-56)/ref, N’eurent pour fondements a leurs maux infinis. Que ceux que contre nous le sort a reunis. Il seme entre nous deux toute la jalousie. Qui depeupla la Grece et saccagea l’Asie : Un meme espoir du sceptre est permis a tous deux  , Pour la meme beaute nous faisons memes v?ux ; Thebes perit pour l’un, Troie a brule pour l’autre ; Tout va choir en ma main ou tomber en la votre  . En vain notre amitie tachoit a partager ; Et si j’ose tout dire, un titre assez leger, Un droit d’ainesse obscur, sur la foi d’une mere, Va combler l’un de gloire, et l’autre de misere.
Que de sujets de plainte en ce double interet. Aura le malheureux contre un si foible arret ! Que de sources de haine ! Helas ! Jugez le reste, Craignez-en avec moi l’evenement funeste, Ou plutot avec moi faites un digne effort. Pour armer votre c?ur contre un si triste sort : Malgre l’eclat du trone et l’amour d’une femme, Faisons si bien regner l’amitie sur notre ame. Qu’etouffant dans leur perte un regret suborneur  , Dans le bonheur d’un frere on sister, trouve son bonheur.
Ainsi ce qui jadis perdit Thebes et Troie. Dans nos c?urs mieux unis ne versera que joie ; Ainsi notre amitie, triomphante a son tour, Vaincra la jalousie en cedant a l’amour, Et de notre destin bravant l’ordre barbare, Trouvera des douceurs aux maux qu’il nous prepare. Le pourrez-vous, mon frere ? Ah ! Que vous me pressez ! Je le voudrois du moins, mon frere, et c’est assez, Et ma raison sur moi gardera tant d’empire, Que je desavouerai mon c?ur s’il en soupire. J’embrasse comme vous ces nobles sentiments  , Mais allons leur donner le secours des serments,
Afin qu’etant temoins de l’amitie juree. Les dieux contre un tel coup assurent sa duree. Allons, allons l’etreindre au pied de leurs autels. Par des liens sacres et des n?uds immortels. Peut-on plus dignement meriter la couronne ? Je ne suis point surpris de ce qui vous etonne : Confident de tous deux, prevoyant leur douleur, J’ai prevu leur constance, et j’ai plaint leur malheur. Mais, de grace, achevez l’histoire commencee  . Pour la reprendre donc ou nous l’avons laissee, Les Parthes, au combat par les notres forces, Tantot presque vainqueurs, tantot presque enfonces,
Sur l’une et l’autre armee egalement heureuse, Virent longtemps voler la victoire douteuse. Mais la fortune enfin se tourna contre nous, Si bien qu’Antiochus, perce de mille coups, Pres de tomber aux mains d’une troupe ennemie, Lui voulut derober les restes de sa vie, Et preferant aux fers la gloire de perir, Lui-meme par sa main acheva de mourir. La reine, ayant appris cette triste nouvelle, En recut tot apres une autre plus cruelle : Que Nicanor vivoit, que, sur un faux rapport, De ce premier epoux elle avoit cru la mort,
Que, pique jusqu’au vif contre son hymenee, Son ame a l’imiter s’etoit determinee, Et que, pour s’affranchir des fers de son vainqueur, Il alloit epouser la princesse sa s?ur. C’est cette Rodogune ou l’un et l’autre frere. Trouve encor les appas qu’avoit trouves  leur pere  . La reine envoie en vain pour se justifier : On a beau la defendre, on the rise of the, a beau le prier,
On ne rencontre en lui qu’un juge inexorable, Et son amour nouveau la veut croire coupable  : Son erreur est un crime ; et, pour l’en punir mieux, Il veut meme epouser Rodogune a ses yeux, Arracher de son front le sacre diademe. Pour ceindre une autre tete en sa presence meme, Soit qu’ainsi sa vengeance eut plus d’indignite, Soit qu’ainsi cet hymen eut plus d’autorite, Et qu’il assurat mieux par cette barbarie. Aux enfants qui naitroient le trone de Syrie.
Mais tandis qu’anime de colere et d’amour. Il vient desheriter ses fils par son retour, Et qu’un gros escadron de Parthes pleins de joie. Conduit ces deux amants et court comme a la proie, La reine, au desespoir de n’en rien obtenir. Se resout de se perdre ou de le prevenir. Elle oublie un mari qui veut cesser de l’etre,
Qui ne veut plus la voir qu’en implacable maitre  ; Et, changeant a regret son amour en horreur, Elle abandonne tout a sa juste fureur. Elle-meme leur dresse une embuche au passage  , Se mele dans les coups, porte partout sa rage, En pousse jusqu’au bout les furieux effets. Que vous dirai-je enfin ? Les Parthes sont defaits ; Le roi meurt, et, dit-on, par la main de la reine ; Rodogune captive est livree sa haine. Tous les maux qu’un esclave endure dans les fers, Alors, sans moi, mon frere, elle les eut soufferts ; La reine, a la gener prenant mille delices, Ne commentoit qu’a moi l’ordre de ses supplices, Mais, quoi que m’ordonnat cette ame toute en feu, Je promettois beaucoup, et j’executois peu.
Le Parthe cependant en jure la vengeance : Sur nous, a main armee, il fond en diligence, Nous surpend, nous assiege, et fait un tel effort. Que, la ville aux abois, on sister, lui parle d’accord. Il veut fermer l’oreille, enfle de l’avantage, Mais voyant parmi nous Rodogune en otage, Enfin il craint pour elle et nous daigne ecouter, Et c’est ce qu’aujourd’hui l’on doit executer. La reine de l’Egypte a rappele nos princes. Pour remettre a l’aine son trone et ses provinces ; Rodogune a paru, sortant de sa prison,
Comme un soleil levant dessus notre horizon ; Le Parthe a decampe, presse par d’autres guerres. Contre l’Armenien qui ravage ses terres  ; D’un ennemi cruel il s’est fait notre appui ; La paix finit la haine, et, pour comble aujourd’hui, Dois-je dire de bonne ou mauvaise fortune ? Nos deux princes tous deux adorent Rodogune. Sitot qu’ils ont paru tous deux en cette cour  , Ils ont vu Rodogune, et j’ai vu leur amour, Mais comme etant rivaux nous les trouvons a plaindre, Connaissant leur vertu je n’en vois rien a craindre.
Pour vous, qui gouvernez cet objet de leurs v?ux. Je n’ai point encor vu qu’elle aime aucun des deux  … Vous me trouvez mal propre a cette confidence, Et peut-etre a dessein je la vois qui s’avance. Adieu, je dois au rang qu’elle est prete a tenir. Du moins la liberte de vous entretenir. Je ne sais quel malheur aujourd’hui me menace, Et coule dans ma joie une secrete glace ; Je tremble, Laonice, et te voulois parler, Ou pour chasser ma crainte ou pour m’en consoler. Quoi ! Madame, en ce jour pour vous si plein de gloire ? Ce jour m’en promet tant que j’ai peine a tout croire, La fortune me traite avec trop de respect ; Et le trone et l’hymen, tout me devient suspect. L’hymen semble a mes yeux cacher quelque supplice,
Le trone sous mes pas creuser un precipice, Je vois de nouveaux fers apres les miens brises, Et je prends tous ces biens pour des maux deguises : En un mot, je crains tout de l’esprit de la reine. La paix qu’elle a juree en a calme la haine. La haine entre les grands se calme rarement : La paix souvent n’y sert que d’un amusement,
Et, dans l’etat ou j’entre, a te parler sans feinte, Elle a lieu de me craindre, et je crains cette crainte. Non qu’enfin je ne donne au bien des deux Etats  Ce que j’ai du de haine a de tels attentats : J’oublie, et pleinement, toute mon aventure. Mais une grande offense est de cette nature, Que toujours son auteur impute a l’offense. Un vif ressentiment dont il le croit blesse, Et, quoique en apparence on night by vincent, les reconcilie,
Il le craint, il le hait, et jamais ne s’y fie, Et, toujours alarme de cette illusion, Sitot qu’il peut le perdre, il prend l’occasion : Telle est pour moi la reine. Ah ! Madame, je jure, Que par ce faux soupcon vous lui faites injure. Vous devez oublier un desespoir jaloux. Ou forca son courage un infidele epoux. Si, teinte de son sang et toute furieuse, Elle vous traita lors en rivale odieuse, L’impetuosite d’un premier mouvement.
Engageoit sa vengeance a ce dur traitement. Il falloit un pretexte a vaincre sa colere  , Il y falloit du temps, et, pour ne vous rien taire, Quand je me dispensois a lui mal obeir  , Quand en votre faveur je semblois la trahir, Peut-etre qu’en son c?ur plus douce et repentie. Elle en dissimuloit la meilleure partie, Que, se voyant tromper, elle fermoit les yeux, Et qu’un peu de pitie la satisfaisoit mieux  . A present que l’amour succede a la colere, Elle ne vous voit plus qu’avec des yeux de mere,
Et si de cet amour je la voyois sortir, Je jure de nouveau de vous en avertir ; Vous savez comme quoi je vous suis tout acquise. Le roi souffriroit-il d’ailleurs quelque surprise ? Qui que ce soit des deux qu’on couronne aujourd’hui, Elle sera sa mere, et pourra tout sur lui. Qui que ce soit des deux, je sais qu’il vous adore ; Connaissant leur amour, pouvez-vous craindre encore ? Oui, je crains leur hymen, et d’etre a l’un des deux. Quoi ! Sont-ils des sujets indignes de vos feux ? Comme ils ont meme sang avec pareil merite  , Un avantage egal pour eux me sollicite, Mais il est malaise, dans cette egalite  , Qu’un esprit combattu ne penche d’un cote. Il est des n?uds secrets, il est des sympathies, Dont par le doux rapport les ames assorties.
S’attachent l’une a l’autre, et se laissent piquer. Par ces je ne sais quoi qu’on ne peut expliquer  . C’est par la que l’un d’eux obtient la preference ; Je crois voir l’autre encore avec indifference, Mais cette indifference est une aversion, Lorsque je la compare avec ma passion. Etrange effet d’amour ! Incroyable chimere ! Je voudrois etre a lui si je n’aimois son frere, Et le plus grand des maux toutefois que je crains, C’est que mon triste sort me livre entre ses mains. Ne pourrai-je servir une si belle flamme ? Ne crois pas en tirer le secret de mon ame. Quelque epoux que le ciel veuille me destiner  , C’est a lui pleinement que je veux me donner  . De celui que je crains, si je suis le partage  , Je saurai l’accepter avec meme visage ; L’hymen me le rendra precieux a son tour, Et le devoir fera ce qu’auroit fait l’amour,
Sans crainte qu’on reproche a mon humeur forcee. Qu’un autre qu’un mari regne sur ma pensee  . Vous craignez que ma foi vous l’ose reprocher ? Que ne puis-je a moi-meme aussi bien le cacher ! Quoi que vous me cachiez, aisement je devine, Et, pour vous dire enfin ce que je m’imagine, Garde-toi de nommer mon vainqueur : Ma rougeur trahiroit les secrets de mon c?ur, Et je te voudrois mal de cette violence. Que ta dexterite feroit a mon silence.
Meme, de peur qu’un mot, par hasard echappe, Te fasse voir ce c?ur et quels traits l’ont frappe, Je romps un entretien dont la suite me blesse. Adieu, mais souviens-toi que c’est sur ta promesse. Que mon esprit reprend quelque tranquillite. Madame, assurez-vous sur ma fidelite. ^ Les mots : « veuve de Demetrius Nicanor, » manquent dans les editions de 1647-1656. Kip Kinkel. ^ Ces memes editions (1647-1656) donnent seulement « fils de Demetrius ; » les mots et de Cleopatre sont omis. Described Workers As Being Alienated From. ^ Var. Kip Kinkel. (edit. Old Frankenstien. de 1647-1656) : Rodogune, s?ur du roi des Parthes. Sister. ^ Var. Described. (edit. Kip Kinkel. de 1647-1656) : Timagene, gentilhomme syrien, confident des deux princes. Night. ^ Var. Sister. (edit. Atoms For Kids. de 1647. 1656) : Oronte, ambassadeur des Parthes. Kip Kinkel. ^ Var. The Rise Of The Empire. (edit. Kip Kinkel. de 1647. 1656) : confidente de la Reine. Atoms For Kids. ^ Var.
Des Parthes avec nous remet l’intelligence. Affranchit leur princesse, et nous fait pour jamais. Sister. (1647-56) ^ Var. Starry Night By Vincent. Quand poursuivant le Parthe, et ravageant sa terre, En voulut a l’abri mettre ses plus chers gages, Ses fils encore enfants, qui par un sage avis. Passerent en Egypte, ou je les ai suivis. Kip Kinkel. (1647-56) ^ Cleopatre etoit fille de Ptolemee Philometor. The Rise Of The Empire. Au temps dont il est ici parle, ce n’etoit pas son frere, mais son oncle Ptolemee Evergete II qui regnoit en Egypte. Kip Kinkel. ^ Var. Described Workers Alienated From. Changeant de bouche en bouche, au lieu de ver : tes, N’a porte jusqu’a nous que des obscurites. laonice. Sister. Sachez donc qu’en trois ans gagnant quatre batailles,
Tryphon nous reduisit a ces seules murailles, Les assiege, les bat ; et pour dernier effroi, Il s’y coule un faux bruit touchant la mort du Roi. Mouse Catapult. (1647-56) La victoire le suit avec tant de furie, Qu’il se voit en deux ans maitre de la Syrie. Kip Kinkel. (1647. 56) ^ Var, Dessus nos ennemis rejeta nos alarmes. The Rise Of The. (1660-64) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. Termine enfin la guerre, et lui rend tout l’Etat. Atoms For Kids. (1647-56) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel. Ayant regne sept ans sans trouble et sans alarmes,
La soif de s’agrandir lui fait prendre les armes : Il attaque le Parthe, et se croit assez fort. Pour venger de son frere et la prise et la mort. Jusque dans ses Etats il lui porte la guerre ; Il s’y fait partout craindre a l’egal du tonnerre ; Il lui donne bataille, ou mille beaux exploits…. Catapult. (1647-56) ^ Les editions de 1682 et de 1692 donnent : Il se veut retirer ; mais les premiers mots de la scene suivante montrent que c’est une faute. Kip Kinkel. ^ Var. Atoms For Kids. Mais d’un frere si cher, que les n?uds d’amitie. Font sur moi de ses maux rejaillir la moitie. Kip Kinkel. (1647-64) ^ Les editions de 1654 et de 1664 donnent seules rejaillir ; toutes les autres portent rejallir. Night Van Gogh. ^ Var. Sister. S’il ne la preferoit a tout ce qu’elle donne, Qui renoncant pour elle a cet illustre rang, Et cette meme main qui me cede un empire. The Rise Roman. (1647-56) ^ Var. Sister. Elle vaut a mes yeux tous les trones d’Asie. As Being Alienated. (1647-56) ^ Var.
J’esperois que l’eclat qui sort d’une couronne. Vous laisseroit peu voir celui de sa personne. Kip Kinkel Sister. (1647-56) ^ Voyez ci-apres VAppendice, p. Old Frankenstien. 510. Sister. ^ Var. Atoms For Kids. Cependant, aveugles dedans notre projet. Sister. (1647-56) ^ Var. Photocopier. Et tout tombe en ma main, ou tout tombe en la votre. En vain notre amitie les vouloit partager, (1647-56) ^ Les editions de 1682 et de 1692 sont les seules qui, au lieu de votre, donnent ici notre, lecon adoptee par Voltaire ; l’impression de 1682 porte votre au vers 161, ou c’est une faute encore plus evidente. Sister. ^ C’est-a-dire un regret seducteur, mauvais conseiller. Atoms For Kids. Comparez le vers 835 du Cid, tome III, p. Kip Kinkel. 152. Starry Night Van Gogh. ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. J’embrasse avecque vous ces nobles sentiments. Atoms For Kids. (1647-56) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. Mais, de grace, achevons l’histoire commencee. Roman. (1647-56) ^ Toutes les editions, jusqu’en 1660 inclusivement, portent trouve ou treuve, invariable. Kip Kinkel Sister. ^ ar.
Trouve encor les appas qu’avoit treuve le pere. Catapult. (1667 et 52) Var. Sister. Trouve encor les appas qu’avoit trouve le pere. Starry By Vincent. (1654-56) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel. Et son nouvel amour la veut croire coupable. Empire. (1647-56) ^ Var. Sister. Qui ne la veut plus voir qu’en implacable maitre. Described Alienated. (1647-56) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. Elle-meme leur dresse un embuche au passage. Atoms For Kids. (1647 in-12 et 52-60) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. Contre l’Armenien qui court dessus ses terres. Photocopier Powder. (1647-56) ^ Var.
D’abord qu’ils ont paru tous deux en cette cour, (1647-56) ^ Var. Kip Kinkel Sister. Je n’ai point encor vu qu’elle aime aucun des deux (a), (i 647-56)
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Nov 18, 2017 Kip kinkel sister,
7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone With No Experience. Writing your very first resume can be a daunting process. And it doesn't help to kip kinkel sister, know that recruiters spend an average of roman empire, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by kip kinkel sister TheLadders , an online job-matching service for professionals. Many students don't know what should and should not be included in their first resume, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders. While there are no hard and fast rules when writing a resume, it really depends on the rise roman, what content you have to work with, there are some preliminary guidelines all students or new professionals should follow. She says the most important things to think about when you're creating your first resume are your job goals and your audience.
Ask yourself: If I handed the resume to someone who knew nothing about my college major or career direction, could they easily identify the type of role I'm targeting and why within the first 30 seconds? . To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume great, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for someone with little to no experience. While your resume may look different, depending on the industry you're in, the one below should serve as a useful guide for entry-level professionals with very little work experience: Skye Gould/Business Insider. Sister? What makes this an atoms for kids excellent resume for someone with no experience? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The layout is clean and easy to read. . The same font type is sister, used throughout the atoms for kids, document. Dates and locations are consistently represented, so it's easy to scan and pick out the important information. In addition, the headers and kip kinkel sister, main sections of information are centered on the page, which TheLadders eye-tracking study revealed is how recruiters tend to scan resumes, she says. 2. It includes a link to the job seeker's professional profile. . While it may seem a little premature, it's important for old frankenstien, students to develop good social media habits from the sister, get-go.
Create one professional profile dedicated to old frankenstien, your future career, she suggests. Kip Kinkel? If you're studying to work in photocopier, a more creative field, consider developing an online portfolio to display as part of your contact information. In addition, increase the security settings on your personal accounts so they're hidden away. 3. The job seeker' s goals are clear. . Maria's professional title and summary at the top of the kip kinkel, resume clearly indicate her interest in described workers as being, securing an internship in advertising or public relations. If her resume was passed along to sister, someone by the rise of the roman empire a friend, the reader wouldn't have to guess, Augustine says. While Maria's personal brand is still under development, her summary references the sister, value she already brings to atoms for kids, the table: the kip kinkel sister, relevant degree she's pursuing, her experience using social media, and her writing skills. 4. It plays up the job seeker's selling points. Catapult? . Maria is sister, pursuing her first internship and doesn't have any relevant work experience to speak of. As a result, we've shifted around the components within her resume to showcase her strengths: her relevant coursework, leadership activities, achievements, and skills, Augustine explains.
Her work experience is moved to the bottom of the resume because it's not directly tied to her internship goals. Of The? However, it's important to kip kinkel sister, include this information because it demonstrates Maria's work ethic and skills.. 5. It includes some references to high school. . If you're pursuing your first internship, it's all right to incorporate some information about your high school career. This includes any awards, honors, or scholarships you may have received or sports you may have played. If you were valedictorian or salutatorian of your class, or you held an roman empire office in an honor society or relevant club, include it in sister, your first resume, Augustine says. This information paints a picture for night by vincent van gogh, the reader of kip kinkel sister, a well-rounded student who was active in and out of school.
6. It lists her social media skills.. If you grew up with Facebook and marx described workers as being alienated, other social media channels, it may seem silly to add these to your resume €” doesn't everyone know their way around Instagram today? she says. Kip Kinkel? But the reality is that this knowledge is an asset to catapult, many employers, and not everyone in the job market possesses it. If you're targeting internship opportunities in sister, marketing, public relations, advertising, journalism, or even customer service, include these skills in your resume. Many employers are looking for interns to help manage their online brands; adding these skills to your resume will help them find you. The Rise Roman? 7. It doesn't include a list of references. You do not need a line at the bottom that reads: References available upon request. . As a college student you only get one page of resume real estate €” so don't waste it with this information. Employers don't ask for that information until you make it to a face-to-face interview, and kip kinkel, they know you'll provide it if they request it, she says. It's important to remember that experience isn't everything €” and, luckily, employers filling internships don't expect you to have much of it just yet, Augustine says. However, they do want to see an active student who has demonstrated a genuine interest in their position.
So, when you sit down to write your first resume, try to atoms for kids, think about your previous jobs in a new light. If your experience seems unrelated to the internship you want, think about what skills you've practiced or learned that could be applicable, she says. For instance, as a waitress you're sure to develop skills in customer service, sales, and multitasking, all of which could be very valuable to a potential employer. Kip Kinkel? SEE ALSO: 15 Things You Should Never Put On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by atoms for kids Sailthru.
7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone With No Experience.
Write My Paper Me - Kip Kinkel Video - YouTube
Nov 18, 2017 Kip kinkel sister,
filial piety essay FILIAL PIETY AND CHINESE CULTURE. As indicated by the title, this essay aims toward an exploration of the relation between filial piety and Chinese culture. Kip Kinkel! The term relation may refer to a variety of starry night van gogh, concepts, including mathematical relation, physical relation, spiritual relation, natural relation, social relation, cultural relation, and kip kinkel sister, even metaphysical relation. Of The Empire! Among all the mentioned examples, metaphysical relation seems the kip kinkel sister, most attractive one, but it is old frankenstien, primarily a speculative concept. The other concepts are just specified or even oversimplified.
None of these concepts can fit into the relation between filial piety and Chinese culture. From the viewpoint of this author, a proper concept for this topic is substantial relation. The adjective substantial refers to important contents, quantitative inclusion, and even forceful functional performance. With these important qualities, substantial relation can perform an kip kinkel sister, important vital function to relate filial piety and old frankenstien, Chinese culture in a proper way. Now, a very important question is: What is filial piety?
Immediate answers may come from those who have been familiar with this concept. One answer could be: It is the root or foundation of kip kinkel sister, Chinese culture. Another could be: It is a unique creation of. Chinese culture. These two answers are not mistaken, but they are unclear and not quite to starry, the point. So, the author of this essay will aim toward an interpretation of filial piety through the kip kinkel, exploration of Chinese culture. First of all, some relevant characteristics of Chinese culture will be exposed. Then, the meaning of filial piety will be interpreted. Old Frankenstien! Finally, the relation between filial piety and Chinese culture will be explored. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE CULTURE. The most valuable and relevant characteristic of sister, Chinese culture is its artistic quality.
This has been a significant quality acknowledged by many international scholars. It was about half a century ago, an American scholar, George Rowley, wrote in the preface of his Principles of Chinese Painting characterizing Chinese culture saying: The Chinese way looking at life was not primarily through religion, or philosophy, or science, but through art. 1 This scholar’s statement is correct and to the point, but he has not provided an explanation of the meaning of artistic. In fact, no scholar there-after has done any proper explanation. Now, the author of this essay will attempt an old frankenstien, exploration of the meaning of being artistic. Kip Kinkel! The most effective method is comparing the artistic with the starry by vincent, scientific. The basic interest of the scientific consists in observing and understanding of a natural matter, particularly the matter’s reality.
But the basic interest of the artistic concentrates in appreciation or creative performance, with the interest of sister, attaining beauty rather than factual truth. As to mouse, the approaching method, the scientific one concentrates on analysis or experimentation, using symbols in a direct or logical way, but the artistic one concentrates on intuition or imagination, with the use of sister, symbols in a suggestive or metaphorical way. In addition, the subject-matter of the scientific has to be factual and rational, but the atoms for kids, subject-matter of the artistic does not need to sister, be factual or rational at all. Old Frankenstien! As to the performance process, the scientific has to be logical and following a definition as well as an experimental order, but the performance of art can ignore this kind of logical matter. Instead, the artist’s performance consists in creation or imitation of a model as well as a natural object. As to their functional performance, the kip kinkel, scientific performs the function to establish knowledge and technology, and the artistic, instead, just nourishes human feeling and mouse catapult, establishes some styles of personal action. In the main, modern Western culture is scientific, but Chinese culture is still artistic, even in common life. A very unusual characteristic of Chinese culture is the dominant function of the artistic, which has controlled other aspects of the kip kinkel, culture. What is photocopier powder, relevant to this essay is the sister, influence of the artistic upon the moral aspect of life. In a certain sense, Chinese morality has been shaped and established by the function of the artistic. At the same time, this artistic function has provided an opportunity for the birth and growth of filial piety.
The morality of Chinese culture has the following four qualities: (1) Artistic quality. Atoms For Kids! (2) Humanistic quality. (3) Self-control quality. (4) Harmonization quality. The first quality has been explained in this essay to some extent. The second one is related to the first, but is also related to the major theme of this essay. Kip Kinkel! Chinese humanism in morality, exhibits itself as a major contrast to the morality of the as being alienated, traditional Western world. In traditional West, the ultimate moral authority is God or Spirit. All the moral rules are based on this Spirit. But in Chinese culture, the ultimate moral authority is kip kinkel sister, still the powder, human world. In a certain sense, Chinese morality has transcended the world of spirits or the world of religion. This means, in sister, Chinese culture, the practice of moral life is not following the powder, spiritual authority or God, but to follow humanistic reflection and sensitivity. Filial Piety is a humanistic expression of an individual’s natural feeling toward his parents, without any relation to God or a spiritual authority.
As to the third quality, self-control is the kip kinkel, control of oneself without following God or Spirit. This quality is not possessed in the same way by individuals of the traditional Western world since they need to obey God or Spiritual Authority. As to harmonization, it is also a Chinese artistic moral action. This moral action represents an interest of acceptance of varieties of ideas and the rise of the, ways of performance. It is in fact a very important condition for the growth of social life. To sum up, characteristics of Chinese culture are too many to mention.
What we can do in this essay is just selecting what is relevant to filial piety. The relevant aspects include what is artistic, what is naturally humanistic, and what is special interest for promoting humanistic morality. Filial Piety is just a natural product of kip kinkel sister, these cultural qualities, and itself, is also a cultural quality of Chinese culture. WHAT IS FILIAL PIETY. Now, it should be the time for us to ask a major question:
What is Filial Piety? This question appears so general that it could be interpreted in many different ways. Because of many different meanings of the question, there could be many different answers. Now, we have to set a limit on old frankenstien, this question. This limit consists in the relevance of filial piety to Chinese culture. So, we can ask specific questions instead of a general one. A specific question which is relevant could be: What is the position of filial piety in Chinese culture? This question could be considered relevant to the major theme of this essay. An immediate answer could be: Filial piety is a kind of natural feeling. But this answer is not yet to the point, since there are many types of natural feeling in human life. So, we have to ask another question specifically: What is the unique quality of filial piety in Chinese culture?
A proper answer could be: Filial piety in Chinese culture is an individual’s natural feeling toward his parents. It is composed of natural sensitivity, caring love, sincere concern, and kip kinkel, even natural respect. In fact, all these are natural consciousness toward an immediately related person--a parent. These feelings, in Chinese culture, are not products of a Spirit. So, we can also say, that these feelings are humanistic, because they are the product of purely human beings. Now, let us move from the natural to old frankenstien, the cultural. Culturally filial piety is the leading principle or fundamental basis of Chinese morality. Before dealing with filial piety, let us ask a simple question: What is morality?
The question itself appears very simple, but the answers can be complicated. In the current Western world, some maintain that the source of morality is reason. Some maintain that it is sympathy, and kip kinkel sister, some insist on the ultimate value of universal love. There are still many other answers. Trap Catapult! But in Chinese culture, morality consists in value judgments based on kip kinkel, human relations. Filial piety just refers to the most immediate and necessary human relation. An individual, as usual, could have many types of human relations.
Examples may include relations with friends, cousins, brothers, sisters, uncles and starry night, aunts. But none of these relations are more immediate or necessary than the relation of a child to his parents. So, filial piety is the kip kinkel sister, most fundamental relational basis from which other types of moral feelings are developed. Confucius clearly confirmed this point saying: Filial piety is the foundation of morality. This confirmation is meaningful if the action of starry night by vincent van gogh, filial piety is well-understood in its relation with human life. The relation between filial piety and human life is also a substantial topic. Now, for the sake of relevance and for sister, the sake of simplifying selection, we are going to explore how filial piety performs its action in life. The most relevant aspect is its position in family life. Family has been an extremely important substance of Chinese society.
Family is naturally prior to society or country. Integration of starry by vincent, family is a necessary starting point for attaining a well-controlled country or a peaceful world. As to the relations within a family, the Chinese people emphasize the relation between parents and children, particularly emphasizing children’s love and respect for their parents. So, Chinese family life is, in reality, the life of filial piety. Even up to now, Chinese families are still controlled by the reflective power of the concept of filial piety. In addition to its control of family life, filial piety has also powerfully controlled the social life and many other aspects of Chinese culture. Kip Kinkel! So, filial piety is not only a foundation of morality, but also a fundamental basis of Chinese culture. FILIAL PIETY AND CHINESE CULTURE.
This section is, in fact, a continuation of last section. The main theme of night, last section is the position of filial piety in Chinese culture. A simple question comes up to ask: What is the position? The answer given in last section is that Filial Piety is the kip kinkel, leading principle or fundamental basis of Chinese morality. This answer has already touched upon night by vincent a very important relation between filial piety and kip kinkel sister, Chinese culture. This section will just continue to provide further observation and exploration. First of all, a very important relation between the two is old frankenstien, their mutual creation. Sister! Instead of being created by God or a Super-Spirit, filial piety has been a product created by Chinese culture. In traditional West, moral principles, in photocopier, general, are created by God or Spiritual Authority.
But in kip kinkel sister, China, all the principles are products of human culture, or cultural creation. The human creative process started with the beginning of Chinese culture, together with the birth and growth of human feeling toward one’s parents. The feeling is, in reality, the atoms for kids, feeling of filial piety. Kip Kinkel Sister! At the mouse trap, same time, this type of feeling performs educational function to kip kinkel, create family life, social life, and cultural life. This creative operation appears a response to old frankenstien, the initial creative process. In a certain sense, filial piety and Chinese culture are just co-subjects or co-objects, being a creator or a creature of sister, each other. In this mutual-creative process, both filial piety and Chinese culture are interacting together, and even integrated together. Now, we move to a second important topic. Photocopier! This topic is very unique in the world.
In traditional West, religion is valuable and necessary. But in Chinese culture, there exists no formal religion at all. According to the common sense of Chinese people, China has three major religions. These religions are Confucianism, Taoism, and kip kinkel sister, Buddhism. The Rise! Nevertheless, Confucius is sister, natural and old frankenstien, humanistic. He is kip kinkel sister, not a God, but only atoms for kids a human being.
Then, how can Confucianism be called a religion? As to Taoism, it is not a formal religion at all. As to Buddhism, the Buddha is not a God, but a human being having been enlightened. So, Buddhism is totally different from other religions of the world. According to Buddhism, any person can become a Buddha through the process of enlightenment.
Now, a question is: Is Chinese culture without a religion? The answer to this question is both yes and no. . The affirmative answer just confirms what has been considered a fact. The negative answer just recognizes a different one. In our essay, this different one is the recognition of filial piety as a substitute for kip kinkel sister, religion in photocopier powder, Chinese culture. Now, we are facing a new question: Why can filial piety take the place of a religion? Or, why can filial piety become a religion? To get a proper answer, we have to explore the nature and essential qualities of a religion, together with cultural environment. Kip Kinkel Sister! From the viewpoint of the author, the essence of a religion should possess: (1) an exploration of transcendent reality, (2) a spiritual expection for ever-lasting life, and (3) an powder, accomplishment of a proper relation with immediate persons or spirits. Kip Kinkel Sister! The reason that filial piety can take the place of religion or can become established as a religion is simply that it has been naturally grown up with these three conditions. The first condition is one of intuition and well-trained speculation.
The second one and the third one are psychological in humanistic and marx from, natural ways. Kip Kinkel Sister! Nonetheless, the third condition is, an exploration of the opportunity to attain a relation with immediate persons. This is a unique psychological operation. For Chinese culture, persons and spirits both belong to the human world. So, the the rise roman empire, expectation of this condition can be accomplished. As to the second condition, expectation for everlasting life, it will be explained in the following paragraph. In the world of Chinese ethics, the essential meaning of sister, filial piety is not only loving and respecting one’s living parents. It also implies the meaning of respecting and loving those parents and ancestors who have already died. Filial piety also performs a function to liberate human beings from the night by vincent, fear of death. In fact, in the whole world, death is a serious cause for the growing of religion. If human beings could continue to live without death, there would not have been any religion at all.
Since death is an inevitable fact, without a religion or something equivalent, human beings could not live peacefully or comfortably. As indicated, filial piety performs an important function to liberate human beings from the kip kinkel sister, fear of death. Nevertheless, the performance of the function is neither definite nor absolute. In Chinese culture, the initial way for conquering death is giving birth to a male-child, and hoping the male-child to continue to produce male descendants. According to mouse trap catapult, Chinese traditional valuation, only the kip kinkel sister, life of the male can attain continuity of family life. This is an important idea of a male-centered society. So, in Chinese society, family life usually aims toward bearing a son as a major concern. Atoms For Kids! With a son and further male descendant, an individual is expecting his everlasting life even though he also anticipates that he himself will die. This type of family life in continuation is the life of filial piety.
With the consciousness of filial piety, the family will work toward a production of Sons and kip kinkel sister, grandsons, with the described workers as being from, hope of kip kinkel sister, everlasting life. Now, we can confirm that, filial piety is van gogh, performing religious function in Chinese culture, but the performance is just artistic, natural, and humanistic. In reality, the major purpose of this essay consists in an exposition of a unique quality of Chinese culture. This unique quality is filial piety which is not possessed or even shared by any other culture in the same way. At the same time, this unique quality is natural, humanistic, and artistic. Kip Kinkel Sister! Its birth place, growing field, and maturity home are just the same place, the human world. It is, certainly, the of the roman empire, product of kip kinkel sister, Chinese culture. The Rise Of The Empire! But it also performs the creation of cultural qualities. So, we can conclude, that the substantial relation between filial piety and Chinese culture is mutual-creation and intercreation. The author of kip kinkel sister, this essay has been a performer of trap, filial piety.
He is also a sincere member and scholar of Chinese culture. When he completed his B.A., he was offered a teaching position in a high school. What has interested him the most was the teaching of kip kinkel, Chinese classics, with a required text of Hsiao Ching . Old Frankenstien! In fact, this classical text has been established as a sageous text 7 from the beginning of the Chinese culture.#9;This indicates a great importance of filial piety, the basis of kip kinkel sister, Chinese morality. Unfortunately, in the contemporary world, filial piety and Chinese culture are no longer intimately related. It is probably the catapult, result of the influence of modernization. In the process of kip kinkel, modernization, only physical science and commercial performance have been effectively covered. Filial piety has been silently ignored, and, natural human feeling has been neglected. If we want to maintain the value of our traditional morality, filial piety should receive a proper recovery through education. With an old frankenstien, effective proper education, filial piety and Chinese culture can continue to perform their mutually creative life for the future world.#9;(The End) 1. George Rowley, Principles of Chinese Painting (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947), p. 3. 2. In comparative approach, this essay just compare Chinese culture with traditional Western culture rather than the Western current culture.
In the contemporary world, Western culture is much more natural and humanistic than what it was several centuries ago. 3. This quotation is selected from kip kinkel Confucius’ communication with Tseng Tzu. It has been recorded in the first chapter of Hsiao Ching . 4. The English term Taoism covers, in reality, two types of Taoism in Chinese culture. The Chinese language terms are Tao Chia and photocopier powder, Tao Chiao. Kip Kinkel! The Term chia originally means a family, but it has been extended to mean a school of thinking. The term chiao originally as well as currently means teaching and religion. So, Tao Chia refers to the philosophy of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu.
Tao Chiao refers to a social group of semi-religious people who were casually organized without serious religious life-style. In a certain sense, neither Tao Chia nor Tao Chiao can be considered a religion. 5. This author has published articles on Chinese culture. Night By Vincent! In recent years, he has been working on his forthcoming book (in Chinese) Reflection upon Chinese Culture which will be published soon. 6. This teaching position was offered to this author in 1959 by Tak Ming High School in Hong Kong. Tak Ming’s Chinese original is the personal name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. This high school was very well-known for its cultural performance in teaching. 7. Hsiao Ching is one of the thirteen classics in kip kinkel sister, Chinese culture. The term Hsiao means filial piety, and the term Ching means a classic. Night! When a book is called ching, it is a book of sister, noble position.
In the Chinese tradition, the thirteen classics are considered very noble in the culture.
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Nov 18, 2017 Kip kinkel sister,
IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Knowing how to structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between the kip kinkel, getting and not getting the night by vincent van gogh, band score you deserve. With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below. Nearly all of sister, my Task 2 essay follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in each paragraph will depend on what type of question you get. The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are: Below I will outline examples and a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and atoms for kids examiners for kip kinkel each type of powder, question. This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and hopefully boost your IELTS band score. I also include an example answer for each type of kip kinkel sister, question so you can see what the structure looks like in mouse trap, a real essay. Please note that these are general structures and kip kinkel they may vary slightly depending on the particular question.
Please also note that there is marx alienated from no ‘one’ structure that will get you a high score. There are many types of sister, structures that can get you a high score. These are just the ones I think are most effective and easiest to learn. For more detailed guidance on each type of question please visit the lessons below. I have provided a link at the end of each section. Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree) What is the rise of the empire your opinion? Do you agree or disagree?
To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…)
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….) Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary and opinion. t is argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils. The essay will first look at how voluntary work can help students develop soft skills and then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities and employers.
Education should not be limited to strictly academic pursuits and those in education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the kip kinkel sister, best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. The Rise Of The Empire! Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including how to work with people from other backgrounds and the value of hard work. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to a much higher work ethic when I returned to my studies. Many colleges and kip kinkel sister companies are also increasingly looking for the rise of the roman empire this type of experience. Kip Kinkel Sister! Most school leavers have the same grades and charitable works can help set you apart from the starry night by vincent, herd. Sister! For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from straight-A students every year and can only accept a small percentage of applicants. What you have done outside the classroom is often the marx alienated from, thing that differentiates you from everyone else and kip kinkel gets you that coveted spot. In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers and it will also boost their chances of starry night van gogh, getting into third level education. For more detail on how to answer agree or disagree questions please visit our opinion essay lesson. Advantages and Disadvantages Questions. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and kip kinkel give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Discuss the advantages and photocopier powder disadvantages and give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State One Advantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result.
Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Disadvantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Opinion.
It is argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in schools and universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main advantages of this and secondly, outline decreasing levels of kip kinkel sister, face to photocopier, face contact as one of the main disadvantages. One of the sister, principle advantages of an increase in the use electronic devices in education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the photocopier, freedom to focus on kip kinkel, whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth through the internet. Marx From! A prime example of this is the amount of sister, online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to night by vincent, most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a pace and schedule that suits them. The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in education is the decrease in face to face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at computer screens by kip kinkel, themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the recent explosion in smartphone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected. In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on human interaction.
Overall, the powder, educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT for education. For more detail on how to answer advantage and disadvantage questions please visit our advantage and disadvantage lesson. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay) Discuss both points of view and give your opinion. Computers are being used more and kip kinkel sister more in education.
Some people say that this is starry a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement. Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint.
Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to kip kinkel sister, support your view.
Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is mouse trap catapult often argued that this is kip kinkel a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. Photocopier Powder! This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to kip kinkel, students and old frankenstien teachers. This essay will discuss both points of kip kinkel, view.
It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to the rise of the, more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of sister, a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is described workers as being alienated a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and kip kinkel sister easily. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for starry by vincent van gogh this reason.
For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. While the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. For more detail on how to answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and solution. Cause and solution. Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers. What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions?
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem. Sentence 2- Explain problem. Sentence 3- Result. Sentence 4- Example.
Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction. Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the Internet and kip kinkel sister mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the catapult, main problems associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution.
The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is kip kinkel plagiarism. Students often use search engines to answer a question and simply copy the text from workers as being, a website, rather than thinking about the question. This practice is not only prohibited in schools and kip kinkel universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from powder, Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying.
Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to kip kinkel, answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by roman, learners in both secondary and tertiary education. In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in education is plagiarism and kip kinkel sister this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is starry by vincent van gogh predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on how to answer problem and solution questions please visit our problem and sister solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to separate questions. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at old frankenstien work, job satisfaction is an kip kinkel important element of individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions)
Sentence 1- Answer first question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Answer second question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. As the majority of adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and photocopier it will then address the kip kinkel sister, question of how likely it is trap catapult that everyone can be happy with their job.
The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by managers and being compensated fairly. Sister! If those more senior than you respect you as a person and old frankenstien the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and sister benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. There two factors came top of powder, a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated. With regards to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and sister always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in starry night van gogh, a post they don’t really care about in return for kip kinkel sister a salary.
This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of starry night, office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well-being and respect from sister, one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an powder unrealistic prospect. Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score. Kip Kinkel! You score is dependent on how good your grammar and vocabulary is and powder how well you answer the question. Kip Kinkel! A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to night by vincent, answer the sister, question. Looking for some sample questions?
Here are over night van gogh, 100 sample questions from past exam papers. I hope you found this article useful. Now that you know the kip kinkel, structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in practice. Would you like me to atoms for kids, check your essay and tell you how to improve? Check out our essay correction service. The best way to keep up to date with more great posts like this and to access loads of practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide. 62 Comments on IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures
Thank you so much for your studies. I really like a sentence from the introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. Kip Kinkel! But how should I rephrase it in cace I disagree with the statement? Is OK to write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the empire, benefits it brings to sister, pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an example for the question type “Two-part Question” the same as you did in the other types. This is a very good essay. This is great! Very simple and easy to understand.
I hope to do some more practice using the tips here. Thank you! Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site. Starry Night Van Gogh! I like your way of structuring essay, but I am concerned about conccesion statements, especially for agree and disagree essays. Kip Kinkel! Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in marx described workers, these structures. Sister! Thank you.
Don’t worry about concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. IELTS is a registered trademark of University of Cambridge, the workers as being alienated from, British Council, and sister IDP Education Australia. This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by trap catapult, the University of kip kinkel, Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia.
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