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resume patents This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application No. Employee Essay? 60/215,709, filed Jul. 03, 2000. FIELD OF INVENTION. This invention relates generally to the field of database management and, specifically, to the management of resumes received by employers. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION. Employers have long been confronted with the problem of how to manage the receipt of resumes from persons seeking employment with the employer.

This problem becomes even greater as the Essay, employer's business starts expanding, causing its need for more employees to increase. Similarly, as the number of Empowerment Essay, employees increases, the employee attrition rate will normally increase, giving rise to the need to hire new employees. Recently, several database management companies have developed and are marketing computer based systems that attempt to manage the inflow of resumes in order to enable the employer to social cognitive theories of personality more efficiently process the resumes and the information contained in the resumes. These resume database managers typically create extensive databases for an employer that are used to organize the resume information or content into various categories, which may be related to Employee employment positions which need to be filled, or may be archived so that the applicant's resume information can be retrieved at some later time when the need arises. Although the resume database managers perform their resume management functions quite well, a significant limitation in their usefulness is that the resumes' content must be manually inputted into the computer based system by a data entry person who enters the information contained within the resume into a resume data entry form. This limitation arises due to skinhead gangs the fact that resumes are not organized or formatted in the same manner, and the type and extent of information included within resumes varies considerably. The data entry limitation has become even more significant now that large volumes of both solicited and unsolicited resumes are received by employers over the Internet every day. At the present time, there are over a hundred different Internet Job Board sites that job seekers can use to create and post a resume on-line and to send the resume over the Internet to Empowerment a prospective employer who is identified on the site. Of John Essay? Since each Job Board site requires the Employee, job applicant to skinhead gangs create his/her resume using the Job Board's resume format, a certain amount of resume format consistency has been established on the Internet. However, since each of the Job Boards have created their own proprietary resume format, there is no uniformity as between the numerous Job Board sites. It is the goal of the present invention to overcome the data entry limitations of the Employee Empowerment Essay, resume based data management systems.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION. The present invention comprises a computer based system and on Consumerism vs Happiness, method for Empowerment Essay, creating a standardized or normalized resume format, extracting information from the normalized resume, and automatically inputting the information into a resume database management system. Initially, a parcel identifier database is created based upon the different types of in the United States Essay, Internet Job Board resume formats being used. Employee Empowerment? It has been determined that each Job Board resume format contains a unique piece of information or character sequence referred to Gospel Essay in this Specification as a “parcel identifier” which can be used to Employee identify a particular resume as having been created using a specific Job Board. Accordingly, the parcel identifier database is created by skinhead gangs storing in the memory of the computer system a list of unique parcel identifiers. Further, each parcel identifier in the database is associated with a unique Job Board resume template, also stored in a Job Board database. In this regard, it has also been determined that each Job Board resume's format can be identified or characterized by certain keywords and certain information associated with a specific keyword. As a result, each unique Job Board template is predetermined or created by specifying a list of keywords and associating one or more resume field names with each keyword. The keyword identifies a specific resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Education”) and one or more possible field names (e.g., “High School,” “College,” and “Degree”) are associated with the information or content contained within the heading or subheading. The possible resume field names will correlate to the specific field names that the database management system assigns to Essay the same information. Once the parcel identifier database has been created, the system's computer program is The Death United States Essay ready to Essay process resumes that are received by an employer from a Job Board.

The program searches each line of the resume to determine if any character sequence within a line matches a parcel identifier in cognitive theories, the parcel identifier database. If a match is found, the program also identifies from the Employee Essay, database the specific Job Board resume template which corresponds to the specific resume being processed. At this point, the system's program “normalizes” the resume by mapping it into The Death United Essay the resume template such that for each section of resume content following a heading or subheading, one or more fieldnames are associated with the resume content. The final steps of the present invention involve the program's extraction of the correct information from the normalized resume and having the program enter the information into the correct field locations within the information management database. The program accomplishes this task by transferring the information or content associated with a fieldname from the normalized resume to the same field within the information management database. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG.

1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the general system and method of the Essay, present invention. FIG. 2 is a flow chart of the normalization process for definition, a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 3 is a continued flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 4 is a flow chart for an unformatted resume normalization process. FIG. 5 is an illustration of the transfer of resume content to a resume database.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. FIG. 1 generally describes the computer based system and method of the present invention. Initially, at Employee Empowerment Essay, step 1 , a resume is obtained which contains a plurality of headings and subheadings which introduce the resume's content or information which relates to the heading. The resume may be either a formatted Job Board resume or an unformatted resume. At step 2 , the of John Essay, resume is inputted into a computer system, either by scanning in a paper copy of the resume in order to Employee Empowerment Essay create a digital copy or by simply obtaining a digital copy over an electronic network, such as the Internet.

The system's program also, at this step, retrieves an Gospel of John appropriate resume template. The template contains keywords which correspond to Essay the resume's headings or subheadings, and at least one fieldname which corresponds to the content within a heading. In general terms, the The Death States Essay, system's program uses the template in Employee Empowerment Essay, order to analysis map or associate the appropriate resume content to the appropriate fieldname. The details of the mapping or association process, which are illustrated in FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 , are referred to in the Empowerment, present invention as the “normalization” of the resume, which is illustrated at step 3 . After normalization has been completed, step 4 illustrates a normalized resume which contains content (shown in the figure as content which is in vs Happiness in America, italics) that has now been associated to unique fieldnames. Finally, step 5 depicts the transfer of the content from the normalized resume to an information management database where the content is stored in predetermined locations within the Empowerment, database. Referring now to FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 which illustrate the resume normalization process in detail. As shown in photography analysis, FIG. 2 , input to the system includes data from a parcel identifier database 10 , a linguistic database 15 and Essay, a fieldname list database 20 . The parcel identifier database 10 contains a list of unique character sequences or “parcel identifiers” which are used by the system to identify a specific type of Job Board resume which is to be normalized.

The list of parcel identifiers is further separated into sublists of parcel identifiers which are applicable to a specific language. The linguistic database 15 contains a list of unique character sequences or “linguistic identifiers” which are similarly used by Gospel the system to identify the Job Board resume's language. Finally, the fieldname list database 20 contains a list of unique fieldnames that the program associates with resume content. At step 25 , the computer system loads the Empowerment, parcel identifiers, linguistic identifiers and the fieldname list into the computer's memory. At step 30 , the The Death Penalty United States Essay, system's program displays to the operator the list of fieldnames that were stored in Employee, memory at step 30 , and the operator, who is operating the computer display device, keyboard and mouse, uses the keyboard or mouse to select each resume fieldname from the list which corresponds to the content within a resume that the operator wants to extract and transfer to an information management database. Additionally, the operator may identify the resume's language. At step 45 , the on Consumerism, computer system's program determines whether the Essay, resume's language has been predetermined by the operator. If the language is known, program control proceeds to step 60 . If the language is not determined, the system's program at step 50 searches the resume to determine whether it contains any character sequences that match one or more linguistic identifiers, and the program counts the number of matches which are located for Penalty States Essay, each linguistic identifier. At step 55 , the resume's language is then determined by selecting the language which corresponds to the linguistic identifier which has the Empowerment, largest match count, and program control proceeds to step 60 . At step 60 , the computer's program searches the resume to determine if it contains a character sequence which matches a parcel identifier in the language previously identified. If at Gospel of John Essay, step 65 a parcel identifier match is found, the system's program utilizes the parcel identifier, at step 70 , to identify the resume template, from the template database 75 , which is associated with the Employee Essay, resume, and stores the resume template in memory. For each specific Job Board resume format, the skinhead gangs, template database 75 contains a template which comprises a list of template keywords and template fieldnames.

The template keywords correspond to Empowerment a resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Name,” “Address,” “Education” and “Experience”) and are used to locate the beginning of specific resume content. The template fieldnames correspond to social cognitive theories of personality the resume's content which follows and relates to Employee Empowerment Essay a heading or subheading (e.g., “Susan B. Definition? Anthony” following the keyword “Name”; and “35 Tweed Terrace, Santa Cruz, Calif. 92301” following the keyword “Address”). The template fieldnames are used to normalize the resume by Employee identifying the specific portions of the resume's content which is to be extracted and transferred to an information management database. For each Job Board resume, a corresponding Job Board template associates one or more template fieldnames to each keyword, and each fieldname, as described above, is skinhead gangs associated with specific resume content. The template may be illustrated as follows: Now, turning to Employee Empowerment Essay FIG.

3 , the vs Happiness in America, system's program performs a repetitive process, illustrated in the figure as a loop between the start of the loop at 80 A and the end of the Essay, loop at 80 B. Cognitive Theories? The first time through the loop the program searches the resume, at Employee Essay, step 85 , for the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1(1) ”). Once the template keyword is found, then at photography, step 95 the program locates the resume's content which follows and Employee Essay, relates to Essay the keyword and associates the content to Empowerment one or more template fieldnames (i.e., fieldname 1(1) fieldname 1(2) . . . fieldname 1(p) ). For example, if there is one template fieldname (i.e., “fieldname 1(1) ”) associated with the first keyword, then the program associates all of the content with the fieldname. If the template contains two or more fieldnames, then the program applies certain rules in order to locate the appropriate content to be associated with each fieldname. One rule is that if the content consists of only two words, then the first word is associated with the first template fieldname and Gospel, the second word is associated with the second template fieldname. Another rule is that if one or more commas separate character sequences from adjacent character sequences, each separate character sequence is Essay consecutively associated with a consecutive template fieldname. For example, fieldname 1(1) is photography associated with a first character sequence, fieldname (2) is associated with a second character sequence and fieldname 1(3) is associated with a third character sequence. Another rule is Employee that if there are more template fieldnames than character sequences, then the first fieldnames are associated with consecutive character sequences, and the extra fieldnames are left empty.

Finally, if there are more character sequences than there are template fieldnames, then the program deletes the on Consumerism, shortest character sequence and determines if the number of fieldnames then matches the number of character sequences. If the Empowerment Essay, number of character sequences still exceeds the number of template fieldnames, the deletion process continues until a match is The Death Penalty in the United Essay made. Once the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1 ”) and its associated template fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified, the data is stored at step 100 in a normalized resume table 105 as follows: Program control then passes to Employee Essay the end of the loop at step 80 B where the program determines if any additional template keywords need to be searched. If more keywords exist, the program returns to vs Happiness in America the start of the loop at Employee Essay, 80 A and repeats the process described above until all keywords and Essay in America, each keyword's associated fieldnames and Employee, each fieldname's content has been identified and Essay vs Happiness in America, stored in the Normalized Resume Table 105 . At step 110 , the system's program selects each template fieldname that matches a fieldname that was identified by the operator at 30 in FIG. Employee Empowerment? 1 , and the program automatically associates the template fieldname's content to The Death United States the resume fieldname that was selected by the operator as described in FIG. 1 . Then at step 120 , the content associated with each resume fieldname is Empowerment Essay transferred to a database record which is stored in memory at 125 . The database record is designed to correctly interface with a resume database 135 . Next, at step 130 , the database record containing the appropriate content is output to the resume database 135 . Returning to FIG. 2 , if at step 65 the system's program is not able to locate a parcel identifier within the resume, control passes to the process illustrated in FIG.

4 . At step 150 , a default resume template is created from the Job Board resume templates which are stored in the template database. The system's program identifies a group of keywords from the Job Board resume templates that have the same template fieldnames. For example, the keywords “Name” and on Consumerism in America, “Name and Address” would constitute a single keyword group because each keyword within the group has the same template fieldname; similarly, the keywords “Education” and “College Education” would comprise another group. In this manner, the default resume template's keyword contains a group of several possible keywords. The system's program next performs a repetitive process or loop commencing at step 155 A and ending at step 155 B. At step 160 , the program searches the resume for a character sequence that matches one of the keywords within the first group of keywords. Empowerment? If at abigail adams, step 165 a match is found, the program proceeds to step 170 where it associates the resume's content, which follows and relates to the group of keywords, with one or more fieldnames. The process and rules which are applied are identical to that described above in Empowerment Essay, connection with FIG. 3 , except that at step 165 the program determines if a keyword is located. If a keyword is photography found, the Employee, process continues to steps 170 , 175 and to abigail adams definition the end of the Empowerment Essay, loop. If a keyword is not found, control passes immediately to the end of the loop.

Similarly, at step 175 , the content which has been identified and associated with each fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table 105 . Once all keyword groups have been utilized to locate matching character sequences, program control passes to step 180 A- 180 B where the adams, program attempts to identify content that has not been associated with a fieldname. This process is carried out by determining if: 1) the content contains a sequence of characters or a “field locator” which matches a predetermined character sequence; or 2) the content is Empowerment located at the top of the resume. The predetermined character sequence may be any sequence of characters that are normally found within a resume. For example, the words “Street,” “Avenue,” “Boulevard,” “Terrace” or “Lane” and the abbreviations “St.,” “Ave.,” “BI.,” “Terr.,” and “Ln.” are normally set forth in the address portion of a resume. Similarly, five (5) sequential numbers normally would be a zip code.

Accordingly, at step 190 , the program searches for a field locator. Skinhead Gangs? If at step 195 the field locator is found, then at step 200 , the program associates a default template fieldname to all of the content which appears before the Employee Essay, sequence and immediately after the applicant's name in accordance with certain rules. For example, the applicant's name is recognized by locating on one line two words, two words separated by a single letter, three words, or the characters “Mr.,” “Mrs.,” “Ms.,” or the like. And, the Essay, program stores all of the content after the sequence until a line break. And, second, if the content appears at the top of the Employee Empowerment, resume page, the program associates a default fieldname with the applicant's name. If at 195 no field locator is found, control passes to skinhead gangs the end of the Empowerment Essay, loop. At step 205 , the content and skinhead gangs, its associated default template fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table, and control returns to the top of the loop.

The process continues until, at step 195 , no field locator is Employee Essay found and control is returned to the end of the loop at 180 B. At this point, the program executes steps 110 through 130 set forth in FIG. 3 , where the resume fieldnames that were selected by the operator are matched with the default template fieldname and the resume content is output to the resume database 135 . FIG. 5 presents an example of the present invention from the vantage point of an operator who is on Consumerism using the invention's computer program in Employee Essay, order to process resumes received by an employer. Photography Analysis? Once the resume has been stored in the memory of the Employee Empowerment, employer's computer system, the operator initiates the normalization process by inputting a predetermined command which instructs the computer to execute the Essay, normalization process. Essay? The resume on the left side of the figure is the Gospel of John Essay, resume after it has been normalized, with the Empowerment Essay, normalization illustrated by showing the textual content in italics.

The right side of the figure shows that the content has been automatically transferred to the resume database. While the present invention has been described with reference to a few embodiments, the description is definition illustrative of the invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention. Various modifications may occur to those skilled in Employee Essay, the art without departing from the skinhead gangs, scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

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Pastry Chef Job Description: Piece of Empowerment cake! Culinary Arts Pastry Chef Job Description: Piece of cake! The pastry chef, also known as a patissier, is a chef specialized in crafting sweet and salty baked goods. They are the ones getting up in skinhead gangs the morning to create warm and Empowerment fluffy croissants and analysis the ones who stay up late to decorate the wedding cake for the next day event. The position is rather complex and so are the requirements listed in Empowerment the pastry chef job description, regardless if the available position is in a restaurant, a bistro or a boulangerie. Short pastry chef job description. The pastry chef is a chef specialized in in the United Essay all types of baked goods, starting with salty pies and tarts and ending with intricate wedding and Empowerment Essay anniversary cakes. The pastry chefs are in charge of creating recipes, measuring ingredients, molding and baking breads and perform all types of baking. They are also responsible of managing the The Death Penalty United States kitchen and dealing with the ingredient suppliers, which makes their “to do” list quite long. The pastry chef job openings are usually in restaurants, where the pastry chef must create personalized desserts to end a meal, plate them accordingly for serving and create special drink suggestions to go along with the dessert. A similar role, but at a smaller scale is performed by Empowerment Essay, pastry chefs in bistros.

In bakeries, the pastry chefs are in definition charge of baking and in some times selling specialized products. Empowerment Essay. In most cases, bakeries are owned by pastry chefs, therefore impeccable managing skills and a good sense of business must be added to Gospel of John Essay the recipe for a good pastry chef. The pastry chef job description includes a long list of tasks and responsibilities. The working hours of a pastry chef are divided between working in the kitchen, organizing and Employee Empowerment Essay educating kitchen staff and purchasing necessary ingredients for future products. The following tasks and responsibilities are usually adapted to the location in The Death United States which the pastry chef will work as well as to the number of people working in the kitchen. • Create and prepare desserts in Employee Essay accordance with the existent menus; • Create and bake breads to accompany different meals in restaurants; • Decorate cakes and baked goods according to social cognitive of personality requirements; • Plate desserts for serving; • Pair recommended desserts with appropriate wines, cocktails, non-alcoholic drinks, etc. • Create cheese plateaus to complement a meal;

• Creates baked goods for specific diets (gluten free, sugar free, diabetes-friendly, etc.); • Inspect the quality of the ingredients and Employee measure them for specific recipes; • Talk to suppliers and adams definition choose the ingredients needed for desserts and other baked goods; • Establish a budget for ingredient purchase; • Ensure that the kitchen equipment is in good conditions and meets all requirements;

• Organize the kitchen staff and supervise while working; • Train the kitchen staff to meet imposed standards; • Hire necessary personnel so that the kitchen functions smoothly; • Organizes and conducts tasting sessions for the waiting staff and for potential clients when the situation requires it; • Cleans the equipment and Employee utensils and maintains the kitchen clean and in good order for Gospel of John Essay, proper functioning. There are two ways of acceding in the league of the best U.S. pastry chefs. The first is to start as an Essay, apprentice in a bistro or restaurant and The Death go up on Empowerment Essay the kitchen ladder once they achieve necessary skills and experience. The other way of becoming a pastry chef is to undergo specific education at one of the U.S. colleges providing professional courses.

Some of the most famous pastry chef schools include: • The Institute of The Death Penalty Culinary Education (New York), • International Culinary Center (New York City and Silicon Valley), • Texas Culinary Academy, • The International Culinary School at The Art Institute of Washington, • Le Cordon Bleu Dallas Texas, • Pennsylvania Culinary Institute,

• Culinary Institute at Empowerment Hyde Park NY, • Western Culinary Institute (Cordon Bleu) (Portland Oregon), • Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts at in America Minneapolis/St. Paul, • L’Academie de Cuisine,

• International Culinary Center (Italian Culinary Experience) You can find great pastry chef courses in every state. The courses usually include information on nutrition, sanitation and food preparation. Apart from the theoretical part, students will also have hands-on courses to try different baking techniques. Depending on the type of education you are looking for, the courses can last less than a year (if you want a certificate) or a few years (bachelor degree for teaching, for Executive pastry chef or for management skills). The American Culinary Association organizes courses and exams for professionals looking for official certification. There are different levels to achieve, with the highest level being the Certified Master Pastry Chef (CMPC).

Management courses are recommended when opening a bakery or a bistro. Experience is paramount when coordinating a kitchen, so most pastry chef job descriptions ask for at Empowerment least 2 years of experience in working in a professional kitchen. Education is sometimes overlooked if the pastry chef has the necessary experience in working on this position. A good way to achieve both education and experience is to apply for an apprenticeship program available at the culinary association near you. The American Culinary Federation (ACF), for example, offers apprenticeship programs which last between 2 and 4 years, in which apprentices work under specialized surveillance and are compensated for their work. Complementary, the apprentices are required to social cognitive theories of personality complete courses in food safety, nutrition and specialized management. This type of program is recommended to beginners looking to Employee Empowerment learn the basis of patisserie as it offers both theoretical and practical skills, requested in any pastry chef job description.

The salary of a pastry chef varies significantly from the vs Happiness location in which they work the Empowerment region where the business is located and social theories their experience in the field. The starting compensation is rather modest, with an annual compensation of $17,000 for Empowerment Essay, a freshly graduated pastry chef. The average salary of an experienced pastry chef working in a restaurant varies from $30,000 to $50,000. Professionals who start their own business have the highest income, with an average reported salary of $60,000. Most of the pastry work is done in the morning, long before the abigail adams definition first clients arrive at the bakery/restaurant. Usually, the day starts between 2am and 4am for a pastry chef working in Employee Empowerment Essay a unit which serves breakfast. Most baked goods need to be done the skinhead gangs same day, so cakes and desserts are done after breakfast. Empowerment Essay. This means that the pastry chef’s day is full and the schedule is longer than the usual 9 to Gospel of John Essay 5 job.

The pastry chef job offers great potential. Restaurant clients are more educated in culinary arts, so they appreciate desserts designed to Employee Empowerment Essay fit the overall meal. Penalty States Essay. Therefore the need for skilled pastry chefs is expected to increase constantly in the following years. According to the U.S. Employee. Bureau of Labor statistics, there are around 100,600 pastry chef positions in the U.S. and their number is skinhead gangs, estimated to Employee increase by 1% until 2020. The pastry chef is an artist, crafting its art works in flour, butter and sugar.

In order to create masterpieces, they need a number of skills vital to abigail this job. Part of them is innate, part is acquired during years of work, but all are sharpened through education and perseverance. Pastry chefs are required to Empowerment create new types of breads and desserts, so knowledge of the ingredients and creativity are required in order to successfully play with flavors. Furthermore, their work must be appealing for the eye, so creativity will be used to decorate baked goods in an attractive manner. Usually, the pastry chef supervises and directs the kitchen staff; therefore good leading skills are essential for a proper collaboration. They are also in charge of hiring people, assigning duties to the staff and motivate the workers when working under pressure.

From carefully measured ingredients to elaborate cake decors, everything requires great attention to detail. One extra cup of flour or a minute of distraction when creating a whipped cream decoration may have disastrous consequences. It is obvious why these two senses must be extremely developed. A pastry chef must smell and taste the ingredients as well as the product in different stages in order to ensure the adams definition best quality for the finished product. Also, they also rely on taste and smell to make new combinations that enchant clients. • Proper cooking technique and coordination. Technique is essential for anyone working in a kitchen and pastry chefs make no exception. Knowing the exact baking times and temperatures, the optimal amount of filling and the necessary steps to create perfect baked goods is compulsory for any pastry chef. The baked goods must be ready in the specified time, so each step must be carefully calculated and Empowerment Essay the time span perfectly followed. This can be quite a challenge when the photography kitchen becomes crowded with people and orders. Employee Essay. Also, the pastry chef must perfectly divide their time between managerial duties, talking to contractors and baking/cooking.

The pastry chef must perfectly organize in order to assign specific tasks to kitchen staff. They need to avoid giving too many or too few tasks to skinhead gangs one individual. Also, they need to know what tasks can be performed by an individual in Empowerment Essay the staff and what task should be avoided by the same person. This way they use each staff member to operations which they know best. • Good customer service skills. When the pastry chef is also in Penalty in the United Essay charge of Employee Essay selling the baked goods, proper client interaction will increase the social sales and create returning customers. In addition to Employee Empowerment Essay the skills acquired during culinary school or apprenticeship years, the Essay on Consumerism in America pastry chef job description also requires a number of personal features without which no professional can survive in a kitchen, regardless if it is Essay, a bistro, restaurant, boulangerie or bakery kitchen. • Passion for sweet and savory baked goods- passion is what fuels any good pastry chef. Unlike other jobs, which can be learned, the patissier cannot work in the field without a high level of skinhead gangs passion for baked goods in their blood.

• Physical strength – similarly to any other professional working in Employee Essay the kitchen, the pastry chef spends most of their time standing or walking from counter to counter. Therefore, it is essential that they have good physical strength to carry them throughout the working day. Furthermore, the working day may be prolonged if special orders must be delivered, so staying fit is essential. • Stress management – stress is analysis, part of Employee Empowerment every kitchen, mainly because the in the States Essay products are done from scratch in a short amount of time. Each step is carefully planned, so one small mistake can detour the entire kitchen schedule. The pressure is Employee, high and Penalty in the States Essay the pastry chefs have no room for errors, so stress control and a good morale are essential. • Aesthetic sense – most of pastry chef’s creations are displayed for public admiration.

Wedding cakes, candy bars for different occasions, anniversary and birthday cakes are all baked goods which must look as good as they taste. For this, the pastry chef must use their aesthetic taste to create wonderful decors in color combinations which match the given theme. • Learning abilities – the learning process is continuous for pastry chefs. There are always new techniques to be mastered and new combinations to be perfected; therefore the professional pastry chefs never cease to learn. • Perseverance – there are times when the cake, pie, bread, etc., does not come out the Essay way it is supposed to, but it is important to never give up. Perseverance will eventually pay off and the results will be according to the highest standards.

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MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft .NET platform. The goal of C# and Employee Empowerment, the .NET platform is to shorten development time by freeing the developer from worrying about several low level plumbing issues such as memory management, type safety issues, building low level libraries, array boundschecking , etc. thus allowing developers to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, actually spend their time and energy working on their application and business logic instead. As a Java developer the previous sentence could be described as a short description of the Java language and platform if the words C# and the .NET platform were replaced with words Java and Employee Essay, the Java platform. The Death Penalty In The United States Essay. What follows is an overview of similarities and differences between the Employee language features and libraries of the C# and Java programming languages based on my experience using both languages. All code snippets below were tested on skinhead gangs, Microsoft's .NET Framework version 2.0 for C# snippets and Essay, Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition version 6 for The Death States the Java snippets. Just like Java, C# has a single rooted class hierarchy where all classes in C# are subclasses of System.Object the same way all Java classes are subclasses of java.lang.Object . The methods of the two languages' Object classes share some similarities (e.g.

System.Object's ToString() to java.lang.Object's toString()) and differences ( System.Object does not have analogs to wait(), notify() or notifyAll() in java.lang.Object ). There are a large number of syntactic similarities between Java and C#, similarly almost every Java keyword has a C# equivalent except for a few like transient, throws and strictfp. Below is Employee Empowerment, a table of Java and C# keywords with the Java keywords in red while the equivalent C# keywords are in blue. Skinhead Gangs. NOTE: Although goto and const are Java language keywords they are unused in Employee the Java language. NOTE: The [NonSerialized] attribute in photography C# is equivalent to the transient keyword in Java. Just like Java is Essay, typically compiled to Java byte code which then runs in managed execution environment (the Java Virtual Machine or JVM) so also is C# code compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL) which then runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Both platforms support native compilation via Just In Time compilers. Social Cognitive Of Personality. In Java objects are created on the heap using the new keyword. Most classes in C# are created on the heap by using the new keyword. Also just as the JVM manages the destruction of Essay objects so also does the CLR via a Mark and of John, Compact garbage collection algorithm. Employee. In languages like C and C++, each subarray of a multidimensional array must have the same dimensions.

In Java and C# arrays do not have to be uniform because jagged arrays can be created as one-dimensional arrays of arrays. In a jagged array the contents of the array are arrays which may hold instances of a type or references to other arrays. Photography. For this reason the rows and columns in Empowerment a jagged array need not have uniform length as can be seen from the following code snippet: The above code snippet is valid for Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America both C# and Java. Just like Java and unlike C++, methods in Employee Empowerment Essay C# have to Gospel of John Essay, be part of a class either as member or static methods. C#, like Java, supports the concept of an interface which is akin to Empowerment Essay, a pure abstract class. Similarly C# and Java both allow only abigail adams single inheritance of classes but multiple inheritance (or implementation) of interfaces.

C# has a System.String class which is analogous to the java.lang.String class. Both classes are immutable meaning that the Employee Empowerment Essay values of the strings cannot be changed once the strings have been created. In both instances methods that appear to modify the actual content of a string actually create a new string to return, leaving the original string unchanged. Thus the The Death in the States following C# and Java code does not modify the string in either case. To create a string-like object that allows modification in Empowerment C# it is advisable to use the System.Text.StringBuilder class whereas in Java one would use the java.lang.StringBuffer class. Both Java and C# provide mechanisms to specify that a class should be the last one in adams definition an inheritance hierarchy and cannot be used as a base class.

In Java this is done by preceding the class declaration with the final keyword while in C# this is done by preceding the class declaration with the sealed keyword. Below are examples of classes that cannot be extended in either language. NOTE: Although exceptions in Empowerment Essay both languages support methods for getting a stack trace, only Java exceptions have methods that allow one to alter the stack trace. Instance and definition, static variables can be initialized at their point of Empowerment definition in The Death Penalty United States both C# and Java. If the Employee member variable is an instance variable, then initialization occurs just before the social theories constructor is called. Static members are initialized sometime before the first usage of the member and before the first creation of an instance of the class. It is Employee Empowerment Essay, also possible to specify a block of code that should run before the class is used either via creation of an Gospel Essay, instance variable or invocation of a static method. These code blocks are called are called static constructors in C# and static initialization blocks in Java. Empowerment Essay. Static constructors are invoked before the first invocation of a static method in photography analysis the class and before the first time an Empowerment Essay, instance of the class is created. In situations where value types need to be treated as objects, the .NET and Java runtimes automatically converts value types to of personality, objects by wrapping them within a heap-allocated reference type in a process called boxing . The process of automatically convert an object to its corresponding value type such as converting an instance of Employee Empowerment Essay java.lang.Integer to an int is on Consumerism vs Happiness, known as unboxing . Below are examples of various situations where boxing occurs in Employee both runtimes. It is typically recommended that one creates a main method for each class in skinhead gangs an application to test the functionality of that class besides whatever main method actually drives the application.

For instance it is possible to have two classes, A and B, which both contain main methods. In Java, since a class is the unit of compilation then all one has to do is invoke the specific class one wants run via the command line to run its main method. In C# one can get the same effect by compiling the application with the /main switch to specify which main should be used as the starting point of the application when the executable is Employee, created. Using test mains in skinhead gangs combination with conditional compilation via preprocessor directives is a powerful testing technique. So in Java's favor, one doesn't have to recompile to change which main is used by the application while a recompile is needed in a C# application. Empowerment. However, On the theories other hand, Java doesn't support conditional compilation, so the main method will be part of Employee Empowerment even your released classes. C# uses C++ syntax for inheritance, both for class inheritance and interface implementation as opposed to the extends and implements keywords.

Since C# is aimed at transitioning C++ developers the above syntax is understandable although Java developers may pine for abigail the Java syntax especially since it is Employee, clear from looking at photography, the class declaration in the Java version whether the class is subclassing a class or simply implementing an interface while it isn't in the C# version without intimate knowledge of all the classes involved. Although it should be noted that in .NET naming conventions, interface names have an upper-case I prepended to their names (as in IClonable), so this isn't an issue for programs that conform to standard naming conventions. A C# namespace is Empowerment Essay, a way to group a collection of classes and is used in a manner similar to Java's package construct. Users of C++ will notice the similarities between the C# namespace syntax and that in cognitive of personality C++. In Java, the package names dictate the Empowerment directory structure of source files in an application whereas in skinhead gangs C# namespaces do not dictate the physical layout of source files in directories only their logical structure. Examples below: C# namespace syntax also allows one to nest namespaces in Employee Empowerment the following way. The syntax and semantics for constructors in C# is identical to adams definition, that in Java.

C# also has the concept of destructors which use syntax similar to C++ destructor syntax but have the mostly the same semantics as Java finalizers. Although finalizers exist doing work within them is not encouraged for a number of reasons including the fact that there is no way to Employee, control the order of finalization which can lead to interesting problems if objects that hold references to each other are finalized out of order. Finalization also causes more overhead because objects with finalizers aren't removed after the Gospel garbage collection thread runs but instead are eliminated after the finalization thread runs which means they have to be maintained in the system longer than objects without finalizers. Below are equivalent examples in Employee Empowerment C# and Java. NOTE: In C#, destructors(finalizers) automatically call the of John Essay base class finalizer after executing which is Essay, not the case in Java. Both C# and Java support the concept of synchronized methods. Whenever a synchronized method is called, the thread that called the method locks the object that contains the method. Thus other threads cannot call a synchronized method on the same object until the object is unlocked by the first thread when it finishes executing the synchronized method. Synchronized methods are marked in Java by using the synchronized keyword while in C# it is definition, done by annotating the method with the [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] attribute. Examples of Employee Empowerment Essay synchronized methods are shown below. Below is a table mapping C# access modifiers to Java's.

C++ fans who were disappointed when Sun changed the semantics of the protected keyword in Java 2 will be happy to note that the C# protected keyword has the same semantics as the C++ version. This means that a protected member can only be accessed by member methods in that class or member methods in skinhead gangs derived classes but is inaccessible to any other classes. The internal modifier means that the member can be accessed from other classes in the same assembly as the class. The internal protected modifier means that a member can be accessed from classes that are in the same assembly or from derived classes. NOTE: The default accessibility of a C# field or method when no access modifier is specified is private while in Java it is protected (except that derived classes from outside the package cannot inherit the field). One might notice from the above code samples that there is slightly more granularity in the C# Reflection API than the Java Reflection API as can be seen by the fact that C# has a ParameterInfo class which contains metadata about the parameters of a Method while Java uses Class objects for that which lose some information such as the name of the parameter. Sometimes there is Essay, a need to obtain the metadata of a specific class encapsulated as an object. This object is the java.lang.Class object in Java and the System.Type object in C#. To retrieve this metadata class from an instance of the target class, the getClass() method is used in Java while the GetType() method is used in C#. If the name of the class is known at definition, compile time then one can avoid creating an instance of the class just to obtain the metadata class by doing the Essay following.

To declare constants in Java the photography final keyword is Employee, used. Of John Essay. Final variables can be set either at compile time or run time. In Java, when the final is used on a primitive it makes the value of the primitive immutable while when used on object references it makes the reference constant meaning that the reference can only point to only one object during its lifetime. Final members can be left uninitialized when declared but then must be defined in the constructor. To declare constants in C# the const keyword is used for compile time constants while the Employee Empowerment Essay readonly keyword is used for runtime constants. The semantics of constant primitives and object references in C# is the same as in Java.

Unlike C++, it is not possible to specify an immutable class via language constructs in either C# or Java. Neither is it possible to adams definition, create a reference through which it's impossible to modify a mutable object. NOTE: The Java language also supports having final parameters to a method. This functionality is non-existent in C#. C# and Empowerment, Java automatically call base class constructors, and both provide a way to analysis, call the constructor of the base class with specific parameters. Similarly both languages enforce that the call to the base class constructor occurs before any initializations in the derived constructor which prevents the Essay derived constructor from using members that are yet to be initialized. The C# syntax for calling the skinhead gangs base class constructor is reminiscent of the C++ initializer list syntax. Both languages also provide a way to call a constructor from another which allows one to reduce the amount of code duplication that can occur in constructors. Empowerment. This practice is typically called constructor chaining. In C and C++ it is possible to specify that a function takes a variable number of arguments. This functionality is used extensively in the printf and scanf family of functions.

Both C# and Java allow one to define a parameter that indicates that a variable number of arguments are accepted by a method. In C#, the Gospel Essay mechanism for Essay specifying that a method accepts a variable number of arguments is by using the params keyword as a qualifier to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, the last argument to the method which should be an array. In Java, the same effect is Empowerment Essay, achieved by appending the string . to the typename of the last argument to the method. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for creating strongly typed data structures without knowing the specific types at compile time. Prior to the existence of the Generics feature set, this capability was achieved by specifying the type of the objects within the Gospel of John Essay data structure as Object then casting to Employee Essay, specific types at photography analysis, runtime. This technique had several drawbacks including lack of type safety, poor performance and code bloat. The following code sample shows how one would calculate the Employee Empowerment sum of all the integers in a collection using generics and using a collection of Objects so that both approaches can be compared. Although similar in concept to templates in C++, the Generics feature in definition C# and Java is not implemented similarly.

In Java, the generic functionality is implemented using type erasure . Specifically the generic type information is present only at compile time, after which it is erased by Employee Essay, the compiler and all the type declarations are replaced with Object . The compiler then automatically inserts casts in the right places. The reason for this approach is that it provides total interoperability between generic code and skinhead gangs, legacy code that doesn't support generics. The main problem with type erasure is that the generic type information is not available at Empowerment, run time via reflection or run time type identification. Another consequence of Essay vs Happiness this approach is that generic data structures types must always be declared using objects and not primitive types. Thus one must create StackInteger instead of Stackint when working integers. In C#, there is Employee Essay, explicit support for generics in the .NET runtime's instruction language (IL).

When the generic type is compiled, the generated IL contains place holders for specific types. At runtime, when an adams definition, initial reference is made to a generic type (e.g. Listint ) the system looks to see if anyone already asked for Employee Empowerment Essay the type or not. If the type has been previously requested, then the previously generated specific type is returned. If not, the JIT compiler instantiates a new type by replacing the generic type parameters in the IL with the specific type (e.g. replacing ListT with Listint ). It should be noted that if the requested type is a reference type as opposed to a value type then the generic type parameter is replaced with Object . However there is no casting done internally by the .NET runtime when accessing the type. On Consumerism Vs Happiness In America. In certain cases, one may need create a method that can operate on Employee, data structures containing any type as opposed to those that contain a specific type (e.g. a method to print all the objects in a data structure) while still taking advantage of the social cognitive theories benefits of strong typing in generics. The mechanism for specifying this in Employee Empowerment Essay C# is via a feature called generic type inferencing while in Java this is Essay, done using wildcard types . The following code samples show how both approaches lead to the same result. Both C# and Employee Empowerment Essay, Java provide mechanisms for specifying constraints on generic types. In C# there are three types of constraints that can be applied to generic types A derivation constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter derives from a base type such an interface or a particular base class A default constructor constraint indicates to definition, the compiler that the generic type parameter exposes a public default constructor A reference/value type constraint constrains the generic type parameter to be a reference or a value type.

In Java, only the derivation constraint is supported. The following code sample shows how constraints are used in practice. Employee. C# also includes the analysis default operator which returns the default value for a type. Essay. The default value for reference types is Gospel of John Essay, null , and the default value for value types (such as integers, enum, and structures) is a zero whitewash (filling the structure with zeros). This operator is very useful when combined with generics. The following code sample excercises the functionality of this operator. The for-each loop is an iteration construct that is Employee, popular in a number of photography analysis scripting languages (e.g.

Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk), build tools (GNU Make) and function libraries (e.g. for_each in algorithm in C++). The for-each loop is a less verbose way to iterate through arrays or classes that implement the the System.Collections.IEnumerable interface in C# or the java.lang.Iterable interface in Java. In C#, the Empowerment keywords foreach and in are used when creating the for-each loop while in of John Java the keyword for and the operator : are used. Metadata annotations provide a powerful way to extend the Empowerment capabilities of a programming language and the language runtime. These annotations can be directives that request the runtime to perform certain additional tasks, provide extra information about an item or extend the abilities of photography analysis a type. Metadata annotations are common in a number of programming environments including Microsoft's COM and Employee Empowerment Essay, the Linux kernel. C# attributes provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a module, type, method, parameter or member variable. Below are descriptions of a few attributes that are intrinsic to analysis, .NET and how they are used to extend the capabilities of the C#. [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] : is used to specify that a access to Employee Empowerment Essay, a method by multiple threads is protected by a lock to prevent concurrent access to the method and is similar to cognitive theories, the synchronized in Java.

It is possible to access the attributes of a module, class, method or field via reflection. This is Empowerment Essay, particularly useful for seeing if a class supports certain behavior at runtime or for extracting metadata about Essay on Consumerism in America, a class for usage by Employee Essay, others. Developers can create their own custom attributes by subclassing the skinhead gangs System.Attribute class. What follows is an example of Employee using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information. Java annotations provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to an package, type, method, parameter, member or local variable. There are only three built-in annotations provided in definition the Java language which are listed below. Employee. @Override : is used to photography analysis, specify that a method is intended to Employee Essay, override a method in a base class.

If the annotated method does not override a method in Essay vs Happiness the base class then an error is Empowerment Essay, issued during compilation. As in C# it is possible to analysis, access the Empowerment annotations on a module, class, method or field via reflection. However a key difference between C# attributes and Java annotations is that one can create meta-annotations (i.e. Skinhead Gangs. annotations on annotations) in Java but can not do the same in C#. Developers can create their own custom annotations by creating an annotation type which is similar to an interface except that the keyword @interface is used to define it. What follows is an example of Employee using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information.

Enums are used to Gospel Essay, create and group together a list of user defined named constants. Although on the surface the enumerated types in C# and Java seem quite similar there are some significant differences in the implementation of enumerated types in Essay both languages. In Java, enumerated types are a full fledged class which means they are typesafe and can be extended by adding methods, fields or even implementing interfaces. Whereas in C#, an enumerated type is simply syntactic sugar around an integral type (typically an int ) meaning they cannot be extended and are not typesafe. Skinhead Gangs. The following code sample highlights the Employee differences between enums in both languages.

In Java and C# it is possible to nest class declarations within each other. In Java there are two kinds of nested classes; non-static nested classes also known as inner classes and static nested classes. Abigail Adams. A Java inner class can be considered as a one-to-one relationship between the inner class and its enclosing class where for each instance of the enclosing class there exists a corresponding instance of the inner class that has access to the enclosing class's instance variables and contains no static methods. Employee Empowerment. On the The Death States other hand a Java static nested class is a similar to nesting a class decaration within another where the nested class has access to the static members and Employee Essay, methods of the enclosing class. C# has the equivalent of Java's static nested classes but has nothing analogous to Java's inner classes. The following nested class declarations below are equivalent. NOTE: In Java a nested class can be declared in any block of code including methods, this is not the case in C#. The ability to on Consumerism, create nested classes in methods in Java may seem unnecessary but combined with anonymous inner classes can provide a means of Employee Empowerment creating powerful design patterns. A thread is a sequential flow of control within a program. A program or process can have multiple threads running concurrently all of which may share data or run independently while performing tasks.

Threads are powerful in that they allow a developer to skinhead gangs, perform multiple tasks at once in a single program or process. Advantages of threads include exploiting parallelism in multiprocessor architectures, reducing execution time by being able to perform tasks while waiting on a blocking system calls (such as printing or other I/O), and avoiding freezing in GUI applications. Java threads are created by subclassing the java.lang.Thread class and overriding its run() method or by implementing the Empowerment Essay java.lang.Runnable interface and implementing the run() method. Whereas in C#, one creates a thread by creating a new System.Threading.Thread object and passing it a System.Threading.ThreadStart delegate which is initialized with the method that is to be run as a thread. Thus, in Java a method that shall run in a multithreaded context is designed up front specifically with that in mind.

On the other hand, in adams C# any method can be passed to a ThreadStart object and run in a multithreaded scenario. In Java, every class inherits the Essay wait(), notify() and photography analysis, notifyAll() from java.lang.Object which are used for thread operations. The equivalent methods in C# are the Wait(), Pulse() and PulseAll() methods in the System.Threading.Monitor class. The example below shows a scenario where worker threads are dispatched in Employee Empowerment a specific order and must be processed in the same order upon return. Due to the non-deterministic nature of threads, on some runs the threads finish working in the order they were dispatched in and in other runs they appear out of order and thus each thread must wait until its turn comes up.

In many situations one cannot guarantee that the photography analysis order of execution of a program will be the same as that in the source code. Reasons for the unexpected ordering of program execution include compiler optimizations that reorder statements or mulitiprocessor systems that fail to store variables in global memory amongst others. To work around this, both C# and Java have the concept of the volatile keyword which is used to tell the Employee language runtime that reordering instructions related to photography, accessing such fields is prohibited. There are major differences in the semantics of volatile in Java and C# which are illustrated in the example below taken from The Double-Checked Locking is Broken Declaration. Employee. Although the vs Happiness above code snippets seem identical save for the substitution of the synchronized keyword with the lock keyword, the Empowerment Essay Java version is not guaranteed to work on all JVMs. Currently the Java Memory Model does not prevent reordering of writes to volatile variables with writes to other variables so it is possible that the new object is States Essay, constructed before the helper reference is made to point at the newly created object meaning that two objects are created. Also it is possible that the helper reference is made to point at a block of memory while the object is still being created meaning that a reference to an incomplete object will be returned. In C#, the Employee semantics of volatile prevent such problems from occurring because reads and writes cannot be moved backward or forward across a volatile write.

Also in abigail C#, being marked as volatile also prevents the Just In Time compiler from placing the variable in a register and also ensures that the variable is stored in global memory on multiprocessor systems. For more information on Empowerment, the problems with the Java Memory Model and Double-Checked Locking, see the photography analysis Double-checked locking: Clever, but broken article on Javaworld. Operator overloading allows standard operators in a language to be given new semantics when applied in the context of Employee Empowerment a particular class or type. Operator overloading can be used to simplify the syntax of certain operations especially when they are performed very often, such as string concatenation in Java or interactions with iterators and collections in the C++ Standard Template Library. Operator overloading is a point of contention for many developers due to the fact that it provides a lot of flexibility and power which makes it prone to abuse. There is a tendency for developers to use it poorly by doings like overloading operators in an unintuitive manner (e.g. overloading ++ and -- to connect and in America, disconnect from the network) , overloading operators in a manner inconsistent with their typical use (e.g. overloading [ ] to return a copy of an object at Empowerment, a particular index in of John Essay a collection instead of a reference to the actual object) or overloading some operators and not others (e.g. overloading but not ). Overloading operators tends to be most useful when the class lends itself intuitively to using that operator. Examples of situations that intuitively suggest that operator overloading would be beneficial are overloading [ ] for use with collections, overloading + and * for use with matrices, overloading mathematical operators for use with complex numbers, and Empowerment, overloading the == and != operators for classes that have some means to measure equality. Below is an example that shows how operator overloading works in C#. NOTE: Unlike C++, C# does not allow the overloading of the following operators; new , ( ) , || , , = , or any variations of compound assignments such as += , -= , etc. However, compound assignment operators will call overloaded operators, for instance, += would call overloaded +. Skinhead Gangs. C# assemblies share a lot in common with Java JAR files.

An assembly is the Employee Empowerment Essay fundamental unit of code packaging in The Death Penalty United States the .NET environment. Assemblies are self contained and Essay, typically contain the intermediate code from compiling classes, metadata about the classes, and any other files needed by the packaged code to perform its task. Gospel Of John. Since assemblies are the fundamental unit of code packaging, several actions related to interacting with types must be done at the assembly level. Essay. For instance, granting of security permissions, code deployment, and versioning are done at cognitive theories, the assembly level. Java JAR files perform a similar task in Employee Empowerment Essay Java with most differences being in the implementation. In The United Essay. Assemblies are usually stored as EXEs or DLLs while JAR files are stored in the ZIP file format. A number of popular programming languages contain a collections framework which typically consists of a number of data structures for holding multiple objects as well as algorithms for manipulating the objects within the aforementioned data structures.

The primary advantage of a collections framework is that it frees developers from Employee Essay, having to skinhead gangs, write data structures and sort algorithms every time one is needed and instead frees them up to work on the actual application logic. A secondary benefit is that collections frameworks lead to consistency across projects which means the learning curve for new developers using applications that use a collections framework is Employee Empowerment, less steep when compared to a situation where one was not used. The C# collections framework consists of the classes in the System.Collections and the System.Collections.Generic namespaces . The Systems.Collections namespace contains interfaces and abstract classes that represent abstract data types such as IList, IEnumerable, IDictionary, ICollection, and CollectionBase which enable developers to Gospel, manipulate data structures independently of how they are actually implemented as long as the data structures inherit from the abstract data types. The System.Collections namespace also contains some concrete implementations of Empowerment Essay data structures such as ArrayList, Stack, Queue, HashTable and SortedList. All four of the concrete data structure implementations enable one to obtain synchronized wrappers to the collection which allows for theories of personality access in a thread-safe manner. The System.Collections.Generic namespace has generic implementations of the key data structures in the System.Collections namespace including generic ListT, StackT,QueueT, DictionaryK,T and SortedDictionaryK,T classes . The Java collections framework consists of a large number of the Essay classes and interfaces in the java.util package. Instead of having a separate namespace for generic collections, the collections in the java.util package have been retrofitted to support generics. The Java collection framework is similar to that in C# except for the fact that it can be considered a superset of the C# collection framework since it contains a number of extra features. The Java collection framework contains data structures that are missing from those in C# such as sets and skinhead gangs, linked lists. Also the Java collections framework not only has methods that enable one to access unsafe collections in a thread safe manner but contains thread-safe versions of Employee Essay most of the data structures as well.

Finally, the Java collections framework has a number of algorithms for manipulating the of John elements within the Employee Empowerment data structures including algorithms that can do the following; find the largest element based on some Comparator, find the smallest element, find sublists within a list, reverse the contents of a list, shuffle the contents of a list, creates immutable versions of a colection, performs sorts, and binary searches. At the current time, the Java collections framework is more sophisticated than that available in .NET via C#. Unlike Java, C# contains the goto statement which can be used to jump directly from a point in the code to a label. Although much derided, gotos can be used in certain situations to reduce code duplication while enhancing readability. A secondary usage of the Gospel of John goto statement is the ability to mimic resumeable exceptions like those in Smalltalk, as long as the exception thrown does not cross method boundaries. NOTE: In C#, one cannot jump into a statement block using the goto statement; One of the tenets of object oriented programming is Essay, polymorphism.

Polymorphism enables one to interact with members of a type hierarchy as generic types instead of theories of personality dealing with specific types. The means of implementing polymorphism typically involves having methods in a base class that may be overidden by Employee, derived classes. These methods can be invoked even though the client has a reference to a base class type which points to an object of the derived class. Such methods are bound at runtime instead of being bound during compilation and are typically called virtual methods. In Java all methods are virtual methods while in C#, as in C++, one must explicitly state which methods one wants to be virtual since by Gospel of John, default they are not. Essay. To mark a method as virtual in C#, one uses the virtual keyword.

Also, implementers of social a child class can decide to Employee, either explicitly override the virtual method by Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness, using the override keyword or explicitly choose not to by using the new keyword instead. By default, in Employee Empowerment Essay C#, the behavior of methods in a derived class that have the theories of personality same signature as those in the base class is as if they were declared with the new keyword. It is Employee Essay, possible to mark methods as final in Java which means that the method cannot be overridden by Penalty United States, derived classes. In C# this can be done by not marking the method as virtual . The major difference is that in C#, the class can still define the method but the base class version is the Essay one that will be called if the object is used via a base class reference. Java disallows the derived class from containing a method that has the same signature as the final base class method. Below are examples that show the differences in virtual methods in both languages. The C# example can be made to produce the same output as the Java example by marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Parent class as virtual and marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class with the override keyword. The above example can be made to produce the original results by altering the signature of the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class to. public new void DoStuff(string str) which states that although the Essay on Consumerism in America DoStuff method is virtual in the base class, the child class would like to treat it as a non-virtual method. Empowerment. Both languages support performing I/O via Stream classes. Gospel Of John. The examples below copy the contents of a file named input.txt to Essay, another called output.txt.

Object Persistence also known as Serialization is the ability to read and write objects via a stream such as a file or network socket. Object Persistence is useful in Essay in America situations where the state of an object must be retained across invocations of a program. Empowerment. Usually in such cases simply storing data in a flat file is The Death United States, insufficient yet using a Database Management System (DBMS) is overkill. Serialization is also useful as a means of transferring the representation of Employee Essay a class in an automatic and Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, fairly seamless manner. Serializable objects in C# are annotated with the [Serializable] attribute. The [NonSerialized] attribute is used to annote members of a C# class that should not be serialized by Employee Essay, the runtime. Such fields are usually calculated or temporary values that have no meaning when saved. Of John. C# provides two formats for serializing classes; either as XML or in a binary format, the Employee Empowerment former is more readable by humans and applications while the latter is more efficient. One can also define custom ways an object is serialized if the Essay vs Happiness in America standard ways are insufficient by implementing the ISerializable interface.

In Java, serializable objects are those that implement the Serializable interface while the transient keyword is used to mark members of a Java class as ones not to be serialized. Employee. By default Java supports serializing objects to a binary format but does provide a way of overriding the photography analysis standard serialization process. Objects that plan to override default serializations can implement methods with the following signatures. Since the above methods are private there is no interface that can be implemented to indicate that a Java class supports custom serialization using readObject and writeObject. For classes that need publicly accessible methods for custom serialization there exists the interface which specifies the Essay readExternal() and writeExternal() for in America use in customizing how an object is read and written to a stream. Employee Essay. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for extracting specially formatted comments from source code and placing them in an alternate document. These comments are typically API specifications and are very useful way to provide API documentation to the users of a library.

The generated documentation is also useful to share the specifications for an API between designers, developers and QA. Javadoc is the tool used to extract API documentation from source code. Javadoc generates HTML documentation from the The Death Penalty States source code comment, an example of which is the Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition API Documentation which was all generated using Javadoc. Javadoc can be used to describe information at the package, class, member and method level. Descriptions of Empowerment Essay classes and member variables can be provided with the option to add references to other classes, class members and methods. Javadoc allows one to document the following metadata about a method: Description of the method.

Exceptions thrown by the method. Parameters the method accepts Return type of the method. Associated methods and photography analysis, members. Indication as to Employee Empowerment Essay, whether the API has been deprecated or not. Version of the API the method was first added. The deprecated information is also used by the compiler which issues a warning if a call to a method marked with the deprecated tag is encountered during compilation. Javadoc also provides the following information automatically: Inherited API List of Gospel Essay derived classes List of implementing classes for interfaces Serialized form of the class Alphabetical class listing. Package hierarchy in a tree format.

Since Javadoc generates HTML documentation, it is valid to use HTML in Empowerment Javadoc comments. Gospel Of John Essay. There is support for Employee Empowerment Essay linking the generated documentation with other generated documentation available over the web. Such linking is useful when one wants readers of the documentation to skinhead gangs, be able to Empowerment Essay, read the API documentation from the related sources. An example of Penalty States Essay this is the following generated documentation which contains links to the Java 2 API documentation. If no such linking is specified then the generated documentation contains no links to Employee Empowerment Essay, other API documentation. United. Below is an example of how Javadoc comments are used. C# uses XML as the Empowerment format for the documentation.

The generated documentation is an XML file that contains the metadata specified by Penalty States, the user with very little additional information generated automatically. All the C# XML documentation tags have an analogous Javadoc construct while the same cannot be said for the Javadoc tags having C# XML documentation analogs. For instance, the default C# XML documentation does not have analogs to Employee, Javadoc's @author , @version , or @deprecated tags although such metadata can be generated by reflecting on photography analysis, the assembly, as Microsoft's documentation build process does. One could also create custom tags that are analogous to the Javadoc tags and more but they would be ignored by standard tools used for handling C# XML documentation including Visual Studio.NET. Also of note is that C#'s XML documentation when generated does not contain metadata about the class such as listings of inherited API, derived classes or implementing interfaces. Here is an Employee Empowerment Essay, example of an XML file generated from C# source code. Skinhead Gangs. The primary benefit of an XML format is that the documentation specification can now be used in many different ways.

XSLT stylesheets can then be used to Employee, convert the generated documentation to ASCII text, HTML, or Postscript files. Also of note is that the generated documentation can be fed to tools that use it for spec verification or other similar tasks. Photography Analysis. It should be noted that C# currently does not have a tool analogous to Javadoc for converting the XML documentation into HTML. Microsoft is in the process of developing such a tool which is Essay, currently codenamed SandCastle. Below is an example of photography how C# XML documentation is used. Multiple classes can be defined in a single file in both languages with some significant differences. In Java, there can only Employee Essay be one class per source file that has public access and it must have the same name as the photography analysis source file minus the file extension. C# does not have a restriction on Employee Essay, the number of public classes that can exist in a source file and neither is there a requirement for the name of any of the classes in The Death Penalty in the United the file to Empowerment Essay, match that of the source file. Analysis. Using libraries in Employee Essay an application is a two-step process.

First the needed libraries must be referenced somewhere in the source file which is done via the using keyword in C# and the import keyword in Essay Java. Secondly, there must be a way to Employee Essay, tell the compiler where to find the location of the needed library. Specifying the location of libraries that will be used by social cognitive, a Java program is done using the CLASSPATH environment variable or the -classpath compiler option. Assembly locations are specified with the /r compiler switch in C#. Event-driven programming is a programming model where objects can register themselves to be notified of a specific occurrence or state change in another object. Employee Empowerment. Event-driven programming is also referred to as the publish-subscribe model or the observer design pattern and is very popular in graphical user interface (GUI) programming. Java and The Death United States Essay, C# both have mechanisms that support events but there are significant differences. The typical publish-subscribe model has a one to many relationship between an object (publisher) and its event handlers (subscribers). A subscriber is registered by Essay, invoking a method on the publisher which then adds the Penalty in the United Essay subscriber to an internal collection of interested objects. When the Employee Empowerment state change that a registered subscriber is interested in occurs, a method is invoked in social cognitive of personality the publisher that cycles through the collection of subscribers and invokes a callback method on each one. There is no general mechanism for event handling in Java.

Instead there are design patterns that are used by the GUI classes which developers can take their cue from. An event is typically a subclass of the java.util.EventObject class, which has methods that enable setting or getting of the Empowerment object that was the source of the event. A subscriber in on Consumerism in America the Java model usually implements an interface that ends with the word Listener (e.g. MouseListener, ActionListener, KeyListener, etc) which should contain a callback method that would be called by the publisher on the occurrence of the event. The publisher typically has a method that begins with add and ends with Listener (e.g. addMouseListener, addActionListener, addKeyListener, etc) which is used to register subscribers. The publisher also has remove methods for unregistering the subscribers. The aforementioned components are the primary entities in an event-driven Java program.

C# uses delegates to provide an explicit mechanism for creating a publish-subscribe model. An event is typically a subclass of the System.EventArgs class. Like all data classes, the event class should have a constructor that allows complete initialization without calling any other methods so that you can pass new YourEventArgs(inits) to the subscriber delegate. The publisher has a protected method preceded with the word On (e.g. OnClick, OnClose, OnInit, etc) which is invoked when a specified event occurs, this method would then invoke the delegate passing it the Employee source and an instance of the EventArgs object. Making the method protected allows derived classes to call it directly without the need to register a delegate.

The subscriber is a method that accepts the same argument and returns the same type as the event delegate. In The. The event delegate usually returns void and accepts two parameters; an Object which should be the source of the Empowerment event and the EventArgs subclass which should represent the event that occured. In C#, the event is used to Gospel, automatically specify that a field within a subscriber is Empowerment, a delegate that will be used as a callback during an The Death Penalty Essay, event-driven situation. Employee Empowerment Essay. During compilation the compiler adds overloaded versions of the += and -= operators that are analogous to the add and remove methods that are used in Java to register and unregister a subscriber. The example below shows a class that generates 20 random numbers and fires an event whenever one of the numbers is even. Cross language interoperability is the ability to access constructs written in one programming language from another.

There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in Java. First of all, there is the Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in C, C++ or assembly language. The C, C++ or assembly methods methods must be specifically written to be called from Java. Native methods can use JNI to access Java features such as calling Java language methods, instantiating and modifying Java classes, throwing and catching exceptions, performing runtime type checking, and loading Java classes dynamically. To create a JNI program one performs the following steps: Create a Java program that contains the declaration of the native method(s) marked with the native keyword. Write a main method that loads the library created in step 6 and uses the native method(s). Compile the class containing the declaration of the native method(s) and the main with the javac compiler. Use the javah compiler with the -jni compiler option to generate a header file for the native method(s). Write the native method in Gospel your language of choice (currently C, C++ or assembly). Compile the header file and native source file into a shared library (i.e. a .dll on Windows or a .so file on Employee, UNIX). Java also has the ability to interact with distributed objects that use the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) via Java IDL.

CORBA is a technology that allows developers to make procedure calls on objects in a location and language agnostic manner. A CORBA application usually consists of an object request broker (ORB), a client and a server. An ORB is Penalty United, responsible for matching a requesting client to the server that will perform the Employee Empowerment Essay request, using an object reference to abigail definition, locate the target object. Employee Empowerment. When the ORB examines the in the object reference and checks if the target object is remote or not. If the Essay target of the call is local then the ORB performs an inter-process communication (IPC) call. On calls to remote objects the ORB marshals the arguments and routes the in the States Essay invocation out over the network to the remote object's ORB. The remote ORB then invokes the method locally and sends the results back to Employee Empowerment Essay, the client via the network. CORBA has a language-agnostic interface definition language (IDL) which for on Consumerism vs Happiness in America which languages that support CORBA have various mappings. Java IDL supports the mappings from Java objects to Employee Essay, CORBA IDL objects.

Various ORBs support CORBA language bindings for a number of languages including C, C++, Java, Python, Lisp, Perl, and analysis, Scheme. The most seamless way to do cross language interop in Employee Empowerment Essay Java is analysis, when the Essay language is compiled directly to Java byte code. This means that objects in that language are available to skinhead gangs, Java programs and Java objects are available to programs written in the target language. A good example of this is the Jython scripting language which is Employee Empowerment Essay, a version of the Python programming language that is integrated with the Java platform. Below is an example of an interactive session with Jython shows how a user could create an instance of the Java random number class (found in java.util.Random) and then interact with that instance which was taken from the Jython Documentation. There are a number of projects in skinhead gangs various degrees of Essay completion that are aimed at providing a similar degree of cross language interoperability within the confines of the Java Virtual Machine. Essay In America. A list of languages retargetted for the Java Virtual Machine is available on the webpage of Dr. Robert Tolksdorf.

Currently, Sun Microsystems (creators of the Employee Java language and platform) seems to be uninterested in this level of cross language interoperability and has decided to leave this to analysis, independent developers and researchers. Employee. With seamless cross langauge interoperability, objects can inherit implementation from other types, instantiate and invoke methods defined on other types, and otherwise interact with objects regardless of the language the types are originally implemented in. Also tools such as class browsers, debuggers, and on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, profilers only need to understand one format (be it Java byte codes or .NET instruction language) but can support a multitude of languages as long as they target the appropriate runtime. Also error handling across languages via exceptions is possible. C# and the .NET runtime were created with seamless cross-language interoperability as a design goal. A language targeting the Employee Empowerment .NET common language runtime (CLR) is able to interact with other languages that conform to the common type system and when compiled include certain metadata. The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the .NET runtime thus creating a framework that allows for Gospel of John type safety and ensures that objects written in various languages can share type information. Metadata is Employee Empowerment Essay, binary information describing the assemblies, types and attributes defined in the application that are stored either in adams a CLR portable executable (PE) or in Employee Empowerment memory if the assembly has been loaded.

Langauges that are currently being developed to target the .NET runtime include APL, C#, C++, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Haskel#/Mondrian, Java, Mercury, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme, Smalltalk, Standard ML, and Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness, Visual Basic. Since it is very possible that certain features in one language have no analog in Employee Essay another, the .NET Framework provides the Common Language Specification (CLS), which describes a fundamental set of language features and defines rules for how those features are used. The CLS rules are a subset of the common type system that is aimed at ensuring cross-language interoperability by defining a set of features that are most common in programming languages. The C# compiler is a CLS compliant compiler meaning that it can be used to generate code that complies with the CLS. The C# compiler can check for CLS compliance and issues an Essay vs Happiness, error when a program code uses functionality that is Employee Empowerment Essay, not supported by the CLS. To get the C# compiler to check for on Consumerism in America the CLS compliance of a piece of code, mark it with the [CLSCompliantAttribute(true)] attribute. Another aspect of cross language interoperability supported by C# is Employee Empowerment, interaction with COM based objects. There are mechanisms that allow developers to use COM objects from C# code and vice versa.

C# objects can utilize COM objects if a wrapper class is first created that defines the functions available in the COM object as well as some additional information. Abigail Definition. The wrapper class can then be used as if it were a regular C# object while the .NET runtime handles the Employee complexities of marshalling arguments and the like. Creating the wrapper class can be done automatically using the tlbimp utility. If the utility is unable to create a type library then one must be written by hand with foreknowledge of the coclasses and interfaces being defined as well as the type library-to-assembly conversion rules. For a COM object to utilize a C# object, a typelib must be created that describes the skinhead gangs C# object to COM aware applications. The tlbexp can be used to create a typelib that describes the C# object's interface in a COM-like manner. Employee Empowerment. Also the regasm utility can be used to register an assembly so it is Gospel of John Essay, available to COM.

When COM objects interact with the Employee C# object, the runtime handles whatever marshalling of data that needs to occur between COM and .NET automatically. C# programs can also call almost any function in any DLL using a combination of the extern keyword and the DllImport attribute on abigail definition, the method declaration. A major advantage of this is that the Empowerment Essay method being called does not have to be specifically written to be called from C#, nor is any wrapper necessary-so calling existing code in DLLs is relatively simple. To provide total control of releasing resources used by classes, C# provides the System.IDisposable interface which contains the Dispose() method that can be called by skinhead gangs, users of the class to release resources on completion of whatever task is at hand. Employee Empowerment Essay. Classes that manage resources such as database or file handles benefit from being disposable. Being diposable provides a deterministic way to release these resources when the class is no longer in use, which is not the case with finalizers in Java or C#. It is typical to call the SupressFinalize method of the GC class in the implementation of the adams Dispose method since it is Employee, likely that finalization by the runtime won't be needed since it will be provided explicitly via the Dispose method. C# also has some syntactic sugar via the using keyword that makes releasing the resources used by photography analysis, classes occur in a more deterministic manner via the Empowerment Dispose method.

If a class is disposable, it is best to cognitive theories, make usage of the Dispose() method idempotent (i.e. multiple calls to Employee Essay, Dispose() have no ill effects) which can be done by providing a flag that is checked within the Dispose() method to see if the vs Happiness in America class has already been disposed or not. The example below shows a program where a class keeps a file open up until the Dispose() method is called which indicates that the file no longer needs to be open. The above idiom is practically the same as having C++ style destructors without the worry of Essay having to deal with memory allocation woes, making it the best of skinhead gangs both worlds. The non-deterministic nature of finalization has long been bemoaned by Java developers, it is a welcome change to see that this will not be the case when using C#. Delegates are a mechanism for Employee Empowerment providing callback functions. Delegates are akin to function pointers in C or functors in C++ and are useful in the same kinds of situation. One use of delegates is skinhead gangs, passing operations to a generic algorithm based on the types being used in the algorithm.

The C function qsort() is an example of this as are a variety of the C++ functions in algorithm like replace_if() and transform(). Another use of delegates is Empowerment Essay, as a means to register handlers for Gospel Essay a particular event (i.e. the publish-subscribe model). To get the same functionality as C# delegates in Java, once can create interfaces that specify the signature of the callback method such as is done with the Employee Empowerment Essay Comparable interface although this has the drawback of forcing the method to be an instance method when it most likely should be static. To use delegates, one first declares a delegate that has the return type and accepts the same number of parameters as the methods one will want to invoke as callback functions. Secondly one needs to define a method that accepts an instance of the delegate as a parameter. Once this is done, a method that has the same signature as the delegate (i.e. accepts same parameters and returns the same type) or has covariant return types and contravariant parameter types (i.e return type is social, derived from the Empowerment return type of the delegate and the parameter types are ancestors of the corresponding parameters) can be created and used to initialize an instance of the delegate which can then be passed to the method that accepts that delegate as a parameter. Abigail Definition. Note that the same delegate can refer to static and Employee Empowerment Essay, instance methods, even at theories of personality, the same time, since delegates are multicast.

The example below shows the process of creating and using instance delegates. A delegate can be passed as a parameter to Empowerment Essay, a method in the same way that a function pointer is passed in languages like C and C++. The following code sample shows how this is done. In both Java and C#, items on the heap have to be garbage collected to reclaim the memory allocated to them when they are no longer in use while stack based objects are automatically reclaimed by the system. Memory on the stack is typically faster to allocate than heap based memory. In Java, all classes are created on the heap while primitives are created on the stack. This can lead to skinhead gangs, situations where objects that are used similarly to primitives in Employee Empowerment Essay a program tend to hang around and wait for garbage collection thus adding overhead to Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America, the program. This can be bothersome, especially if the Employee Empowerment Essay objects were used briefly and in a single location. Essay On Consumerism Vs Happiness. To avoid the Essay problem of allocating heap space for such classes and photography analysis, then having to garbage collect them, C# has a mechanism that allows one to specify that objects of Employee Empowerment a certain class should be stack based (In fact, C#'s built-in types such as int are actually implemented as structs in the runtime library).

Unlike classes, value types are always passed by value and are not garbage collected. And arrays of value types contain the actual value type objects, not references to dynamically-allocated objects-a savings of both memory and time. Adams. To specify stack based classes, one declares them using the keyword struct instead of class . To create C# structs (also known as value types) one uses the new keyword to create it as is done with classes. If the struct is instantiated with the default constructor syntax then a struct with its fields zeroed out is created. However, it is not possible to define a default constructor for a struct and override this behavior. The C# as operator is completely analogous to C++'s dynamic_cast construct.

The semantics of the as operator are that it attempts to perform an explict cast to a type and returns null if the operation was unsuccessful. NOTE: The as operator cannot be used to convert to or from value types. Properties are a way to abstract away from Empowerment Essay, directly accessing the members of definition a class, similar to how accessors (getters) and modifiers (setters) are used in the Java world. Employee. A property is accessed by users of a class as if it was a field or member variable but in in the States actuality is a method call. Accessing a member via a property allows for side effects when setting values or calculations when generating values while being transparent to the user of the class. Properties thus provide an explicit way to decouple the Empowerment Essay implementation of the member access from how it is actually used. It is possible to create, read-only, write-only or read-write properties depending on if the getter and setter are implemented or not. In addition, it is abigail adams, possible to Employee Empowerment Essay, create a property whose getter and setter have different visibility (e.g. a public getter but a private setter).

The example below shows different kinds of properties. The use of properties as an abstraction away from whether a member access is a method call or not may fall apart if the property throws an exception. When this occurs users of the abigail adams definition object must then treat operations that look like member accesses as if they were method calls which can lead to unintuitive looking code. The example below shows code that sets the values for the fields of a Clock class that where the setters throw an exception if the value is invalid. To avoid situations like the one in Employee the above example it is best that one avoids throwing exceptions in on Consumerism vs Happiness properties and handle the exceptions that are thrown by methods used in the property. Employee Empowerment Essay. If throwing an exception is Essay on Consumerism, avoidable in some situations then the documentation for the property must adequately describe the exceptions that can be thrown and Employee Essay, the circumstances that lead to them being thrown. C# makes the distinction between multidimensional and jagged arrays. A multidimensional array is akin to a multidimensional array in photography C or C++ that is a contiguous block containing members of the same type. A jagged array is akin to Employee Essay, an array in of John Java which is an array of arrays, meaning that it contains references to other arrays which may contain members of the Essay same type or other arrays depending on how many levels the array has.

The code snippets below highlight the differences between multidimensional and jagged arrays. The lack of true multidimensional arrays in Java has made it problematic to use Java in certain aspects of technical computing which has lead to various efforts to improve this position including research efforts by IBM which involved writing their own Array class to get around the shortcomings in Java arrays. The following code snippet emphasizes the in the States differences between using multidimensional arrays and jagged arrays in C#. An indexer is a special syntax for overloading the [] operator for Employee Empowerment a class. An indexer is useful when a class is a container for another kind of object. Indexers are flexible in Gospel that they support any type, such as integers or strings, as indexes. It is also possible to create indexers that allow multidimensional array syntax where one can mix and match different types as indexes. Employee Empowerment Essay. Finally, indexers can be overloaded.

C# includes a preprocessor that has a limited subset of the functionality of the photography C/C++ preprocessor. Empowerment Essay. The C# preprocessor lacks the ability to #include files or perform textual substitutions using #define . The primary functionality that remains is the social cognitive theories of personality ability to #define and #undef identifiers and also the ability to select which sections of code to compile based on the validity of certain expressions via #if , #elif , and Employee, #else . The #error and #warning directives cause the errors or warnings messages following these directives to be printed on compilation. The #pragma directive is photography analysis, used to Employee Empowerment, supress compiler warning messages. Gospel Essay. Finally, there is the #line directive that can be used to specify the source file and line number reported when the compiler detects errors. The using keyword can be used to alias the fully qualified name for a type similar to the way typedef is used in C and C++. Empowerment Essay. This is social cognitive of personality, useful in creating readable code where the fully qualified name of Empowerment a class is needed to resolve namespace conflicts. The Reflection.Emit namespace contains classes that can be used to generate .NET instruction language (IL) and use it to build classes in memory at runtime or even write portable executable (PE) files to disk. Social. This is analagous to Empowerment Essay, a Java library that would allow one to create Java classes at runtime by generating Java byte codes which could then be written to disks or loaded and used within the program.

It is expected that the primary users of the Essay vs Happiness in America Reflection.Emit namespace will be authors of compilers and script engines. For instance, the Employee regular expression classes in System.Text.RegularExpressions use the Reflection.Emit library to generate a custom matching engine for photography analysis each regular expression compiled. Although core C# is like Java in that there is no access to Employee Empowerment, a pointer type that is analogous to pointer types in C and C++, it is possible to skinhead gangs, have pointer types if the C# code is executing in an unsafe context. When C# code is Empowerment, executing in social of personality an unsafe context, a lot of runtime checking is disabled which means that the Employee Empowerment program must have full trust on the machine it is running on. Certain situations call for the use of unsafe code such as when interfacing with the underlying operating system, during interactions with COM objects that take structures that contain pointers, when accessing a memory-mapped device or in situations where performance is critical. The syntax and semantics for writing unsafe code is similar to the syntax and semantics for using pointers in C and C++. To write unsafe code, the unsafe keyword must be used to specify the code block as unsafe and the program must be compiled with the skinhead gangs /unsafe compiler switch.

Since garbage collection may relocate managed (i.e. safe) variables during the execution of a program, the Essay fixed keyword is provided so that the address of a managed variable is Gospel of John Essay, pinned during the execution of the parts of the program within the fixed block. Empowerment Essay. Without the fixed keyword there would be little purpose in being able to Essay, assign a pointer to the address of a managed variable since the runtime may move the variable from Employee Empowerment, that address as part of the mark compact garbage collection process. In Java the arguments to Essay on Consumerism, a method are passed by value meaning that a method operates on copies of the items passed to it instead of on the actual items. In C#, as in C++ and in Employee Essay a sense C, it is possible to specify that the arguments to a method actually be references to the items being passed to the method instead of copies. This feature is particularly useful when one wants to create a method that returns more than one object. Photography. In Java trying to return multiple values from a method is not supported and Employee Empowerment Essay, leads to interesting anomalies like the fact that a method that swaps two numbers which has been the The Death in the hallmark of freshman computer science classes for years is impossible to do in Java without resorting to Employee, coding tricks.

The C# keywords used to specify that a parameter is being passed by social cognitive of personality, reference are ref and Employee Empowerment, out . The difference between the analysis keywords is that parameters passed using ref must be initialized to some value while those passed using out do not have to be. A more detailed explanation of Java's lack of Pass By Reference semantics is available in the Javaworld article, Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? by Tony Sintes. C# provides the ability to avoid the usage of escape sequences within string constants and instead declare strings literally. Thus backslashes, tabs, quotes and Employee Empowerment, newlines can be part of a string without using escape sequences.

The only caveat is that double quotes that appear within verbatim strings should be doubled. Verbatim strings are specified by skinhead gangs, prepending the @ symbol to string declarations. C# provides the option to explicitly detect or ignore overflow conditions in expressions and Employee Empowerment, type conversions. Overflow conditions detected in code throw a System.OverFlowException . Since overflow detection causes a performance hit it can be explicitly enabled by photography analysis, using the /checked+ compiler option. One can also mandate code that must always be checked for overflow conditions by placing it in a checked block or that must always be ignored with regards to overflow detection by placing it in an unchecked block.

Sometimes when a class implements an interface it is possible for there to be namespace collisions with regards to method names. For instance, a FileRepresentation class which has a graphical user interface may implement an IWindow and Employee Empowerment, an IFileHandler interface. Both of these classes may have a Close method where in the case of IWindow it means to close the cognitive theories of personality GUI window while in Employee Essay the case of IFileHandler it means to Penalty in the States, close the file. In Java, there is no solution to this problem besides writing one Close method that does the Essay same thing when invoked via an IWindow handle or an IFileHandler handle. C# gets around this problem by cognitive, allowing one to bind method implementations to specific intefaces. Thus in the aformentioned example, the FileRepresentation class would have different Close methods that would be invoked depending on whether the class was being treated as an Employee Empowerment, IWindow or an IFileHandler. NOTE: Explicit interface methods are private and skinhead gangs, can only be accessed if the object is cast to the required type before invoking the method. The friend assembly feature allows an internal type or internal member of an assembly to be accessed from another assembly.

To give one assembly access to another assembly's internal types and members, the [InternalsVisibleToAttribute] attribute is used. The following code sample shows 2 source files which are compiled into friend_assembly_test.dll and friend_assembly_test_2.exe which utilize the friend's assembly feature. The larger a project gets, the more likely it is that namespace collisions will occur. C# has the :: operator which is used for specifying at what scope a namespace should be resolved. The left operand indicates the scope at Essay, which to resolve the name while the right operand is the name to resolve. Adams Definition. The left operand can either be the keyword global which refers to the global scope or a namespace alias as shown below. NOTE: The extern alias statement can be used to attach an alias to an assembly which can then be used as the left operand of the :: operator. When this is done the scope used for name resolution is the top level namespace(s) within the assembly. Employee Empowerment. For a data structure to support being a target of the foreach loop it must implement or return an Essay vs Happiness, instance of System.Collections.IEnumerable . However writing an Enumerator can be somewhat cumbersome which is where the yield keyword comes in. The yield keyword enables one to convert any method or property into an iterator. In an iterator, one simply traverses the data structure and returns its contents one by one using the Empowerment yield return statement and indicates the end of the sequence of values with the yield break statement.

The method or property must return one of IEnumerable, IEnumerableT, IEnumerator or IEnumeratorT. A partial class is specified by prefixing the keyword partial to the class declaration. The following code sample shows a partial class that is defined across two source files. Note how methods and skinhead gangs, properties from one source file can reference members defined in another. It should be noted that all of the class attributes are merged across all definitions of Employee a class. This means that contradictory attributes (e.g. class declared as private in Gospel of John one file and public in another) are disallowed.

A static class is a class that has no instance members, no instance constructors and cannot be used as a base class. A static class should be used to define types for which instances don't make sense such as the System.Environment and System.Math classes. A static class is specified by prefixing the class declaration with the keyword static . A nullable types is an Employee Essay, instance of the System.Nullable type. A nullable type can represent the skinhead gangs normal range of values for an underlying value type as well as the null value. For example, the type Nullablebool can represent the values true , false and null . A nullable type can be declared by appending the operator '?' to the name of a value type when declaring the variable. This means that bool? is equivalent to Nullablebool . Each nullable type has a boolean HasValue property which indicates whether it represents a valid value type or the value null . Empowerment. The actual value of the cognitive nullable type is stored in its Value property.

There is also the GetValueOrDefault() method which either returns the value of the nullable type or the default value of the underlying value type if it is null . Nullable types are particularly useful when mapping C# objects to relational database schemas since null is Essay, a valid value for all data types in SQL databases. The ?? operator is called the null coalescing operator and is used for testing the photography analysis value of a nullable type and returning its value or an alternate if its value is null. Thus x ?? y is equivalent to x == (null ? y : x) . Anonymous methods are a companion feature to delegates. An anonymous method is a code block that can be used where a delegate method is expected. This simplifies code that uses delegates by not requiring a separate method to implement the delegate's functionality. The following code sample compares the anonymous method approach to using a named delegate. There are a number of restrictions to anonymous methods that must be kept in mind. For one, jump statements like break , goto and continue cannot be used o jump into an anonymous method from outside the code block or vice versa. Also anonymous methods cannot refer to Empowerment Essay, ref or out parameters that are defined outside the scope of the method. Social Theories. Before the advent of exceptions, most error handling was done via return codes.

There are many advantages of exceptions over return codes that are typically touted including the fact that exceptions. provide a consistent means to handle errors and other exceptional conditions. enable an Essay, error to propagate up the call stack if not handled in abigail adams definition the current context. allow developers to seperate error handling code from general application logic. Java creates an additional wrinkle by possessing both checked and Employee Empowerment Essay, unchecked exceptions. Checked exceptions are exceptions that the skinhead gangs calling method must handle either by catching the exception or declaring that the exception should be handled by its calling method via the throws clause. On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also called runtime exceptions) do not have to be caught or declared in the throws clause. In a sense unchecked exceptions are similar to return codes in that they can be ignored without warnings or errors being issued by the compiler. Although if an exception is ignored at runtime, your program will terminate. Checked exceptions are typically used to indicate to Employee, a calling method that the callee failed in its task as well as pass information as to how and why it failed. One must either catch a checked exception or declare it in the throws clause of the method or the Java compiler will issue an error. Skinhead Gangs. The reasoning behind the fact that the exception must be declared in the throws clause is that handling whatever errors that can occur when the method is Employee Empowerment, used is just as important as knowing what parameters it accepts and the kind of on Consumerism vs Happiness type it returns. Unchecked exceptions are typically exceptions that can occur in most parts of the program and thus the overhead of explicitly checking for them outweighs their usefulness due to the massive code bloat that would ensue.

Examples of Employee Empowerment Essay situations that throw unchecked exceptions are accessing a null object reference, trying to access an out of bounds index of an array or a division by zero. In all of the aforementioned cases it would be cumbersome to put try. catch blocks around every the code (for instance a try. catch block around every object access or every array access) and they are better off as unchecked exceptions. In C#, all exceptions are unchecked and there is no analog to the throws clause. One major side effect of this is that unless the on Consumerism vs Happiness in America creator of the API explicitly documents the exceptions thrown then it is not possible for the users of the API to know what exceptions to catch in Empowerment their code leading to unrobust applications that can fail unexpectedly. Thus users of C# are reliant on the documentation skill of programmers as their primary error handling mechanism which is a less than optimal situation. For instance in the following code snippet, the social theories only way to know what exceptions can be thrown by the method below is to either have the source code for all the Employee Essay methods called within it or if the developer of the method documents all the exceptions thrown by all the methods called within it (meaning that the developers of those methods must have done the same ad infinitum). The above code snippet is from the .NET Framework Beta 2 documentation for the Socket class.

Note how there no exceptions caught in the code. If this was a method in a real application as opposed to a sample, it would be impossible for the users of this method to know what exceptions to catch without access to photography, the source code or without the author of the method painstakingly checking what exceptions are thrown by every single method called and then documenting them. Below is the list of exceptions that could be thrown within the method according to their entries in the Microsoft .NET framework Beta 2 documentation. If the Empowerment author of the method does not have time to abigail definition, document the exceptions that may be thrown from this method or happens to leave out an important one, such as the SocketException in this case, then the Employee users of the method could have their applications fail unexpectedly without an elegant means of recovery in place. In the above case, the main exception of interest to users would probably be the SocketException since the skinhead gangs others are all related to Empowerment Essay, the internal workings of the method and don't really have anything to do with the caller and in fact would probably be unchecked exceptions if they existed in Java. In practice the GetMessageFromServer method would check the validity of its string parameter and throw ArgumentNException or one of its subclasses depending the results of the check. The rationale for excluding checked exceptions from C# has never been fully explained by Microsoft but this message from Eric Gunnerson of the Essay vs Happiness C# team sheds some light on the reasoning behind this decision. Empowerment. The primary reason for Essay on Consumerism this choice according to Gunnerson is Employee, that examination of small programs led to the conclusion that using checked exceptions could both enhance developer productivity and cognitive theories of personality, enhance code quality. On the other hand experience with large software projects suggested that using checked exceptions decreased productivity with little or no increase in code quality. The lack of checked exceptions in C# will be very unsettling for Java developers and may lead to program designs which are flawed.

One only has to remember the anecdote about how originally a considerable amount of the exceptions in the Java API were unchecked but upon changing them to Employee Empowerment Essay, checked exceptions a number of abigail definition bugs and design flaws were found in the API. Hopefully this will be remedied in later versions of Empowerment C# or a third party could develop a static source code analysis tool such as lint. Gospel. Meanwhile C# developers must take care to document all exceptions thrown from their methods that callers should be aware of as a matter of Empowerment Essay consideration. Skinhead Gangs. This is not to say that documentation should not typically exist but since it is the only means to Empowerment, ensure exception safe C# code then its importance is now a much greater. A major selling point of Java#8482; technologies is that applications written in Java are portable across a number of social cognitive theories of personality operating systems and platforms. Sun officially supports Linux, Windows and Solaris but other vendors have implemented Java on a large range of Empowerment Essay platforms including OS/2, AIX and MacOS. Photography. Binary compatibility across platforms using similar Java versions is the norm except for situations involving bugs in various VM implementations.

At the Empowerment time of this writing C# is only available on Windows. Efforts are currently in place to port it to other platforms, including Linux and vs Happiness in America, FreeBSD. Linux porting is being done as part of the Mono project developed by Ximian while the FreeBSD implementation is a Microsoft project codenamed rotor. The Java extension mechanism enables developers to extend the abilities of the core Java platform. Developers can create classes and packages which are treated by the Java runtime as if they are core Java classes and packages like java.lang, java.util,, etc. This means that extensions do not have to be placed on the class path since they are treated as if they are part of the core libraries such as those in the Java runtime library, rt.jar . Extensions are contained within JAR files and once installed are available to all applications running on the target platform. A C# parallel would be the ability to create assemblies that are treated as if they are part of the System namespace contained in the System.dll assembly. In the above example the value printed by calling halfOfSquareFP() will be Infinity regardless of what JVM the application is Empowerment, run on. This is because Java enforces left-to-right evaluation of arguments and 6.6e+307 multiplied by 4.0 exceeds the maximum value for a double thus leading to social cognitive, all subsequent operations yielding Infinity.

On the other hand the value printed on calling halfOfSquareNFP() may not be the same on different JVMs depending on whether the target platform and JVM implementation support storing intermediate values in Employee Empowerment Essay an extended format that has a larger range than that of doubles. Thus on some platforms the value 1.32E308 is printed as the Essay vs Happiness value returned by halfOfSquareNFP() while on Empowerment, others Infinity is printed. Section 4.1.5 of the C# specification covers floating point numbers and states that due to the excessive performance costs of enforcing that certain architectures perform operations with less precision than is social, possible, there is no way to enforce FP-strictness in C#. The ability to dynamically load classes at runtime in Java is Employee Empowerment Essay, a very powerful feature especially when combined with a remote procedure call mechanism. Dynamic class loading enables Java applications to download the class files (i.e. byte codes) of classes that do not exist on the target machine.

An object type that only exists on one machine can be transferred to other machines in a seamless and transparent manner. Thus new types can be introduced on a remote machine which allows the behavior of remote applications to be significantly extended at runtime. The following example shows an example of a remote application that accepts types that implement a certain interface, IStockTicker. Analysis. The obtainName() remote method in the above class accepts types that implement the IStockTicker interface. Empowerment. It is possible for this method to be invoked from a remote client which then passes a type that implements IStockTicker, for example NASDAQStock, that does not exist on social cognitive of personality, the server where the MyRMIServer class lives. In this case the Essay entire code needed for NASDAQStock class is Essay, transmitted from the client to the remote server automatically. C# and the .NET Remoting mechanism also enable remotely downloading classes from one machine to the other but the client has to publish the assembly and the server can then load it via a URL. For information on Java Remote Method Invokation (RMI) read the Employee Essay Java tutorial on RMI.

Information on .NET Remoting with C# is explained in this introduction to .NET remoting and this technical overview on MSDN. In Java it is possible for constants to be declared in adams interfaces which are then available to implementing classes while in Employee Empowerment Essay C# this is not allowed. This may not be a big issue in C# since the primary usage of constants declared in interfaces is as a poor emulation of enumerations. An anonymous inner class is a class declaration that occurs at the same point where an instance of that class is created. Anonymous inner classes are typically used where only one instance of a type will exist in the application. The most popular usage of anonymous inner classes is for specifying callbacks especially in the Java GUI libraries but there are other situations where anonymous inner classes are beneficial as well. Below is an example of using anonymous inner classes to implement the State Design Pattern. The static import feature makes it possible to access static members of a class without having specify the on Consumerism vs Happiness in America class name. This feature is Employee Empowerment, intended to reduce the adams definition verbosity of code that frequently access the Employee static members of a particular class (e.g. constants defined in a particular helper class). A static import similar to a regular import statement except that the keyword static is used and instead of importing a package, a specific class is imported.

Most developers, especially those with a background in C or C++, would probably agree that features like operator overloading, pointers, preprocessor directives, delegates and Gospel Essay, deterministic object cleanup make C# more expressive than Java in a number of cases. Similarly, Java developers who learn C# will be pleasantly surprised at features that are missing in Employee Empowerment Java that will seem glaring in their absence once one uses them in C#, such as boxing, enumerations and pass by reference. On the other hand the lack of checked exceptions, inner classes, cross platform portability or the fact that a class is not the smallest unit of distribution of code makes the choice of C# over Java not a clearcut case of choosing more language features without having to Penalty in the United States Essay, make any compromises. It is my opinion that both languages are similar enough that they could be made to mirror each other without significant effort if so required by either user base. In this case, C# would have it easier than Java in that C# has less to borrow from Java than Java would have to borrow from C#. Empowerment Essay. However, the true worth of a programming language that is intended for use outside of academia is theories of personality, how quickly the language evolves to adapt to Employee Empowerment Essay, the changing technological landscape and what kind of community surrounds the language. Some programming languages are akin to the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française in France.

Les immortels are charged with dictating what constitutes the official French language but they have been slow to adapt to the information age thus their edicts on what constitutes the proper French versions of Penalty United States new words, especially those related to technology, are usually ignored especially since they either conflict with what the general French public would rather call them and show up long after the unsanctioned words have already entered the lexicon. C++ is an example of a language that has undergone a process of balkanization closely resembling the French language under the Empowerment Essay Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française while Java under Sun Microsystems can be considered to be a language that has evolved with the The Death United States times similar to how the English language has done. Thus the Employee Empowerment Essay question really becomes, which of these languages looks like it will evolve with the times and be easiest to adapt to new situations as they arise? So far, Sun has done a great job with Java although a lack of versioning support and skinhead gangs, the non-existence of a framework that enables extensibility of the language built into the platform makes drastic evolution difficult. C# with its support for versioning via the .NET framework and the existence of attributes which can be used to extend the features of the language looks like it would in the long run be the more adaptable language. Only time will tell however if this prediction is accurate. As predicted in Empowerment Essay the original conclusion to this paper, a number of features have become common across both C# and Java since 2001. These features include generics, foreach loops, enumerations, boxing, variable length parameter lists and metadata annotations. However after years of convergence it seems that C# and Java are about to go in radically different directions. The current plans for C# 3.0 are highlighted in the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Project which encompasses integrating a number of data oriented features including query, set operations, transformations and type inferencing directly into the C# language. In combination with some of C#'s existing features like anonymous methods and The Death Penalty United, nullable types, the Employee differences between C# and Java will become more stark over the next few years in contrast to the feature convergence that has been happening over definition, the past few years.

Eckel, Bruce. Thinking In Java. Prentice Hall, 2000. The following people helped in reviewing and proofreading this article: Paul Johns, David Dagon, Dr. Yannis Smaragdakis , Dmitri Alperovitch, Dennis Lu and Sanjay Bhatia.

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Essay contest: What has changed your life? Essay contest winners write about how birth and death have affected them. Everyone has had an event that has changed his or her life. Mine was the birth of Empowerment Essay, my little brother, Matthew. My whole life changed with his birth, but sometimes change can be a good thing, even when it’s not expected. When my parents first told me that they were having a baby and I would have another brother, but this time I’d be an Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America older brother, I was full of Employee Empowerment Essay, emotions. Social Cognitive Of Personality. I was happy and sad at Essay, the same time.

My whole life was going to change and I wasn’t sure if I was ready. Back then, I did not know what a positive impact this event would have on my life. When Matthew was born (I picked out his name, by the way) I could not stop smiling. There, in vs Happiness the bed, was this little “creature” my parents called their son. Not until I picked him up did I feel the Employee Empowerment weight of definition, his life on my shoulders, and Empowerment, the weight of the effect I would have on analysis, him. Employee. I immediately felt I had more responsibility, and I was ready to adams definition do anything for my little brother. My whole family took care of him, even the cat, and life was somewhat peaceful during those first few weeks. When my mom went out for the first time in months, I fed him a bottle, and although he spit up most of it and Empowerment, only drank a few drops, it was just as satisfying for me as for Matthew. I was there when he rolled over for the first time, and I was there when he took his first steps.

I saw his first tooth come in, and cognitive theories, I will soon see his first tooth fall out. I helped feed him his first solid food, which he spit up as well, and Employee, I heard him say his first word, “momma.” Even when he started talking more and more, he called me “Donadan,” which was sufficient considering Jonathan is pretty hard to say. At least he was making an effort to talk to me. That was seven years ago, and Matthew and I are closer than ever. My older brother is a senior in high school and getting ready for college, so he does not get to Gospel of John Essay spend much time with us. Empowerment. My parents are constantly busy and when they’re not, they’re sleeping or doing something relaxing. And something relaxing in my house is Gospel Essay anything that doesn’t involve Matthew. So that leaves me to spend time with my brother, which, although it is often difficult and tiring, is quite gratifying. He may cheat in Empowerment checkers, but he is only doing that to Gospel of John Essay win and Employee Empowerment Essay, get respect from cognitive, his big brother.

When he gets all 4s in Employee Empowerment Essay first grade and says he is doing second-grade spelling words, I am just as happy as my parents. I baby-sit him constantly and we have fun, even though he is pretty much in charge. It’s a wonderful feeling knowing that my little brother idolizes me. On Consumerism Vs Happiness. I don’t know any other 7-year-old today who likes Cat Stevens, Marvin Gaye, James Taylor and Stevie Wonder more than the Wiggles. Employee. He knows all the words to dozens of photography analysis, Ray Charles songs, and he even has his own blues-y voice. But more than just my music rubs off on Matthew. When I got an Employee electric piano for Hanukkah, so did he.

I haven’t had the time to abigail adams definition schedule lessons, but Matthew is learning to play every week. Of course we still play our “Heart and Soul” duet whenever we can. Like me, he would rather watch Scrubs and Seinfeld on TV than SpongeBob, although I’m pretty sure he doesn’t understand them at the same level that I do. I can’t help but smile when I walk Matthew to Empowerment Essay school or help him with his computer games. Social Theories. He drives my family crazy, maybe me more than everyone else, but I still love him. I teach him things every day and he teaches me things too, most of them about myself. I’ve grown as a person since my brother was born, not just in age, but in Empowerment responsibility and morality. United States. He comes before everything else in my life and rightly so.

He’s probably caused multiple viruses on our computer, but I’m so proud that he knows how to use the computer (better than my parents). Every site I visit on the Internet he bookmarks in his folder. Although Matthew can still relate to kids his age, he is probably more mature than most of them just for having spent so much time with me. Empowerment Essay. Although I am in abigail adams definition intense classes and busy in my sophomore year, I sometimes feel like a little kid again as I unleash my inner child when I’m with Matthew. Employee Empowerment Essay. Everything we do rubs off on abigail adams, each other. I didn’t really want a brother at first, but now I wouldn’t have it any other way. Natalie Reed , 13, Wilson MS (Glendale) A lot of things have changed and affected my life.

The most life-changing experience was the Employee Essay death of my mother. When I was young, around 5 years old, my sister Alisha died. Alisha was only 11 years old when she died and I don’t remember much about her, but I’ve been told that she had a cold which got into her lungs and suffocated her. Right now, Alisha would probably be starting college. My mom was so depressed about Alisha’s death that she committed suicide. I don’t remember a lot about my mom, just the cognitive theories way she looked, how she stood in Essay front of the mirror putting on makeup, the Rice-A-Roni dinners and the smell of bacon and The Death Penalty in the United Essay, coffee in the morning. I remember once, while we were in Employee Empowerment line to get food from photography analysis, El Pollo Loco, she was eating MM’s and her tooth fell out.

She just looked at Employee Essay, it for a second and stuck the tooth back in her mouth! I thought she was crazy! It was so funny, but gross at cognitive, the same time. Some people tell me that when you commit suicide, you go to hell. I don’t know if I don’t believe it, or just don’t want to believe it. I miss my mom a lot, and try to picture how my life would have, or could have been, if she were still alive. I sometimes wonder if she was even thinking about me when she killed herself. Did she not care? Did she think that it would be best for me? The worst part of all is the fact that I was still in the house when she slit her wrist, and sometimes I get so angry at her for that. I was only 7 years old and clearly she wasn’t thinking about me or my future.

When I get married, she won’t be there for my wedding. My kids will never have a grandmother from my side of the family. I will never have a mom to go shopping for bras with, and I will never have a normal life. I will always be haunted by the memory of what she did. Whenever someone describes slitting their wrist or anything about veins and Empowerment Essay, arteries or anything that has to do with the details of on Consumerism vs Happiness, it all, I get squirmy and chills go down my spine, and sometimes there is Empowerment Essay a tingle in my wrist. It irritates me until I calm down or forget about it, and photography analysis, I fear that the Empowerment Essay feeling will never go away.

I don’t understand; I can watch bloody shows where people are being cut open and blood is photography analysis everywhere, like House and Animal Cops, but I can’t stand people talking about veins. It gets spooky, and Employee Empowerment, I wish that she would have thought twice before she did anything. Analysis. My life will never be the same, and I will never have a mother. Michelle Stevenson , 16, John R. Essay. Wooden HS (Reseda) I know exactly what can change a person’s life in an instant. What, you may ask? When I was 12 years old, my father was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Gospel. At this age I wasn’t very aware of what cancer was or what it could do to a person. I remember my dad couldn’t eat certain foods and he always had pain in his stomach. Essay. I remember my father would always help me with my schoolwork and The Death Essay, was my best friend. He taught me everything, from how to use a computer to how to fish.

He was the Employee Essay best blessing God gave me. No one could ask for a better father. He always went out with my sisters and me to go salsa dancing. As a family we would have the best times in the world. When he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, my two sisters and skinhead gangs, I formed a salsa group called Triple Threat. That year we performed in the fourth annual Salsa Congress. Unfortunately, during the month of April my father failed his chemotherapy and was admitted to the hospital. I remember going to Employee Empowerment Essay the hospital every day after school. He was so weak. On May 17, 2003, God decided to take my father to heaven. Skinhead Gangs. I was too young to understand what had happened.

Of course I was devastated, crying every day. My mother forced me to go to Essay school the next day. She said my father had always wanted me to do well in school. At that age it didn’t hit me as much as it does today. I miss him so much. I always wonder what it would have been like to have him here with me during my teen years.

There’s not one day when I don’t think about him. I still cry at times. It’s so hard to lose a person that close. I was the photography analysis most tomboyish of my three sisters, so that’s most of the reason I was closest to my father. Employee Essay. Nothing can take away that pain. The other day my mother and I were talking. She, a widow at 42 years old, said she would try hiding her feelings and Gospel of John, grieving from me because she didn’t want to Employee Essay show me her pain. Social Cognitive. She said she would cry every day after dropping me off at school. She would try her hardest not to cry in front of me and Employee Empowerment Essay, it showed me how strong she is. Essay Vs Happiness. Then when we were talking it hit me I don’t have a father. After three and a half years, that just hit me.

I will never have my dad to walk me down the aisle. I will never have that father figure, and I lost my best friend who really understood me when I was growing up. Employee Essay. It hurts me so. Although I may not have all those things, I try every day to realize how beautiful life is. Ever since his death, my family has gotten closer. We realize that we have each other, and that’s what matters most.

We have learned that family comes first before anything. In that way it helped. I have also been really independent. Skinhead Gangs. I work, I do well in school, I pay for my own phone bill and soon will be able to afford my own car, and I dance. I also try every day to appreciate that I have a beautiful family and a loving boyfriend. Employee Empowerment. So in my opinion a death, no matter who it is, can change lives. Abigail. My father was my hero. I thank God every day that he was in my life. Cyndhl Imaysay , Paramount HS. We do not get a chance to choose our family, we just end up with whomever God has chosen for us. When I was young, everything seemed to be OK.

But as I got older, I began to Employee Empowerment notice that my father was getting more and more verbally abusive. Not just to my brother and me, but to my mom as well. When I first noticed the verbal abuse, I thought that maybe someone had done something or said something to make my dad upset. My dad would yell at us and call us names, and then he would calm down and analysis, act as if nothing had happened. But as the Employee Empowerment Essay years went on, he started yelling and screaming obscenities at the drop of Penalty United, a hat. We were very careful about Empowerment, what we said and did around him, afraid that we might tip him off. I felt as if I was always stepping on eggshells.

I eventually got tired of the yelling and name-calling and started to talk back to my dad. I was raised not to talk back to my elders, but when you’ve had enough, you’ve just had enough. One afternoon I was watching the Essay on Consumerism vs Happiness in America Oprah Winfrey Show and they were doing an Employee Essay episode on domestic violence. I paid close attention to what they were talking about. Ninety percent of what they said described how my dad was acting. Gospel Of John. I knew that my dad was verbally abusive, but I didn’t know that his actions fell under the category of domestic violence. I used to Employee Essay be a very fun-loving child. I had a lot of friends and made new friends quickly.

My friends would hang out at my house and I would hang out at their houses. On Consumerism Vs Happiness. As soon as my dad started to act the way he did, I was embarrassed to invite any of Employee Empowerment, my friends over because I was afraid that he would yell for no reason. I was a normal child, but as the abigail definition abuse went on I noticed that my attitude started to Employee Empowerment Essay change and I was always fatigued and in the United States Essay, hungry. I eventually went to see my doctor about my symptoms and Empowerment Essay, he told me that I had borderline depression. He said that it wasn’t bad enough for social cognitive theories medications, but he scheduled sessions with a social worker for me. I would go into the sessions calm and collected, but as soon as the Essay social worker asked me how I was doing, I would cry. Penalty United States Essay. I had so much pent-up anger toward my father that I couldn’t say anything. Essay. All I could do was cry. My mom, brother and of John Essay, I left my dad back in June. Empowerment Essay. We are now living with my grandmother and my two older siblings. We’re not totally healed from the domestic violence, but life is so much better now.

Everything seems to be getting back to normal. I keep telling myself to live one day at a time and not focus on what has already changed, but for the changes yet to come. Yajaira Hernandez , Wilson MS. It wasn’t even worth it, the delicious food I missed out on. Pasta, meat, pizza and even ice cream. All because I wanted to be perfect. I saw models on abigail definition, TV who had perfect bodies. Some models looked as skinny as a stick and healthy. I wanted to be like them, with the perfect waist and Empowerment, body.

So I started to starve myself. I wasn’t fat, but not perfect. I ate a little at abigail adams definition, breakfast (sometimes not at all), rarely at lunch and a little at Employee Empowerment, dinner. I drank water and orange juice all the time. I became very impatient when I saw that not eating wasn’t helping me become thinner.

So I went to photography the bathroom and Employee Essay, threw up. I was desperate. Every time I finished eating, my stomach ached. I felt it full so I emptied it in the bathroom. By sixth grade I weighed 70 pounds. I was pretty skinny, but not satisfied. Cognitive. It came to a point where I was vomiting, not on purpose, and headaches were killing me. My stomach hurt and I could barely move myself around. My friends were worried about me. Employee Essay. They were worried I would end up in photography a hospital.

They forced me to eat many times. I ignored them and told them to leave me alone. My parents were too busy to see that I had a problem because we were going through a money crisis. But there was one person who noticed my eating disorder. My babysitter took me to the doctor one time. Empowerment Essay. I was there to get shots but she took the time to talk to skinhead gangs the doctor. Employee Empowerment. The doctor was concerned about definition, my weight. Empowerment Essay. She showed me pictures of girls who suffered from analysis, anorexia and bulimia. Employee. It was gross seeing how skinny they looked. She explained that this can cause stomach cancer and even lead to death. Because of throwing up, there’ll come a point when the body will not want any food.

The body does not get all the nutrients it needs and slows down; eventually, it stops working. Some of the pictures showed girls in bed with a tube stuck to them. Social Theories. The girls in the photos were so thin; you could see all their rib bones and backbones. She said you soon get thin hair and are always cold. I started to cry because I didn’t want to end up that way. I wanted to Employee live a long and healthy life. After that day, I changed the cognitive way I acted. I was a new girl. I was in treatment and followed guidelines that the doctor recommended. Today I look like a normal teenager.

I’m a happy girl who blends in Empowerment with the adams definition other girls. Empowerment. I’m still not fully recovered but I visit my doctor regularly. I still wish I had that perfect body that a model has. However, I am glad I changed my decision. Like most teenagers, I got a part-time job to Gospel earn some extra cash, but ended up learning a valuable lesson instead.

I started working at Employee Essay, a retail department store four months ago. My first day on the job was nerve-wracking because everything was hands-on training. After what felt like an incredibly long day of Gospel Essay, work, I realized that I had only Employee Empowerment Essay, worked for four hours at $6.75 an hour! I continued going to Gospel Essay work feeling cheated for all the back-breaking work I was assigned to Empowerment complete for minimum wage. Working in retail has changed my life for abigail definition the better. It has made me realize that I can’t do that for the rest of my life. I refuse to. I would much rather do something that involves me using my brain because when I stand there folding clothes, I feel brain dead. I want something better for myself and working there has helped me realize that. Since I’ve started working, my grades have improved dramatically.

Last semester, I am proud to Employee Empowerment Essay say I earned a 4.0 GPA. Essay On Consumerism. I have dedicated much of my time to applying for financial aid and scholarships. Employee. Knowing that I don’t want to abigail definition end up folding sweaters has motivated me to Employee Empowerment Essay focus more on the future. Penalty In The Essay. Before, I had no idea what I was doing. I didn’t know if I was even going to college. My horrible job was a real eye-opener for me. I want something better for myself. About a year and a half ago I got into a car crash that was horrible. Employee. That moment changed my view about Gospel of John Essay, life entirely. All my life I had been waiting until I could get my driver’s license and my first car. When I finally got my license and my dad brought the car to the house, I was thrilled.

From that day on, the most important thing in my life was that car. Every day I would get home and Employee Empowerment, see what else I could do to social theories make it better. My car was my pride and joy and Employee Empowerment Essay, when I had fixed it up into “perfect” condition, I finally began to drive it. Every time I got into my car I felt invincible, as if nothing could stop me. Cognitive. But one day I was shown that just like every other person, I could be broken. One night after finishing up my errands, I was in the car with my friends. Empowerment. I felt unstoppable while driving.

But soon enough I was shown that I wasn’t. While driving down a main street I felt the adams car start to skid and it kept skidding to the point where I lost control. At this point time wasn’t moving slow enough and when I realized what was happening, the only thing I could do was swerve the Employee Empowerment Essay car so the photography impact would be on my side, and so I did. After the Empowerment crash I don’t remember much, but I do remember the pain I was in, not only physical but also the thought that the lives of others were in my hands for a few seconds and I may have dropped them. One thing led to another and social cognitive theories of personality, I was in the emergency room getting stitched up. I didn’t sleep much that night but when I finally did wake up, I was in Essay a lot of pain. But I also began to see things in a different light. The memory of Gospel, that day will never leave me, but what I learned from that experience I’m glad for.

Not only did I learn that I need to have a lot more appreciation for Empowerment things, I also learned that material things should never be the most important things in your life. All that time that I spent working on abigail adams, the car could have been spent getting to Essay know my family better. I have also become a much humbler person who realizes that I can bleed just like everyone else, and I am grateful for that. Sometimes you need to cognitive theories of personality go through rough moments to Employee Empowerment come out with the best. Having a car was what I waited for all my life, but now just being alive is social theories a blessing for me. Every day of one’s life should be made the best because you don’t know how many you have left. Letter to an inanimate object.

When one of our teen staff writers told us that she heard someone reading a letter to an inanimate object on Employee Essay, National Public Radio, we thought that would make a great essay question. Social Cognitive. We all have objects that we have such strong feelings for Empowerment that they become almost like a person with his or her own personality. Adams. Here is your chance to tell them how you feel. Essay. Write a letter to an inanimate object to tell it what it means to in the you. It could be an object that makes you happy, like a favorite stuffed animal, or on Empowerment Essay, object that drives you crazy, like a locker that always jams. It could be an everyday object or something special that you cherish, like a necklace that a parent gave you.

Share how it has affected your life in a positive or negative way.