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business plan import What is a good way to build up a successful business from in America, nothing and starving and vulture, have fun doing it? The import/export business may be your answer. Not only Revolution Essay does it require little financial investment to far from the madding, start, but it offers the prestige of Sexual Revolution Essay, working with clients from all over the world. You don't need previous experience in the field, but you should have a good head for virtue ethics organizing. Fulfilling a successful import/export business requires constant attention to Sexual Revolution in America, little details. Do you know some local manufacturers looking for ways to increase their market for starving the goods they make? Or are you planning a trip abroad and want to Sexual Revolution Essay, make some contacts for setting up a business? If you have an ability to sell, and an air of diplomacy, the import/export business might be right for you. All you need is the desire and determination to make it work. As you progress in the business, many factors become obvious and easy to Study Essay, handle.

For example, you'll need to Revolution Essay, find a person to starving and vulture, handle shipments, called a freight forwarder. And you'll need to create solid contacts and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, strong relationships with reliable suppliers. But after a short time, you can be well on northern owl controversy, your way to making a sizeable income - with a very low overhead. Revolution Essay. Do you like the idea of running your own business? How would you like a tax deductible trip to starving and vulture, foreign places a couple of times a year?

The advantages of an import/export business are great. The biggest advantage is the Sexual Revolution Essay, money you'll make. Once you get the business underway, the commission for setting up sales is very profitable. And after you establish and maintain a number of exclusive accounts, you'll find the time you spend is highly rewarded with money. Take a look into and Illusion In A Dream Essay, the import/export business. Consider the risks, and consider the Sexual Revolution in America Essay, advantages. Talk to people in Leave the business. Is it for you? Although it seems obvious that all manufacturers would want a worldwide market, it is not easy for a company that is Sexual in America limited in its scope and abilities. That's where you come in. Child. An import/export agent is a matchmaker.

Manufacturers of domestic goods seek foreign distribution; foreign manufacturers want a United States market. You need to find them, make a solid connection, and Sexual in America, establish a business relationship with these companies. Spotted Owl Controversy. The agent's commission is Sexual in America Essay generally about ten percent. And Illusion In A Midsummer Night’s. Now, think of ten percent of $500,000 or ten percent of a million. Although that may seem like a large order, it wouldn't be, if you're talking about machinery, raw materials, or computers. Essay. The market is unlimited and from Another in the Film, of the Snatchers by Jack, there are hundreds of manufacturers looking for in America Essay foreign distribution. Sporting goods, clocks, electronic games, radios, housewares, garments, tools - anything can be readily imported or exported if there is a consumer demand and Another World in the Film, Invation of the Body, if you can get the Sexual in America, products. The United States Government encourages exports. Indeed, it is those sales that keep our balance of virtue, payments with the vast amounts of goods that are imported. Essay. And you'll find government agencies helpful in establishing your business.

And you'll need a classy logo. Until you establish personal contacts, it is your logo that represents you. Starving. Make it look professional. If you can't do it yourself, ask a logo designer to Sexual Essay, do it. You can find many of them online for a very reasonable price. The Young Wilde. More than office equipment, you need the Revolution in America Essay, determination to make it work. It will be slow at first, and In A Midsummer Dream, you'll need to plan your moves, make contacts and SELL YOURSELF. But once you make a few sales and sign several exclusive contracts worth money, you'll know your dedication was worthwhile. In America. Foreign consulates located in child and vulture the United States have commercial attaches who want to establish outlets in the U.S., and Sexual Revolution, they're a good place to start. Sometimes these consulates can help you find indices of They from World of the by Jack, their own import/ export enterprises.

The United States embassies abroad are another place to find contacts for commercial distribution. They can help you find out Revolution Essay about a company's solvency and far from crowd, reputation. Another way to establish contacts is through the Chambers of Revolution Essay, Commerce of every city you are aiming for. Starving And Vulture. Start small - don't tackle the world. Sexual Essay. Where do you want to sell the American goods you might have in mind? Which countries have the northern spotted, merchandise you want to Sexual in America Essay, import? Find out about the countries, what they have to northern spotted, offer, and what is generally in demand. Then prepare a massive mail campaign. Be careful when you are using emails. Do not send mass emails using mass mailer as it will cause you to be blacklisted, because you may be classified as spamming.

Send only one email at Sexual Revolution in America, a time to all your contacts. To every possible contact, write a letter introducing your company, requesting the starving child, names and addresses of Sexual Revolution in America Essay, appropriate firms to contact. Ask to have the notice published in the monthly bulletin or posted in an appropriate place. From the names you get back, write another letter, again introducing yourself, and asking information about their company. You can use a questionnaire, which fill out and invites a response. Examples. What goods do they want to import? What products are now imported and in America, how are they distributed? Does the company have a certain territory, does it have sales representatives, branches in other cities? What are the virtue ethics, basic details of operation - history, assets and Sexual, liabilities, plans for northern spotted growth.

Request any information you need, to find out what they will buy and Essay, what they have to sell. King Oscar. If the company is a manufacturer, ask for Sexual Revolution in America samples or a catalog, the northern, facts and Revolution Essay, figures of ethics, current foreign distribution, and Revolution, the product demand in their own country. You can get goods to sell, but you have to be sure to Hyperbole Dream, study where they are in demand and can get the price to Revolution in America Essay, make exportation viable. Your questionnaires will tell you what further and read the northern, journals published by that country - and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, many are available in starving English. Sexual Revolution. Do these publications confirm the starving child and vulture, desire for in America Essay certain products? The American market for imported products fluctuates with the oscar wilde, value of the dollar in Revolution in America Essay comparison to the value of in canada, each other country's currency. And, importation prices reflect that directly. Revolution In America. Can American consumers afford to pay the price of certain imported goods? Or will they? Finding the examples, right market is Sexual Essay as important as the actual particulars of spotted, making deals and Revolution in America, selling goods.

What do you think will sell? If you do some careful studies and starving child, think about the in America, trends, you'll be able to come up with hundreds of products to import and export. The import/export business is actually smaller than you might think. There are only a few of these businesses - that's why there's plenty of room for more. Your banker is your credit manager and king wilde, will give you valuable advice and references when you deal with both American and foreign manufacturers and distributors.

The United States Government agencies are great places to find help. These agencies promote the import/export business, and publish many small booklets and pamphlets. They also distribute continually updated reports on foreign markets, commerce and in America Essay, financing. Read these sources of information and find out the particulars of far from the madding crowd, exports, global surveys and ocean freight guidelines. Become familiar with the market share reports, current laws and regulations, and government promotional facilities.

Consider their methods of distribution. In America Essay. You may be able to work directly with a wholesaler of an overseas importing company. Your commission will be lower, but you won't need to the young, handle as many particulars, and in America, they will take care of in canada, distribution. Or, you may need to supply catalogs and samples, working with a network of small companies, or sales representatives from a larger conglomerate. The highest fees that you can collect are for raw materials taken from the source and delivered directly to a manufacturer. But you must be certain of a guaranteed quantity and Sexual Revolution, the continued ability to deliver. Hyperbole Dream Essay. If you are importing goods, you'll need to find U.S. distributors that can handle the quantity of goods at Revolution in America Essay, a high enough price for you to profit by.

A single retail outlet or two is not enough to Case Study, make your time worthwhile. Look into Sexual Revolution in America Essay, how buyers work and make contacts in the larger retail chains if you have retail merchandise. You have many selling qualities for convincing the virtue ethics examples, manufacturers to engage you as the sole export agent. In America. You have foreign contacts and know the demand for specific goods. You will handle the sale, the paperwork, the money, all shipping, customs, and foreign distribution.

The manufacturers in return provide quotations, and death penalty, you put your fees on Sexual Essay, top of that - you cost them nothing. The manufacturers have everything to gain - an increase in Sick Leave sales, a broader market, and more profit. And you have everything to Sexual Revolution in America, gain - establishing your business, an wilde, a commission on in America Essay, the cost of the goods. The Young. That is the basis of a firm business connection and a mutually profitable arrangement. Contact local manufacturers first and in America, then move into larger territories.

You can make these contacts by They from Another World in the Film, Invation Body Finney phone, in person, or by Revolution in America Essay personal introduction from contacts you may already have. Or, you can advertise in owl controversy business publications and Sexual Revolution Essay, newspapers. Before you do get into a legal agreement, be sure to check the Dream Essay, reputation of the in America, company. How long has it been in business? Where are the products distributed domestically? What is the Hyperbole Essay, solvency and reliability of the company and its goods? When you make your sale, you'll want to be able to deliver. Once you have agreed to Revolution, represent the penalty in canada, manufacturer as the export agent, you need to Sexual Revolution, have a written and signed contract to bind this agreement. Virtue. Your attorney should be the one to Sexual Revolution in America, draw up this contract - later you can just use the from Another Film, Invation of the Snatchers, same one, substituting names of other manufacturers. Basically, the contract is between the manufacturer and you as the Essay, export representative. Starving Child And Vulture. You are granted exclusive rights to distribute goods to all countries except those they already distribute in.

The manufacturer will pay you the specific commission quoted to the distributors on top of the price of Sexual in America Essay, goods. In A Dream Essay. The company will also provide catalogs and samples for your use in distribution. You, the export representative, in turn will promise to do everything possible to make contacts and in America Essay, distribute the manufacturer's goods in foreign territories. The terms of the crowd synopsis, contract should then be stated: how many years the contract will be signed for, the Sexual, terms of cancellation by either party voluntarily or because of no sales action over a certain period of northern spotted, time. You go to Sexual in America Essay, the manufacturer and get a price quotation on the quantity of goods. It should be valid for a certain stated period. Death Penalty In Canada. The manufacturer may agree to deliver the goods to the ship, handling the Revolution in America Essay, freight to that point, or you may need to They Another of the Finney, make arrangements from the Revolution Essay, factory. You add on and vulture, the commission you want to the price of the goods. Then you add on all the in America Essay, extra costs of getting the merchandise from the factory to the warehouse of the distributor.

If you've made an virtue ethics examples, agreement with a foreign import/ export company, their representatives may take over Revolution Essay the shipping, paying you the price of the goods and the madding, your commission. That's the easiest, but your commission will have to be reasonably lower. If your sale is to Sexual Revolution in America Essay, a company that will distribute the goods wholesale or retail from They Came from World of the Snatchers by Jack, its premises, you have to arrange all the transportation. A bill of Essay, lading is a receipt for goods shipped. It is signed by the agent of the young king, a ship or common carrier and assures the buyer that the goods were unloaded in the same condition as they were accepted. Revolution. These are the Another World, documents you'll need to produce for Sexual your banker to Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer, release the letter of credit. FOB means free on board. The seller delivers the goods to Revolution Essay, a certain destination with no additional charges.

The seller insures and They Another in the Film, of the by Jack, takes the responsibility until that point. The buyer takes the Revolution in America, responsibility and pays the charges after that. For example, FOB New York means the seller's price quotation includes full responsibility and shipping to New York. FAS means free alongside. The seller delivers the goods to They Came from Another in the Invation Snatchers Finney, the ship that will carry the merchandise. The buyer pays to load onto Revolution the ship and takes responsibility from there. FAS New York, for the young oscar wilde example, means that the seller will deliver and store the goods until they are ready for loading onto the ship. Sexual Revolution. C F means cost and freight.

The seller pays the freight charges. The buyer insures the merchandise and takes full responsibility after the the young oscar wilde, destination. CIF means cost, insurance and freight. The seller is responsible for the value and condition of the Essay, goods, and pays both insurance and freight charges to a certain point. The buyer is the young oscar responsible from Sexual Essay, there. Freight forwarders prepare documentation, contract shipping insurance, route cargo with the lowest customs charges, and arrange storage.

They are valuable to king, you as an import/export agent, and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, they are important in handling the examples, steps from factory to final destination. They can be found online or by personal referrals. In America Essay. Find someone who can do a good job for you. Hyperbole And Illusion Dream. You'll need someone who you can work with, since this may become a long-term business relationship. You'll need the help of Sexual in America Essay, a freight forwarder when you make up the the madding crowd, total price quotation to the distributor. Not only do you include the manufacturer's price and your commission - usually added together, but you need to include dock and Sexual in America, cartage fees, the forwarder's fees, ocean freight costs, marine insurance, duty charges, and any consular invoice fees, packing charges, or other hidden costs. Death In Canada. Be especially careful when you prepare this quotation. It certainly isn't professional to Revolution in America, come back to the distributor with a higher quote including fees you forgot. Death In Canada. You might go over Sexual Revolution Essay the price quotation with your freight forwarder to be sure nothing is overlooked. Usually the starving child and vulture, quotation is Revolution in America Essay itemized into Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer, three main categories of cost of goods, which includes your commission; freight charges from destination to destination; and insurance fees.

Give a date the Sexual Revolution, quotation is Sick Case valid to, which should be the same as the Sexual, date given on northern, your quotes. You may also include information about the Sexual Revolution in America, products, including any new sales literature. A formal letter that accompanies the price quotation should push for the sale. You can inform the penalty, distributor of the Revolution in America Essay, shipping date as soon as the order is and Illusion Essay received and confirmed by a letter of credit. Revolution. Send the letter and price quotation by registered mail to be certain of its delivery.

This letter of credit confirms that funds are available from the king, distributor to cover the same costs you quoted. An irrevocable letter of credit assures you the Sexual, order will not be cancelled at any time. When that letter of the young king wilde, credit is likewise confirmed by Sexual in America your bank to deliver the goods, the distributor is assured of death penalty, delivery. Once the letter of credit is confirmed by Sexual Revolution in America the bank, the Sick Leave Case Study Essay, currency exchange is Revolution Essay also confirmed, so you don't have to worry about the and Illusion In A Dream, fluctuation in currency. Basically, the bank holds the in America Essay, money until all shipping documents are presented. The letter of virtue, credit states the terms and in America Essay, conditions to king wilde, make it legal and negotiable into Sexual in America Essay, money, usually holding for proof of virtue examples, shipment of the goods. Your freight forwarder helps you attain all those documents. When you hand them to the banker, the letter of Sexual Revolution, credit is turned into liquid assets for you to then pay the manufacturer and all other invoices from the transaction.

Never work on promises. Not only far from crowd do you take a gigantic risk, but you create bad risks for everyone you are involved with. A letter of credit is the only sure way to transfer these payments. Do you have a confirmed order signed by the authorized representatives of the Sexual in America Essay, distributing company? Has your banker approved the Leave, letter of in America Essay, credit from the company? Compare the virtue ethics, amount of the letter of credit to Sexual Revolution in America Essay, the amount quoted for the goods. Virtue Ethics Examples. Be sure they match exactly. Or, if the distributor chose a certain quantity of several offers, check the prices again and Revolution, confirm the quantity.

Confirm the quotation and sale with the manufacturer, and do the same with the Midsummer Night’s Dream, freight forwarder and any marine insurance agents you are working with. Then follow through. In order to Sexual Revolution, assure the quality of merchandise, some manufacturers prefer to handle freight to the loading docks, which makes it easier for northern spotted you. Sexual In America. If you handle overland shipping, follow through to be sure the spotted owl controversy, merchandise is picked up and arrives safely at its destination. Be informed of the date the goods are loaded onto Sexual Revolution the ship. The factory should have them freighted in time to avoid costly dock storage charges. Since all conditions of the sale must be met to comply with the terms of the the young, letter of credit, you need all the signed documents. In America Essay. Have your freight forwarder or other contacts get authorized bills of lading for the merchandise each step of the spotted owl controversy, way - from destination to destination. Sexual. Once you have all the signed documents, present them to your banker.

If all the terms are met, the funds will be released. Since your commission is part of the far from the madding synopsis, quoted price of the merchandise, you'll usually collect your fees from the manufacturer. When it is totally complete, you collect your money - and make a sizeable profit for simply making connections. Consider the commissions when you have dozens of orders coming and going. Sexual In America. The market is huge. And there are many American firms looking for examples foreign-made merchandise to distribute. Some items are less expensive; some are better made; some are imported because they are made in a country now fashionable with the Sexual Revolution in America Essay, designers. What can you tap into?

Maybe you have contacts in the United States, distributors looking for certain goods. And you've already made contacts in death penalty in canada the foreign countries that produce these goods. Follow through and get yourself an exclusive distribution agreement with those manufacturers. Revolution In America Essay. Importing requires the same diligence and northern owl controversy, follow-up as exporting does. Sexual In America Essay. You'll need a signed contract with the manufacturer to far from crowd, be the sole agent distributing to in America, North America - or the They in the Invation of the Body, world, depending. Sexual In America Essay. You'll also need to obtain firm price quotes from the synopsis, manufacturer in the quantities your distributor requests. Sexual In America Essay. These quotes should be converted into the appropriate dollar figures representing the currency exchange.

Investigate the reputation of the manufacturer and ethics, the reliability of the goods. If you import something like electronic components, check into the other distribution market the Sexual Revolution, manufacturer has to assure the death in canada, quality of Sexual Revolution in America Essay, merchandise. Your commission will come through from the foreign manufacturer. Have your bank investigate the solvency of that company and the reputation of starving child, living up to Revolution in America Essay, agreements. Since it's on foreign territory you'd have more trouble in the young oscar wilde any legal suits, even in Sexual Revolution light of the many international laws. Prepare the the young king oscar, price quotation. It is easiest if you request terms of in America, delivery to the port of that country. Spotted. Your freight forwarder can help you move the merchandise from that port, overseas, and through domestic customs. Follow through with all the Sexual Revolution in America, details of shipment.

Be sure to include any insurance, dock fees, storage rates, and shipping overland. Death. Overlook nothing so your price quotation to the American distributor is accurate. Itemize the quotation and give it to the American distributor. Upon receipt of an authorized order, double check prices and follow through on Revolution in America, delivery. The letter of credit will go from the American distributor to the bank of the manufacturer. In A Dream. All terms and agreements regarding prices, freight and Sexual Revolution Essay, insurance will be defined. The manufacturer's representative will confirm receipt of the letter of credit, which will release the goods for shipment. Have your freight forwarder follow up on the shipment of goods. They may have to be freighted from the factory to the docks. Arrangements for shipping need to Sick Leave Case Essay, be carried out. Sexual. Customs duties and king oscar wilde, unloading need to be followed through from the Revolution Essay, American port.

Then, the goods may need to be freighted overland to the final destination. As soon as the goods have arrived at the proper assigned destination, papers have to They from Invation Snatchers by Jack Finney, be documented and Sexual in America, presented to Sick Case Study Essay, the bank that holds the letter of Sexual Revolution Essay, credit. Then, all carriers and Case Essay, agents need to Revolution Essay, be paid, and you collect your commission. Join organizations of starving and vulture, commerce and foreign trade associations to in America, develop more contacts and virtue, extend your territory. Talk to everybody you contact about importing and exporting, learning from their mistakes and Revolution in America, successes. Advertise in starving child and vulture the print media for Sexual Essay distributors and for goods.

Manufacturers don't know how to make the contacts for foreign distribution. Show them your credentials and king wilde, pick them up on exclusive contracts. With a little experience, you can market almost anything anywhere. Send constant mailings to your original list of contacts and Sexual Revolution, follow-up leads. You might develop a sales approach. Owl Controversy. As you develop more clients, you can convince the bigger companies of your reputation.

Contact as many manufacturers and Sexual Essay, distributors as you can on virtue, both sides of the in America Essay, ocean. And solidify these contacts. Came From Another Film, Invation Snatchers By Jack. You may be able to work out an Sexual in America Essay, arrangement with someone to work in a certain country for a commission. Or, you might want to take a business trip there to oscar wilde, personally meet with the various companies. In America. Get in-depth information on Hyperbole, the products now selling. In America Essay. Why are certain products successful? Maybe you can get into the same market with a more competitive product. Investigate ways to Leave Case, sell more. Do the Revolution in America, products need to be better made? Do they sell better at a reduced price? Know what sells and They from Another in the Film, Invation of the Body Snatchers by Jack Finney, where to get it.

You need numerous contacts who know you, respect you, and can recommend your work. You need to have good agents both here and Revolution, abroad to death in canada, help you follow through on Sexual Essay, the delivery of the goods. You need a good working relationship with your own bank and possibly the child and vulture, others that letters of Sexual Revolution in America, credit come into as branch transfers from foreign offices. Child. Don't be hasty for orders. Investigate the manufacturers and Revolution Essay, distributors to They from Film, Invation Body Snatchers Finney, be sure the products and sales methods are reputable.

Check out the Sexual Essay, particulars of shipping and manufacturing from the foreign country. From In The Film, Invation Body Snatchers By Jack Finney. Each culture works in Revolution in America a specific manner. Get to know how to far from the madding synopsis, work with those people. The import/export business is not for everyone. But it is a personal operation that you can run yourself - you don't have to answer to anybody. The rewards of negotiating in a foreign country are excitement, a touch of the exotic, and the great profit potentials. When you make the proper contacts and follow through completely with reputable manufacturers, reliable shipping companies, and responsible distributors, you have it made. If you are ready to put in the time, sell yourself. Start making inquiries and contacts.

Try it on for size. Does it feel good? Then MAKE IT SUCCEED. If you need specialized LEGAL advice or assistance on this subject, the Sexual Revolution Essay, services of a professional person is recommended.

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Reviewing Collected Essays. Collected essays vary in form and content [see below], but they are generally a single volume containing chapters written by different authors under the guidance of an editor or editors. The overall work may cover a broad subject area, such as health care reform, or closely examine a specific research problem, such as antitrust regulation in Revolution Essay, the clothing industry. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field examining a particular aspect of that topic. Hyperbole Dream Essay! Most books of collected essays include a foreword or introductory chapter written by the editor(s) that summarizes current research about the topic and in America, places the essays within a larger scholarly context. How to Approach Writing Your Review. Conference Proceedings -- a collection of papers published as part of an academic conference or other gathering of from Another World Invation of the Body Snatchers by Jack, professionals. In America! The purpose is to Another Body Snatchers by Jack inform a wider audience of the Revolution Essay papers presented at the conference as well as to document the spotted owl controversy work of Revolution in America, scholars who have participated in starving and vulture, that conference.

Many conferences are held annually and, thus, the Sexual Revolution in America Essay proceedings are published each year. Some proceedings focus on owl controversy a particular theme representing a cutting edge issue in the field [e.g., Chun, Soon Ae. Revolution In America! Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: May 17-20, 2009 . New York: ACM Press, 2009]. Collection of an Author's Research -- a collection of works by northern, a distinguished scholar. The contents of Revolution in America, collected works can take the form of reprints of Hyperbole Midsummer, prior research or of selected reprints with a new introductory chapter by the author or an expert in the field that synthesizes and updates the overall status of research [e.g., The Nature of Sexual Revolution in America, Politics: Selected Essays of Bertrand de Jouvenel . Edited and Study Essay, with an introduction by Dennis Hale and Marc Landy; Foreword by Wilson Carey McWilliams.

New York: Schocken Books, 1987. xxxv, 254 pp.] Festschrift -- a volume of articles or essays by Revolution in America Essay, colleagues and admirers that serve as a tribute or memorial to a preeminent scholar or public figure. The essays usually relate to, or reflect upon, an honoree's contributions to their field of study, but may also include original research by the authors that build upon the research of the honoree [e.g., Social Cognition, Social Identity, and Intergroup Relations: A Festschrift in Honor of Marilynn B. Brewer . Roderick M. Kramer, Geoffrey J. Starving Child And Vulture! Leonardelli, Robert W. Livingston, editors. New York: Psychology Press, 2011. Sexual Revolution! xi, 423 pp.]. Reader -- a collection of articles, most often reprinted from scholarly journals, representing a cross-section of research about a particular topic. Most readers are intended to be used in penalty in canada, the classroom.

Readers serve to in America Essay document the breadth and range of the important research that has developed in a particular area of study and, often, as specified over and Illusion In A Midsummer Night’s, a period of time [e.g., Companion Reader on Violence Against Women . Claire M. Renzetti, Jeffrey L. Essay! Edleson, Raquel Kennedy Bergen, editors. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2012. Death Penalty In Canada! x, 411 pp.]. Reprints -- sometimes in Sexual Revolution Essay, the form of Sick Case, a multi-volume set, this is a selective collection of previously published materials. In America Essay! Most frequently, reprints contain scholarly journal articles gathered together to form a comprehensive overview of prior research in a particular area of study [e.g., Brooks, Thom, editor. Rawls and Law . Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012]. Thematic Articles -- the most common form of collected works in the social sciences, this is a collection of They Came from Film, Invation by Jack Finney, new scholarly essays from multiple authors examining a particular research problem or topic. This can be in the form of a book, a reprint, or a journal [e.g., “Monitoring Social Mobility in Sexual Revolution, the Twenty-First Century.” Edited by David B. Grusky, Timothy M. Smeeding and C. Matthew Snipp. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 657 (January 2015): 1-273]. Developing an Assessment Strategy. The challenge with reviewing a book of collected essays is that you must begin by penalty, thinking critically about the Sexual Revolution in America Essay research problem that underpins each of the individual essays, synthesizing the arguments of multiple authors, and then clearly organizing those arguments into conceptual categories [themes] as you write your draft. Listed below are some questions to ask yourself depending on the type of collected work you're reviewing . Note that all types of virtue ethics examples, collected works require you to first identify the overarching subject area or topic under investigation.

Conference Proceedings -- what organization is sponsoring the conference? Is there a specific theme to the conference? Why is that theme important? Was the collection of papers selectively chosen or do the proceedings represent all papers presented at the conference? If not, how were the papers selected?

Are the papers reprinted as they were presented or have they been updated or significantly edited prior to publication [this fact is often noted in the introduction]? Are the proceedings online and, if so, how might this facilitate access to additional materials? Is there foreword or an introductory chapter that effectively synthesizes the collection? Is it logically organized and include important front and back matter, such as, a table of contents, profiles of each contributor, and, most importantly, an index to locate information from among all of the papers? Collection of an Author's Research -- who is the author and why do you believe his or her work is important enough to be gathered together for publication? Is there an underlying theme or does the collection represent a best of collection? What may have been ommitted?

Are any original works included or are the contents only Revolution in America, reprints? Is there a bibliography of the all of the They Came from in the Invation Body author's writings? Is there a foreword or an introductory chapter written by the author or a guest contributor that effectively synthesizes the collection? Are the contents arranged logically [e.g., chronologically, thematically] and ise important front and back matter included, such as, a table of contents and an index? Festschrift -- who is being honored and why? Do the contributors represent a diversity of viewpoints or perspectives?

Do the contributions represent essays of general tribute or do they represent original research that builds upon the honoree's prior work? Is there a list of contributors and does it include biographical profiles of each that helps determine their relationship to the honoree? Is there a foreword or an introductory chapter that effectively synthesizes the collection? Is it logically organized and Sexual Essay, include important front and back matter, such as, a table of contents and an index? Reader -- does the collection represent a broad spectrum of publications about a research topic or only a few? Are there underrepresented areas of research in the collection? Are the and vulture sources making up the collection representative of one or only a few areas of study or do they represent an interdisciplinary perspective about the topic? Is there a list of editors/compilers and does it include biographical profiles of each? Are the contents reprinted in their entirety or is the Sexual text only excerpted? Are the reprints readily available through other means or do they represent a compilation of starving, hard-to-find publications?

Is there a foreword or an introductory chapter that effectively synthesizes the Revolution in America collection? Is it logically organized and include important front and starving and vulture, back matter, such as, a table of contents and an index? Reprints -- does the collection represent reprints from a variety of Revolution in America, publications or only a few? Are there underrepresented areas of research in the collection? Are the sources making up the Midsummer Dream Essay collection representative of one or only a few areas of study or do they represent an interdisciplinary perspective about the Sexual Revolution Essay topic? Are the reprints readily available through other means or do they represent a compilation of Sick Leave, hard-to-find publications? Are the reprints from relatively current or older publications?

Is there a foreword or an introductory chapter that effectively synthesizes the collection? Is it logically organized and include important front and Revolution, back matter such as a table of contents and an index? Thematic Articles -- how are the contents arranged? Do the contributions survey a broad area of Sick Case Essay, research or do they examine multiple issues associated with a particular research problem? Is there a list of contributors and does it include biographical profiles of Essay, each? Do you the contributors come from one or a variety of institutions? Do the contributors all come from the United States or are there any international contributors? Is there foreword or an introductory chapter that effectively synthesizes the collection? Does the work include important front and back matter, such as, a table of contents and an index? I. Bibliographic Information.

Provide the essential information about the book using the writing style that your professor has asked you to use for the course [e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.]. They Invation Snatchers By Jack Finney! Depending on how your professor wants you to organize your review, the bibliographic information represents the heading of your review. In general, it would look like this: El Ghonemy, Mohamad Riad. Anti-Poverty Land Reform Issues Never Die: Collected Essays on Development Economics in Revolution in America Essay, Practice . (New York: Routledge, 2010. xx, 223 pp.) Reviewed by [your name]. The first challenge in reviewing any type of from Another World in the of the Snatchers Finney, collected essay work is to Sexual identify and summarize its overarching scope and purpose, with additional focus on describing how the book is organized and and vulture, whether or not the arrangement of its individual parts facilitates and contributes to an understanding of the subject area. Most collected essays include a general statement of purpose in the foreword or an in America, introductory chapter that describes the overarching themes and summarizes each essay. In some cases, the editor will discuss the scope and Invation Body Snatchers Finney, purpose at the beginning of each essay. To help develop your own introductory thesis statement that covers all of the material, start by reviewing and taking notes about the aim and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, intent of each essay. Dream! Once completed, identify key issues and themes.

For example, in Revolution in America Essay, a compilation of essays on environmental law, you may find the papers examine various legal approaches to environmental protection, describe alternatives to the law, and Hyperbole In A Night’s Essay, compare domestic and Sexual, international issues. By identifying the overall themes, you create a framework from which you can cogently evaluate the contents. As with any review, your introduction must be succinct, accurate, unbiased, and clearly stated. However, given that you are reviewing a number of child and vulture, parts within a much larger work, you may need several paragraphs to provide a comprehensive overview of the book's overall scope, purpose, and content. If you find it difficult to discern the Sexual Revolution in America Essay overall aims and objectives of the collected essay work [and, be sure to point this out in your review if you believe it to virtue examples be a deficiency], you may arrive at an understanding of the purpose by asking yourself the following questions:

Why did the contributing authors write on Revolution in America this subject rather than on some other subject? Why is it important? From what point of view is the overall work written? Do some essays systematically take one stance while others investigate another, or do the essays just represent a mish-mash of viewpoints? Were each of the In A Midsummer Dream Essay authors trying to give information, to explain something technical, or to Sexual convince the reader of a belief’s validity by dramatizing it in death, action? What is the general field or genre, and how does the book fit into it? Review related literature from other books and journal articles to familiarize yourself with the field, if necessary. Sexual Revolution Essay! Who is the intended audience?

Is it very specialized or intended for a broader audience? What are each author's style? Do they clash or do they flow together? Is it formal or informal? You can evaluate the quality of the writing style by Hyperbole and Illusion In A Midsummer Dream Essay, noting some of the following standards: coherence, clarity, originality, forcefulness, correct use of Sexual, technical words, conciseness, fullness of development, and fluidity.

Scan the table of contents because it can help you understand how the book is organized and will aid in determining the main ideas covered and starving and vulture, how they are developed [e.g., chronologically, topically, thematically, etc.] How did the book affect you? Were any prior assumptions you had about the subject changed, abandoned, or reinforced due to this book? Did some essays stand out more than others? In what ways? How is the book related to Revolution in America your own course or personal agenda? What experiences have you had that relate to the subject? How well has the Sick Case Study Essay book achieved its goal(s)?

What are the Revolution in America Essay main takeaways? Would you recommend the book to others? Why or why not? III. Critically Evaluate the Contents. Critical comments should form the bulk of your book review . A good method for reviewing a collection of essays is to starving child and vulture follow the arrangement of contents, particularly if the Sexual Revolution in America Essay essays are grouped in a particular way, and to frame the analysis in the context of the key issues and themes you identified in the introduction. State whether or not you feel the overall treatment of the subject matter is appropriate for the intended audience. Ask yourself: Has the purpose of the spotted book been achieved? Have all of the essays contributed something important to the overall purpose?

If not, how have some author's failed to add something meaningful? What contribution does the book make to the field? Is the treatment of the subject matter fair and Sexual, unbiased? Are there facts and evidence that have been omitted? What kinds of data, if any, are used to support the author's thesis statement?

Can the examples same data be interpreted to alternate ends? Is the writing style clear and effective? Considered collectively, did the essays cover the topic or research problem thoroughly? If not, what issue or perspective about the topic do you believe has been omitted? Does the Sexual Revolution in America book raise important or provocative issues or topics for discussion and further research? Support your evaluation with evidence from the text and, when possible, in relation to other sources. Sick Leave Case! Do not evaluate each essay one at a time but group the Revolution in America analysis around the key issues and starving, themes you first identified.

If relevant, make note of the book's format, such as, layout, binding, typography, etc. In America! Do some or all of the essays include tables, charts, maps, illustrations, or other non-textual elements? Are they clear and do they aid in understanding the research problem? IV. Examine the Hyperbole In A Dream Essay Front Matter and Back Matter. Front matter refers to anything before the first chapter of the book. Back matter refers to any information included after the Sexual Revolution final chapter of the book . Front matter is northern spotted most often numbered separately from the rest of the text in lower case Roman numerals [i.e. i-xi ]. Critical commentary about front or back matter is generally only Sexual Revolution in America, necessary if you believe there is starving child and vulture something that diminishes the overall quality of the work [e.g., the indexing is poor] or there is something that is particularly helpful in understanding the book's contents [e.g., foreword places the Sexual Revolution in America book in an important context]. The following front matter may be included in and vulture, a book and may be considered for Sexual Essay, evaluation when reviewing its overall quality: Table of contents -- is it clear?

Is it detailed or general? Does it reflect the starving child and vulture true contents of the book? Author biographies -- also found as back matter, the biography of Revolution in America, author(s) can be useful in determining the authority of the writer and whether the book builds on prior research or represents new research. In a collected work, think about the following: what is the distribution of expertise among authors? Does it represent an interdisciplinary perspective or is the scope of owl controversy, expertise more narrow? Are the authors from a variety of institutions or just a few? Are the author affiliations international in scope or just from one country or region? Foreword -- the purpose of a foreword is to Revolution Essay introduce the reader to the author as well as the book itself, and to help establish credibility for both.

A foreword may not contribute any additional information about the spotted book's subject matter, but it serves as a means of validating the book's existence. Later editions of a book sometimes have a new foreword prepended [appearing before an older foreword, if there was one], which may be included to explain how the latest edition differs from prior ones. Essay! Preface -- generally describes the genesis, purpose, limitations, and scope of the book and may include acknowledgments of indebtedness to people who have helped the from Another World in the Film, of the Body by Jack Finney author complete the in America Essay study. Hyperbole Night’s Essay! Consider, is the preface helpful in Sexual Essay, understanding the from World study? Does it provide an effective and thorough framework for understanding what's to follow? Chronology -- also may be found as back matter, a chronology is generally included to highlight key events related to the subject of the book.

Do the entries contribute to the overall work? Is it detailed or very general? List of non-textual elements -- a book that contains a lot of charts, photographs, maps, graphs, etc. will often list these items after the table of contents in the order that they appear in the text. Is it useful? The following back matter may be included in a book and may be considered for in America, evaluation when reviewing the overall quality of the book:

Afterword -- this is a short, reflective piece written by the author that takes the form of a concluding section, final commentary, or closing statement. Sick Study Essay! It is worth mentioning in a review if it contributes information about the purpose of the Sexual in America book, gives a call to action, or asks the reader to consider key points made in the book. Hyperbole In A Midsummer Night’s Essay! This is a common feature of collected works because it's an opportunity to reflect upon the contents. If this is the case, does it help in Sexual, wrapping up the book? Does it leave you thinking about the significance or implications of the contributions? Appendix -- is the supplementary material in death penalty, the appendix or appendices well organized? Do they relate to the contents or appear superfluous? Does it contain any essential information that would have been more appropriately integrated into the text? Index -- is the index thorough and accurate? Are elements used, such as, bold or italic fonts to help identify specific places in the book?

An index is particularly important in collected works because it brings together key terms, concepts, and names from Revolution a variety of essays that would otherwise be disconnected without a comprehensive index. Glossary of Terms -- are the definitions clearly written? Is the glossary comprehensive or are key terms missing? Are any terms or concepts mentioned in northern owl controversy, the text not included? Footnotes/Endnotes -- examine any footnotes or endnotes as you read from chapter to chapter. Do they provide important additional information? Do they clarify or extend points made in in America, the body of the text? Some collected works arrange the citations by chapter at the end of the book. Is this helpful or would it been more effective to list the references and notes after each essay?

Bibliography/References/Further Readings -- review any bibliography, list of references to sources used, and/or further readings that are included. What kinds of sources appear [e.g., primary or secondary, recent or old, scholarly or popular, etc.]? How does the editor[s] of the collected work make use of them? Be sure to note important omissions of sources that you believe should have been utilized. State your general conclusions succinctly. Pay particular attention to any capstone chapter that summarizes the work. Collected essays often have one written by the editor. List the principal topics, and briefly summarize the key themes and issues, main points, and conclusions. If appropriate and to help clarify your overall evaluation, use specific references and quotations to support your statements. If your thesis has been well argued, the conclusion should follow naturally.

It can include a final assessment or simply restate your thesis. Do not introduce new information in the conclusion. NOTE: The length of a review of spotted, a collected work will almost always be longer than a review of a single book. In America! Treat an assignment to review a collected work as a short research paper assignment in terms of the time needed to Sick Leave Essay read and to write a thorough synopsis. Due to the factors noted above, more effort will have to devoted to describing the content of the essays and the thematic relationships among each of them. Bazerman, Charles. Comparing and Synthesizing Sources. The Informed Writer: Using Sources in Revolution, the Disciplines. In A Night’s Dream! Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Book Reviews.

Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Book Reviews. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Writing a Book Review. The Writing Lab and Sexual in America, The OWL. Purdue University; Rhetorical Strategies: Comparison and Contrast. And Illusion In A Midsummer Dream! The Reading/Writing Center. Sexual In America Essay! Hunter College; Visvis, Vikki and Jerry Plotnick. The Comparative Essay. The Lab Report.

University College Writing Centre. Starving Child! University of Revolution in America Essay, Toronto; Writing Book Reviews. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University.

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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of President Obama's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at Sexual Revolution in America Essay, the Democratic National Convention in ethics examples, Charlotte, N.C., on Sexual in America Essay Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you. Thank you. Death! Thank you so much. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years!

AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much. Thank you. Thank you very much, everybody. (Cheers, applause.) Thank you.

Michelle, I love you so much. (Cheers, applause.) A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of Sexual Revolution, you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to school in the morning. (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the Case Study Essay very best vice president I could have ever hoped for (cheers, applause) and being a strong and loyal friend. Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for president of the United States. Sexual! (Cheers, applause.)

President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from virtue ethics, PBS NewsHour. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the first time I addressed this convention, in 2004, I was a younger man (laughter) a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about Sexual, hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of death penalty, difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the odds are great, even when the road is long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by the cost of war, by one of the worst economic crises in history and by Revolution Essay political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to northern owl controversy, tackle the challenges of our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions. Serious issues become sound bites. The truth gets buried under an avalanche of money and Sexual Essay, advertising.

And if you're sick of hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. Penalty! (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is Sexual Revolution said and done, when you pick up that ballot to They Came Another World Film, Snatchers by Jack Finney, vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in a generation. (Cheers.) Over the next few years big decisions will be made in Washington on jobs, the economy, taxes and deficits, energy, education, war and peace decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and on our children's lives for decades to come. And on every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties. Essay! It will be a choice between two different paths for death penalty, America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for the future. Ours is a fight to restore the in America values that built the largest middle class and the strongest economy the northern world has ever known (cheers, applause) the values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the Sexual in America values that drove my grandmother to work on a bomber assembly line while he was gone. They knew they were part of something larger a nation that triumphed over fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the world's best products, and everyone shared in that pride and success from the starving corner office to the factory floor.

My grandparents were given the chance to go to college and buy their home their own home and fulfill the Sexual in America Essay basic bargain at the heart of virtue ethics examples, America's story, the promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, from Main Street to Wall Street to Washington, D.C. (Cheers, applause.) And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. Revolution! I began my career helping people in the shadow of Hyperbole Dream, a shuttered steel mill at a time when too many good jobs were starting to move overseas. And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to make the Sexual in America mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in the car or food on the table. And when the house of cards collapsed in the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to Essay, recover. Now, our friends down in Tampa at the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about everything they think is wrong with America.

But they didn't have much to say about Sexual in America Essay, how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan. Starving And Vulture! And that's because all they have to offer is the same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. Have a surplus? Try a tax cut. Deficit too high try another. Feel a cold coming on? Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in Sexual Essay, the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for and Illusion Midsummer Night’s, those who need it (cheers, applause) middle-class families, small businesses. Sexual In America Essay! But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for Leave Case Study Essay, millionaires will bring good jobs to Sexual Revolution in America Essay, our shores, or pay down our deficit.

I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy (cheers, applause) or help us compete with the scientists and engineers coming out of Essay, China. After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on Wall Street will help the small-businesswoman expand, or the laid-off construction worker keep his home. We have been there, we've tried that, and we're not going back. Revolution Essay! We are moving forward, America. Northern Owl Controversy! (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the path I'm offering is quick or easy. I never have.

You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to hear. You elected me to tell you the truth. (Cheers, applause.) And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for us to solve challenges that have built up over decades. It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the only crisis worse than this one. Sexual In America! (Cheers, applause.) And by the way, those of virtue examples, us who carry on his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to Revolution in America, a better place, and I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.)

I'm asking you to rally around a set of Hyperbole and Illusion In A Midsummer Dream, goals for Sexual Revolution in America Essay, your country, goals in manufacturing, energy, education, national security and the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to new jobs, more opportunity and rebuild this economy on Sick a stronger foundation. That's what we can do in Revolution, the next four years, and child, that is why I am running for a second term as president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. (Applause.) I've met workers in Detroit and in America Essay, Toledo who feared (cheers, applause) they'd never build another American car. Penalty In Canada! And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on the top of the world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products (cheers) because we work harder and smarter than anyone else. (Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. (Cheers, applause.) AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA!

USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And after a decade of decline, this country created over half a million manufacturing jobs in the last 2 1/2 years. (Cheers.) And now you have a choice.

We can give more tax breaks to Essay, corporations that shift jobs overseas PRESIDENT OBAMA: or we can start rewarding companies that open new plants and train new workers and virtue, create new jobs here in the United States of Revolution in America, America. (Cheers, applause.) We can help big factories and small businesses double their exports. Owl Controversy! And if we choose this path, we can create a million new manufacturing jobs in the next four years. You can make that happen. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future. You can choose the path where we control more of Revolution in America Essay, our own energy. After 30 years of inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by the middle of the next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of starving child, Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. (Cheers, applause.) In the Sexual Revolution in America Essay last year alone, we cut oil imports by northern 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in Essay, recent history. From Another Film, Invation Of The Body Snatchers By Jack! (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of America is less dependent on foreign oil than at Essay, any time in starving, the last two decades. (Cheers, applause.) So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on it.

We've opened millions of new acres for oil and gas exploration in the last three years, and we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in corporate welfare from our taxpayers. In America! (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path. We're offering a better path where we a future where we keep investing in wind and They Another Invation by Jack Finney, solar and Sexual Revolution Essay, clean coal, where farmers and scientists harness new biofuels to power our cars and starving, trucks, where construction workers build homes and factories that waste less energy, where where we develop a hundred-year supply of natural gas that's right beneath our feet. Sexual In America Essay! If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by 2020 and support more than 600,000 new jobs in natural gas alone. (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to reduce the carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is penalty not a hoax. More droughts and floods and wildfires are not a joke. (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to our children's future. And in this election, you can do something about it. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the chance to gain the skills they need to compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have. Education was the Revolution in America Essay gateway to starving and vulture, opportunity for me. (Cheers.) It was the gateway for Michelle.

It was it was the gateway for Revolution in America, most of Night’s, you. And now more than ever it is the Sexual Essay gateway to a middle-class life. For the first time in a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to raise their standards for teaching and learning. (Cheers, applause.) Some of the worst schools in the country have made real gains in They Another World Film, Invation Snatchers by Jack Finney, math and reading. Millions of students are paying less for college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of a crowded classroom or a crumbling school. No family should have to set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the money. (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the Sexual in America Essay right skills here at virtue ethics, home. (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. That is not our future. (Cheers, applause.) A government has a role in in America Essay, this. But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead.

Parents must instill a thirst for learning. And students, you've got to do the northern spotted work. (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on Sexual in America earth. Death Penalty In Canada! (Cheers, applause.) So help me. Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and science teachers within 10 years and improve early childhood education. Sexual Revolution In America! (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the chance to They Came from Another in the Film, Invation by Jack, learn skills at Revolution in America Essay, their community college that will lead directly to a job. Help us work with colleges and universities to cut in half the spotted owl controversy growth of tuition costs over the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in a world of new threats and new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and proven. Four years ago I promised to end the war in Sexual Revolution, Iraq.

We did. (Cheers, applause.) I promised to refocus on the terrorists who actually attacked us on 9/11, and we have. (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the death penalty Taliban's momentum in Afghanistan and in 2014, our longest war will be over. (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the New York skyline, al- Qaida is on Sexual Revolution the path to defeat and Osama bin Laden is dead. And Illusion In A Night’s! (Cheers, applause.) And tonight we pay tribute to the Americans who still serve in harm's way. We are forever in debt to a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and more respected. We will never forget you, and so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the strongest military the world has ever known. (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to fight for a job or a roof over their head or the Sexual care that they need when they come home. Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to stop the spread of death, nuclear weapons. We've reasserted our power across the Pacific and stood up to China on behalf of our workers. Essay! From Burma to Libya to starving, South Sudan, we have advanced the rights and Revolution, dignity of all human beings (cheers) men and women; Christians and Muslims and Jews. (Cheers, applause.) But for all the starving child and vulture progress that we've made, challenges remain. Terrorist plots must be disrupted.

Europe's crisis must be contained. Revolution! Our commitment to Israel's security must not waver, and neither must our pursuit of northern owl controversy, peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against Revolution, its nuclear ambitions. The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of a dictator or the owl controversy hate of extremists, but by the hopes and Essay, aspirations of Came from in the Film, by Jack Finney, ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.) So now we have a choice. My opponent and his running mate are new to foreign policy. In America! (Laughter, applause.) But from all that we've seen and heard, they want to ethics examples, take us back to an era of blustering and blundering that cost America so dearly. After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy not al- Qaida, Russia (laughter) unless you're still stuck in a Cold War mind warp. Revolution In America Essay! (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) My opponent my opponent said that it was tragic to Sick Essay, end the war in Iraq.

And he won't tell us how he'll end the war in Afghanistan. Well, I have, and I will. (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the money we're no longer spending on Sexual Revolution Essay war to pay down our debt and put more people back to spotted owl controversy, work (extended cheers, applause) rebuilding roads and bridges and schools and Sexual Essay, runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of lives and over a trillion dollars, it's time to do some nation building right here at home. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. Death Penalty In Canada! (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in Congress to Revolution Essay, cut a billion dollars in spending, because those of spotted owl controversy, us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and Sexual Essay, more efficient and more responsive to the American people. (Cheers, applause.) I want to virtue examples, reform the tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the wealthiest households to pay higher taxes on Sexual Revolution Essay incomes over child and vulture, $250,000 (cheers, applause) the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the biggest surplus in history and Revolution, a whole lot of millionaires to boot. Now, I'm still eager to Hyperbole and Illusion In A Night’s Dream Essay, reach an agreement based on the principles of my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom. Revolution! No democracy works without compromise. I want to get this done, and we can get it done. But when Governor Romney and his friends in Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by spending trillions more on Sick Leave Study new tax breaks for the wealthy, well (boos) what'd Bill Clinton call it?

You do the arithmetic. Essay! (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the math. I refuse to go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. They From Another World In The Invation Of The Body By Jack! (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask middle-class families to give up their deductions for owning a home or raising their kids just to Sexual, pay for another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask students to pay more for college or kick children out of Head Start programs to Sick Case Study, eliminate health insurance for millions of in America, Americans who are poor and elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less. Study Essay! I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.) And I will never I will never turn Medicare into a voucher. Sexual Revolution! (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to spend their golden years at the mercy of Another World in the Body Snatchers by Jack, insurance companies. They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Yes, we will reform and strengthen Medicare for the long haul, but we'll do it by reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to pay thousands of dollars more.

(Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by taking the responsible steps to strengthen it, not by Essay turning it over to Wall Street. (Cheers, applause.) This is the choice we now face. They From Another World In The Film, Invation Snatchers By Jack! This is Sexual in America what the They Film, of the by Jack Finney election comes down to. Revolution Essay! Over and over, we've been told by our opponents that bigger tax cuts and fewer regulations are the only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing. They Came From Film, Invation Body Snatchers! If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. (Murmurs of disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into Sexual Revolution in America, the air your children breathe, well, that's the price of progress. Northern! If you can't afford to start a business or go to Revolution in America, college, take my opponent's advice and borrow money from Sick Leave Case Study Essay, your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and boos, applause.) You know what, that's not who we are.

That's not what this country is about. As Americans, we believe we are endowed by Essay our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. We insist on Sick Leave Essay personal responsibility, and Sexual Essay, we celebrate individual initiative. Case Study! We're not entitled to success. We have to earn it. Sexual Essay! We honor the virtue ethics strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the entrepreneurs who have always been the driving force behind our free enterprise system, the greatest engine of growth and prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship (cheers, applause) citizenship, a word at Sexual Revolution, the very heart of northern owl controversy, our founding, a word at Sexual, the very essence of northern spotted owl controversy, our democracy, the idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to Revolution Essay, one another and to future generations.

We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to buy the cars that they build, the whole company does better. (Cheers, applause.) We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into Hyperbole and Illusion In A Night’s Dream Essay, signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of other people's homes (cheers, applause) and so is the entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the Revolution little girl who's offered an escape from poverty by a great teacher or a grant for college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the president of the United States (cheers, applause) and it is in our power to give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. Hyperbole And Illusion Night’s Essay! We don't want handouts for in America, people who refuse to help themselves, and northern spotted, we certainly don't want bailouts for banks that break the in America Essay rules. (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the and vulture government is the source of all of our problems (cheers, applause) any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles (cheers, applause) because because America, we understand that this democracy is ours. We, the people (cheers) recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in it for me, a freedom without a commitment to others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is Sexual unworthy of Sick, our founding ideals, and those who died in their defense. (Cheers, applause.) As citizens, we understand that America is not about what can be done for us. It's about what can be done by us, together (cheers, applause) through the hard and frustrating but necessary work of self-government.

That's what we believe. So you see, the election four years ago wasn't about me. It was about you. (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens you were the change. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the surgery she needs because an Revolution in America insurance company can't limit her coverage. Sick Study Essay! You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of earning a medical degree is about to Sexual Revolution, get that chance. You made that possible. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and Came from Another World in the Film, of the Body by Jack, went to school here and pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the Sexual only country she's ever called home (cheers, applause) why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out They Came in the Film, of the Snatchers by Jack Finney, of the military because of who they are or who they love, why thousands of families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home. Sexual In America Essay! You did that.

You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now if you turn away now, if you buy into the cynicism that the change we fought for isn't possible, well, change will not happen. If you give up on the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the virtue examples lobbyists and Revolution Essay, special interests, the people with the northern owl controversy $10 million checks who are trying to buy this election and those who are trying to Sexual Revolution in America, make it harder for you to vote, Washington politicians who want to decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. Only you have the power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to ethics, this convention. Essay! Times have changed, and ethics examples, so have I. I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president. In America! (Cheers, applause.) And (applause) and that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that and that means I know what it means to send young Americans into battle, for death penalty, I've held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return.

I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. If the Sexual Revolution Essay critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at death, reading them. (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together (cheers) I'm far more mindful of Sexual Revolution, my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to northern, my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. , for I have held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on Revolution polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to starving child and vulture, my knees many times by in America the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about America. (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the answers. Not because I'm naive about the Sick Leave Study magnitude of our challenges. I'm hopeful because of you. The young woman I met at a science fair who won national recognition for her biology research while living with her family at Essay, a homeless shelter she gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to work every day, and bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer Night’s Dream, surprise his wife he gives me hope.

The family business in Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the Sexual Essay recession hit (cheers, applause) even when their competitors shut down dozens of plants, even when it meant the owner gave up some perks and Hyperbole In A Midsummer Night’s, some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the Sexual Revolution in America Essay community and the workers who had helped build that business they give me hope. (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the knee. And six months ago we would watch him walk into a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) tall and and vulture, 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on his face, sturdy on his new leg. And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the hard path he had traveled. He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope. I don't know what party these men and women belong to.

I don't know if they'll vote for me. But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in in America, the words of Case, Scripture, that ours is Sexual Revolution a future filled with hope. (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for your vote. If you reject the notion that this nation's promise is reserved for They Came from World Invation Body by Jack, the few, your voice must be heard in Sexual Revolution in America Essay, this election. Study! (Cheers, applause.) If you reject the Sexual Revolution in America Essay notion that our government is forever beholden to and Illusion Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay, the highest bidder, you need to stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you believe that new plants and factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of opportunity to this nation of Essay, dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to vote this November. Northern Owl Controversy! (Cheers, applause.)

America, I never said this journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now. Yes, our path is harder, but it leads to a better place. (Cheers.) Yes, our road is longer, but we travel it together. Sexual In America Essay! (Cheers.) We don't turn back. We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from Came Another Film, Finney, our victories. (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from Sexual Revolution, our mistakes. But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is with us and that we are surely blessed to be citizens of the greatest nation on earth. Thank you, God bless you and God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)

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Titles of works #8212; The Punctuation GuideThe titles of Sexual Revolution in America Essay, certain works are indicated with quotation marks, others with italics, and Came from in the Invation of the Body Snatchers by Jack Finney, yet and the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) 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conclusion structure A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to Sexual Essay inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is Essay considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the Sexual U.S., the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning. Death Penalty! It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and American history. One NAEP survey found that only Revolution 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the and Illusion American government.

I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is Sexual Revolution Essay probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is Came World of the by Jack Finney helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the Revolution (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the northern owl controversy United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of in America Essay, Independence from Britain and it was determined to They Came Another World in the Invation of the Body Snatchers Finney create a political system that was totally different from the British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in Sexual Revolution Essay, the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of Midsummer Night’s Essay, power by the other arms.

The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for Revolution in America, all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to spotted owl controversy limit the influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the Revolution in America subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to starving the position of the central government in other nations. Arguably the later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is Sexual Revolution still a real tension today between the They from Invation Body Snatchers Finney states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in Essay, the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of ethics examples, representatives regardless of population. This is Sexual in America Essay why today six states have only one member in and vulture, the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in mind.

So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is Sexual Revolution in America Essay described first in the Constitution) but, over time, both the Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and Revolution in America Essay, the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power. Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the They Another in the Film, Invation of the Finney United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. Both documents are on display in Revolution Essay, the National Archives and northern spotted owl controversy, Records Administration Building in Sexual in America, Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in Leave, 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over Sexual Revolution, two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the Came Another World in the of the Body Snatchers original constitutional settlement, there have only Revolution in America been 17 amendments in over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971). One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is death penalty in canada a very difficult instrument to change.

First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of in America, members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in child, the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in Revolution Essay, 1972.

It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the starving 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This means that power is Sexual spread between three institutions of the child state - the Essay executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and northern, no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, has some of starving child, its own authority, in turn, regulated by Sexual in America the other branches. Not only is power spread between the death penalty in canada different branches; the Revolution members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of Came World Film, Invation Body by Jack Finney, this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the Sexual Revolution in America Essay 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain.

The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is Came from Film, by Jack a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of Sexual Essay, 1776 - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the northern - super power. Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for Sexual Revolution in America, it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the Leave Essay two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the Sexual in America constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to uphold them. This approach tends to virtue examples be supported by conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of Sexual Revolution Essay, seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Hyperbole In A Midsummer Night’s Dream Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible.

This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here. Information on Sexual Revolution, the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Leave Case Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is both the in America Essay head of state and the head of government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat.

The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at least 35 years old have lived in northern owl controversy, the US for at least 14 years. How is a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of four years and Sexual Revolution, may serve a maximum of Sick Leave Case Essay, two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on Sexual in America, the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to They from Another in the Film, of the Body coincide with Congressional elections. Sexual Revolution In America! So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and the next eelction will be held on spotted owl controversy, 3 November 2020. The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of Sexual in America, members in the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population).

The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the They Came Another World in the Film, Invation Snatchers smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Sexual Essay Presidential election is not one election but 51. The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least 270 electoral votes.

The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from virtue ethics examples each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Revolution Congressional Districts rather than for death penalty, the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and in America, resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Starving And Vulture! Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in Revolution Essay, US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016. Examples! On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the Essay ultimate power of Hyperbole and Illusion In A Midsummer Dream, electing the President to members of the Electoral College.

The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an Sexual indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is from Another Film, Body Snatchers by Jack made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by Sexual in America Essay the Senate. In the examples first case, the Sexual in America Essay representatives of each state have to They Came Film, by Jack Finney agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in 1800 and 1824. In 1800, the Sexual Revolution in America House of Representatives, after 35 votes in starving, which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the Sexual Revolution in America powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies.

The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is Another World Invation of the by Jack Finney bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to Sexual in America Essay recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Leave Case Congress.

The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the Sexual Revolution authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. Night’s Dream! federal judges, and ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Sexual Essay Senate which can be problematic especially when the They Came Another Film, of the Body Finney Senate is controlled by a different political party to that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the in America Essay Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power.

Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of Study, exercising influence. In America! Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the penalty notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Revolution in America Essay Internet, social media - has presented a variety of Sick Leave, instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Sexual In America Essay! Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and virtue ethics examples, 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Sexual Essay Presidency Although the northern 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in Sexual Revolution in America, current practice given a greater role and Midsummer Night’s Dream, more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Essay Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S.

Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999). Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to ethics examples deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members.

In all, the Sexual Revolution Essay President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in starving child and vulture, their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. Revolution Essay! However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the examples only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and Sexual Essay, all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). Leave! On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and Revolution in America, the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and Hyperbole and Illusion In A Midsummer Night’s, John F. Kennedy in 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to Sexual in America as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is often referred to by the media as variously the White House, the West Wing, and the Oval Office.

Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to Hyperbole Essay by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in Sexual Revolution in America Essay, the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the World in the Film, Snatchers Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the Essay position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is Leave Study usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush). The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the Revolution in America cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. Hyperbole And Illusion In A Midsummer Night’s Dream! These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election.

The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in Revolution Essay, the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. Penalty In Canada! There are two types of delegates. In America Essay! The normal delegates are those who are chosen by starving voters to in America back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to spotted back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the in America convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates.

Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is child and vulture that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in Sexual Revolution in America Essay, other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to starving child and vulture the different candidates is in America also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the starving and vulture candidate who wins the Sexual most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by the candidate subject to a minimum performance.

The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on the performance of the candidate in They from in the Film, of the by Jack, particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for Revolution Essay, a party to reach the They Came from Another World in the of the Body by Jack Finney convention with no clear choice. A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority.

The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924. It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in Sexual Revolution, the general election. Spotted! The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates.

For the 2016 convention, the Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of Sexual in America Essay, 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of Representatives? The House of child and vulture, Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the Revolution United States intended the House to be the politically dominant entity in northern owl controversy, the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the Sexual primary forum for northern owl controversy, political debate. However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body.

Who is eligible to become a member of the in America House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in Hyperbole and Illusion In A Midsummer Dream, fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Sexual Revolution! Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of Congressional districts. Although the states are bound by Sick Case Study limits established by Sexual Revolution in America Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the Case Study Essay decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025). Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Sexual Revolution in America Essay, Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years.

Voting in congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is Leave Study Essay typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Sexual Revolution Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Midsummer Night’s Essay, Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to which they are assigned. What are the powers of the Revolution in America House? The House of Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue.

If the starving child Electoral College is Sexual Revolution tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in virtue ethics examples, any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Sexual Revolution In America Essay! It lays the charges which are then passed to the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and Leave Case Study, determines whether and how a bill reaches the Sexual Revolution Essay floor of the virtue examples chamber. Currently the Essay Majority Leader in the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi.

Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the so-called Hastert Rule. Virtue Examples! This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an Sexual informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to and Illusion In A Night’s Dream maintain their speakerships and Sexual Revolution Essay, limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.

The rule keeps the minority party from passing bills with the assistance of a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in Hyperbole In A Night’s Dream, its chamber in Revolution in America, the south wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in three buildings on the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to They Came Another in the of the by Jack by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Senate?

The Senate is the Sexual in America Essay upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. Death Penalty! The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the Senate has been the Sexual Revolution Essay dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in ethics, the state which one represents. How is a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of Sexual Revolution in America, whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for ethics examples, election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.

This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to Sexual in America Essay the Constitution in 1913, members of the Senate are elected by and vulture first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and in America, Washington, which have run-offs. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the ethics first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the Revolution in America Essay end of the Midsummer Night’s six-year term, a special election is not normally held at Sexual in America Essay that time (this is the case for 46 states). Northern Spotted Owl Controversy! Instead the Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to in America serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the owl controversy powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to Sexual Revolution in America Essay become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers.

The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to starving many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. Essay! federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the They from World in the Invation of the by Jack responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Sexual In America! Once the House of Representatives has laid the Sick Case Study Essay charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.

The Senate (and the House) have the Sexual Essay power to declare war - although the Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer Dream last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in Sexual, the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the examples same control over Revolution in America Essay, the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over In A Dream, the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the work of the Senate is done through 16 standing committees and Revolution, around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of Representatives.

Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of death in canada, Senators, can speak for as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Revolution in America Essay Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by They Came from Film, Invation of the Body Snatchers by Jack Finney invoking what is called cloture (taken from the French term for closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Sexual Revolution in America Essay, Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings. The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the penalty Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land.

Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. They have equal weight when voting on a case and Revolution in America, the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of Dream, Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship. Sexual Revolution In America Essay! A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in Leave Case Study, the law.

Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to Sexual Essay be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and Leave Case Study, taught himself law, passing the in America Essay bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the and Illusion In A Midsummer Dream Essay 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy. What are the Revolution in America powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States.

The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. However, the ethics examples Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is Sexual Revolution in America Essay not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the death penalty in canada two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to Sexual the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the child number of Sexual in America Essay, cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to and Illusion Night’s Essay state its position. All the detail is in America set out in documents and Sick Leave Case Study, all the rest of the time of the public hearing is taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in Revolution in America Essay, private conference, following discussion and debate.

No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Leave Case Essay Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in Essay, practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of European democracies. In the 1960s, the spotted owl controversy court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.

The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in Sexual Revolution in America Essay, 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of virtue, this exercise of Sexual Revolution in America, political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of In A Midsummer, legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce.

In the end, the Court ruled by Revolution in America Essay five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is death in canada not itself a tax, the penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and Essay, therefore the Leave entire requirement falls within the remit of Sexual Revolution in America Essay, Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the owl controversy tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices. In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Revolution in America Essay Supreme Court. The present membership of the starving Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church.

Following the appointment by President Trump of Revolution in America Essay, Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on ethics examples, the court. All the conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the Sexual Revolution in America Essay liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the They from in the Invation of the Body by Jack American political system in respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of in America Essay, all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and starving child and vulture, appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality). POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by Sexual Essay two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to owl controversy 1824 and the Republicans were founded in 1854.

In illustrations and Revolution, promotional material, the Democratic Party is often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is and vulture featured as an elephant. Sexual In America Essay! The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the Sick Study Essay constituencies in Sexual Revolution in America, the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. Hyperbole And Illusion Dream Essay! The other key factor is the huge influence of money in Revolution in America Essay, the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and Sick Leave Case Essay, since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only Sexual 'afford' two parties or, to Leave put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry. Some people tend to view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany.

The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the other. Sexual Essay! However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to death the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for Revolution in America Essay, instance, most members of the Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by penalty in canada the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract. Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is not true of most European countries. In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and parties. In the Sexual in America Essay USA, religion is a factor in politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an exception here).

In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the Hyperbole In A Dream Essay instructions to members of the in America Essay House and the Senate on how to vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Between the selection of penalty, candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the Sexual Revolution in America Essay effects of limiting the range of candidates, increasing the influence of corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in Sick Leave Case Essay, the winning of primaries).

As long ago as 1895, the Revolution Essay Chairman of the Another World of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is. Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of a party by Revolution joining it, in owl controversy, the USA voters register as a supporter of Sexual Revolution in America, one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the world the colour red is death in canada associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the reverse is the Essay case. So the They Came from World in the Film, Invation Body 'blue states' are those traditionally won by the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in Essay, US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about child and vulture half; when there is no presidential election, turnout is merely about Essay one third. Death Penalty In Canada! The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of in America Essay, 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy). While Congress as an institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the vote when they seek re-election.

More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for projects in starving child, the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the Sexual Revolution in America federal nature of the They Came from Another World Film, Invation by Jack United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the Revolution in America Essay American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and death penalty in canada, a certain amount of power is released to lower levels of government. The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the War of Independence against the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to Revolution the federal government. Around a century later, the respective authority of the death federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable.

With the exception of Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of Revolution Essay, authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Sick Study Essay Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at Revolution Essay federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Sick Leave Essay, Representatives (the exception is the state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court. Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and Essay, Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of state and Hyperbole and Illusion In A Night’s Dream Essay, local elections are determined by Sexual Essay state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of elections in the United States and, at spotted owl controversy almost all times, an election is Revolution being held somewhere in the country.

State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the northern spotted owl controversy post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the Essay performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in the US is far from spotted over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of Sexual Revolution in America, locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate. Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the northern spotted Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to the electorate as a result of the Sexual Revolution Essay collection of a certain number of signatures or the ethics examples decison of the state legislation. Sexual Revolution In America! Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in starving and vulture, some cases (such as California) with profound results.

In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the Sexual Essay current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to Hyperbole and Illusion Night’s Essay change the provisions to reflect the reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of Sexual, events. Since the Hyperbole In A Midsummer Essay US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the in America Essay pre-eminent world economic and political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is that, in Hyperbole Night’s, the last century and most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in in America Essay, contravention of the Constitution).

The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the They Came in the Body Snatchers by Jack Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the Revolution President. This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the Hyperbole and Illusion Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay War Powers Resolution in Sexual Essay, spite of major military invasions. Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and northern, of lobbyists and special interest groups in Sexual in America Essay, political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to what is called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of spotted, expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the Sexual Essay candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from starving child a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors.

Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks). The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. Sexual! The personal lifestyle as well as the political record of a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the examples frequency of the same family to provide members of Congress. Low polling in elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on Essay, the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature. A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in owl controversy, terms of power and wealth, but also - to Sexual Revolution in America Essay different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors.

Indeed the constitution and institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and owl controversy, resolution of Revolution Essay, such divisions. However, it is often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the death in canada legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on in America Essay, the other. It is divided vertically through the spotted owl controversy federal system of government with the division of powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of a civil war.

In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the Essay first black President in the White House and ethics, the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is Sexual Revolution both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is virtue ethics divided racially through the growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities). The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the Sexual Essay divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in penalty in canada, what is known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013).

A major role of the Congress is to pass legislation but the Revolution in America divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to spotted owl controversy principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is different from Sexual in America Essay other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the virtue ethics creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in Sexual Revolution Essay, the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and speak largely to the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the Sick Leave Study alleged 'superiority' of the Revolution Essay United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship.

In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of Leave, race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to Sexual Revolution Essay be assessed in comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here. how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in and vulture, the American political system as people around the in America world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the northern owl controversy United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Sexual Revolution in America Essay, Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the Sick Study ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of Congress or the Sexual Revolution gerrymandering of district boundaries.

Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the effectiveness of the US political system is spotted a part of the wider debate about in America whether or not the United States is in relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in penalty, which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern. This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in Sexual in America, a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017.

If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and death, British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of other nations click here.