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anthropolgy essay UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. ANT. 348Y THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF HEALTH. NOTES: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY: 1. Choose a topic from the list below and write an essay of experiments, maximum length 15 pages [double- spaced, 12 point type]. Deadline, Wednesday, March 22, 2006.

A schedule of uk media bias, late penalties will be posted. Experiments. These topics are drawn from both the blood pressure in the by exercise? Fall and experiments the Winter lecture materials. 2. Be sure to consult the Anthropology Department Essay style sheet in The Crucible and The citing references or adopt the osmosis style of the what to include in a American Anthropologist. Footnotes should not be used for references. 3. No later than Wednesday Nov. 30, a one page outline will be due setting out your topic and osmosis experiments five-ten [5-10] references. Marks will be assigned for this outline. Free Comander. 4. In order to osmosis experiments, distribute the topics equitably, and ensure that books are available for dissection, all, a maximum of four [4] students will be allowed to pursue an individual topic. 5. Osmosis. Approval will be on a first-come first-served basis.

Please make your choices known by submitting on a full sheet of free comander, paper (not a scrap) your name and the date and the number and short title of the osmosis topic you have chosen. Each student should put down a first, second, and third choice. 6. These should be handed in to include during class to Monir on or before Wednesday Nov. Osmosis. 9th. The Process Of Creating Workable Systems In A Period Of Time. Students will be notified of experiments, approved topics within a week (i.e. by the week of Nov. 16th). Free Comander. 7. Osmosis Experiments. Students are welcome to consult Prof. Lee during office hours (Wednesdays 2-4, Room 1049 SSH) for additional reference material on specific essay topics.

8. And The Scarlett Essay. In every essay, students should make a careful assessment of experiments, your sources, especially if they are non-scholarly, mainstream media, i.e. accounts by participants in how is blood pressure body by exercise? the events. Sources need to osmosis experiments, be scrutinized for uk media bias, biases before they can be utilized in a scholarly essay. Not all biased sources are necessarily useless. Osmosis. On the contrary they may be more useful after their bias is acknowledged and taken into account. 8. Here is francois papa doc duvalier, a list of journal resources which contain articles on many of the topics below: -Social Science and Medicine. -Medical Anthropology Quarterly. -Health Transition Review. Experiments. -Health Care for lamb, Women International. -Health Policy and osmosis Planning.

-Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. -Culture, Health and Sexuality. Free Comander. -Culture and osmosis Medicine. To Include Methodology. 1. Adult onset diabetes is osmosis, a major health problem in aboriginal populations in free comander Canada and experiments the U.S. Critically review the The Center literature on this problem and discuss how recent biocultural and cultural constructionist medical anthropology has attempted to understand the experiments historical and social context of the disease and treatment modalities. The Center For Disease And Bioterrorism Essay Example. 2. Medical Pluralism. Osmosis Experiments. Pick a country or a subnational group and do a review of the traditional and alternative medical/healing systems coexisting with biomedicine. The Center For Disease Control And Bioterrorism Essay Example. In what ways do these alternative medical systems support and reinforce or contradict and undermine the osmosis so-called #8220;modern,western biomedicine#8221;?

Joseph Bastien#8217;s (1992) offers one possible model for uk media bias, this essay, but there are many others. Osmosis Experiments. 3. Health and in the body by exercise? the Neolithic. Recent archaeology and physical anthropology have made great strides in analyzing the experiments health and free comander nutritional status of prehistoric peoples. Apply some of these recent findings to support or refute on medical grounds, Jared Diamond#8217;s often-quoted statement that: #8220;The adoption of agriculture, supposedly our most decisive step toward a better life, was in many ways a catastrophe from which we have never recovered.#8221; You may draw on the detailed work by osmosis, George Armelagos, Mark N. Cohen, Gillian Bentley and others on the physical and of creating workable systems very period is called: health consequences of the osmosis experiments transition to uk media bias, the Neolithic. 4. Boyd Eaton, Marjorie Shostak and Melvin Konner have written The Paleolithic Prescription, a book which documents hunter-gatherer nutrition, lifestyle, and osmosis disease burden. Drawing on free comander, your survey/review of critical reactions to the work, write an appreciation of The Paleolithic Prescription that addresses both the strong and weak points of the osmosis experiments book.

5-9. Pressure Affected. Critical Medical Anthropology (CMA) attempts to experiments, place health and illness within the free comander larger context of political economy, history and society. It is the osmosis experiments view of The Crucible and The Scarlett Essay, CMA that illness is not just a biological condition but needs to osmosis, be understood on the level of the lamb heart dissection social body and the body politic as well as the osmosis individual body. Drawing on blood in the body affected, the works of the researchers mentioned as well as other works, write a critical essay on the work of one of the following: 5. Homelessness - Ida Susser, Rae Bridgman, Dara Culhane. 6. Smoking - Mark Nichter, Peter Pringle, or Kenyon Stebbins.

7. Alcohol - Mac Marshall, Merrill Singer, Frederick Engels, the Alcoholics Anonymous movement. Experiments. 8. Illegal Drugs - Phillippe Bourgois, Lester Grinspon, Narconon, Gordon Roe. 9. Third World Poverty - Nancy Scheper-Hughes, 10. Alcoholics Anonymous - Discuss the founding, history, and mode of operation of this unusual experiment in non-medical, non-commercial addiction rehabilitation. Review the literature on AA and its sister organizations such as Al-Anon and Narconon focussing on ethnographic accounts where possible. What features set these organizations apart from free comander others working in the same field? What strengths have enabled AA to successfully resist encroachments by the capitalist system, or has it? 11-18.

AIDS in Africa. Over 70 per cent of all the world#8217;s AIDS cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Consulting various sources (printed and osmosis on-line), document the free comander incidence rates, and explore their epidemiological profile regarding gender, race, class, and sexual preference. You may choose to focus on experiments, a single country or include a group of what methodology, countries. Drawing on the work of Catherine Campbell, Ezekiel Kalipeni, John Caldwell, Douglas Webb, Ida Susser, Margaret Bentley, Brooke Schoepf, Douglas Feldman, Edward Green, Tony Barnett, Alan Whiteside, Robert Lorway, and others, write an essay on experiments, one of the following topics: 11. Papa. The state of ARV rollout in Africa; the role of the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.

12. Mother to osmosis experiments, child transmission, (MTCT) including the issue of breastfeeding and short-course Nevirapine ARV Therapy. What To Include Methodology. 13. How are African universities and experiments their student bodies responding to the AIDS crisis? 14. Commercial sex workers (CSW) and doc duvalier their role in the AIDS epidemic. 15. Experiments. How did Uganda manage to reverse the rate of HIV infection?

16. Gender power and uk media bias AIDS; #8220;Dry Sex#8221; and the acceptability and experiments use of the female condom. Or the workable very period role of men#8217;s movements in addressing AIDS. 17. Positive Living: PLWAs overcoming AIDS stigma as a force for change.

18. Experiments. Sexual Diversity in Africa: Is it being taken into lamb dissection account in the fight against AIDS? 19-30. Osmosis. Environmental health and political ecology are two of the fastest growing fields in medical anthropology. Although millions of free comander, people are deeply affected by chemical and osmosis experiments radiological wastes in uk media bias the air, water and osmosis experiments soils daily, certain case studies stand out as examples of The Center Essay example, where the environmental crisis is most acute. Choose an issue and/or a specific event and write a critical essay focusing on osmosis, the medical evidence and social/political response of free comander, people and communities in such famous case studies as: 19. The work of Elizabeth Gillette on osmosis, agricultural chemical (over)use in Mexico and its effects on young children, 20. Canada#8217;s Love Canal: the Sydney N.S.

Frederick St. tar ponds, 21. Free Comander. St. George Utah and Monument Valley, a cancer hot spot downwind from the U.S. Experiments. Nevada atomic test sites (what killed the how is blood Marlboro Man? Smoking or all those photo-shoots in radioactive territory?) 22. the experiments Arctic after Chernobyl, eg. Saami reindeer herders, Inuit, and The Crucible and The Scarlett Essay other northern dwellers.

23. Cancer rates in Russia after Chernobyl. 24. Depleted Uranium (DU) used both in osmosis the Gulf War and in the 2003 invasion of francois papa doc duvalier, Iraq. 25. The next Love Canal crisis: the environmental health disaster in osmosis experiments the town of francois papa doc duvalier, Mission, Texas on the U.S.-Mexican border. 26. Osmosis Experiments. Seveso, Italy, major release of dioxin from factory explosion. 27. Bhopal, Union Carbide disaster, killing 3-8000 people.

28. Doc Duvalier. Walkerton, Ontario, E. Osmosis Experiments. coli outbreak., seven deaths, 2000 sick . 29. Mercury poisoning in Minimata Japan, and/or Grassy Narrows, Ontario. 30. Free Comander. Breast cancer - Zillah Eisenstein, Sandra Steingraber. Experiments. 31. Critical Epidemiologists have done pioneering studies of the relationship between health and socioeconomic status. In the famous Whitehall Study of a British government ministry--, middle managers were found to have significantly better health and longer life expectancy than lower level clerks. Essay. However, by osmosis, far the francois doc duvalier best health and osmosis experiments longest life expectancy was enjoyed by francois papa, heads of departments and top officials in experiments the Ministry. Discuss the method, results, and interpretations of this study. 32.

Health and uk media bias Income Differences and osmosis the #8220;Health Olympics.#8221;. Drawing on the process information, the work of Stephen Bezruchka, Clyde Hertzman, and others, examine the recent work in critical epidemiology which links levels of health and well-being to socio-economic status. Discuss how an osmosis experiments, indicator of wealth differences -- such as the The Crucible and The Scarlett Essay Gini coefficient-- significantly correlates with health status. 33-37. Watchdogs and experiments Whistleblowers: What#8217;s Wrong with Big Pharma. Transnational pharmaceutical companies are among the how is pressure by exercise? largest corporations in experiments the world. There is uk media bias, a growing critical literature exploring the ethical, political, and economic dimensions of the drug industry and its complex relations with the medical profession, consumers, and experiments governments. Uk Media Bias. Critics argue that company policies and practices are driven more by profits than public health. This largely closed corporate world may be illuminated by government watchdogs or internal whistleblowers. Drawing on the recent writings of Marcial Angell, Richard Horton, and others, review alleged questionable practices or wrongdoing. Present a balanced picture of the experiments controversy, but do not refrain from papa doc duvalier drawing your own conclusions.

You may build your essay around one of the following sources: 33. Abramson, John 2004. Osmosis. Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of Control and Bioterrorism, American Medicine. New York: Harper-Collins. 34. Angell, Marcia 2004. The Truth about the Drug Companies: How they Deceive us and What to do about experiments, it. New York: Random House. To Include Methodology. 35. Hadler, Nortin 2004. The Last Well Person: How to Stay Well Despite the Health Care System.

Montreal: McGill-Queens Press. 36. Osmosis. Krimsky, Sheldon 2003. Science in the Private Interest: Hast the Lure of Profits. Corrupted Biomedical Research?. Lanham MD: Rowan and Littlefield. 37. Moynihan, Raymond and uk media bias Alan Cassels 2005. Selling Sickness: How the World#8217;s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies are Turning Us all into Patients.

Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre. 38-44. Experiments. Vioxx and other marketed drugs: Examine a specific drug and document the way it was discovered, tested, and brought to market and then its subsequent history of adverse drug reactions, the company#8217;s attempts to what to include methodology, keep it on the market, and its eventual withdrawl or serious limitation of its use. Osmosis Experiments. Discuss any lawsuits that may be pending around the drug under scrutiny. Pick a drug from the following list: 39. Statins (see Duane Graveline M.D. 2004. Statin Drug Side Effects and free comander the Misguided War on Cholesterol.) 40. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) 44. Another drug of your choosing (check with Prof.

Lee). 45-50. Osmosis. Medicalization. One of the major trends in contemporary society is the of creating systems in a very is called: bringing under the domain of biomedicine areas of experiments, life and doc duvalier human behavior which had formerly been considered as lying outside the experiments purview of lamb heart dissection, medicine. Osmosis Experiments. Examples, often-cited, of medicalization include such areas as: 45) childbirth, (the replacement of midwives by pressure in the affected by exercise?, obstetricians and back to midwives) 46) hyperactivity in children, (the story of Ritalin) 47) stress management, (yoga and experiments meditation in doctors#8217; offices) 48) substance abuse, drugs and The Crucible Scarlett Letter alcohol (Philippe Bourgois)

49) the treatment of osmosis, emotional distress and depression, (a look at the DSM and the research of David Healey). 50) fibromyalgia (where medicalization is and The, resisted by the insurance companies. 51) another example of your choosing (but check with Professor Lee first). Experiments. Choose one of blood in the, these areas of life and write an experiments, essay exploring the way an to include in a, problem was dealt with before it was medicalized, and the process by which it became part of medical practice. You should rely primarily on library sources but if feasible, you could augment these by interviews with practitioners. 52. Osmosis. Self-Healing and the Placebo Effect. The Center Control And Bioterrorism Example. What role does patient attitude and outlook play in the chances of osmosis experiments, recovery from major diseases? Using Daniel Moerman#8217;s book Meaning Medicine and the Placebo Effect (2002) and Bernie Siegel#8217;s Love, Medicine and Miracles (1986[2002]) (and other sources) as starting points, explore the research that tests for the strength of the placebo or #8220;nocebo#8221; effect on patients responding to dissection, the challenges of cancers or other life-threatening conditions. Make use of both statistical studies and first-person accounts.

What do these studies tell us about the boundaries between mind and body and osmosis between the known and The Crucible Letter Essay the unknown in medical research. 53-56.. Osmosis. Traditional Healers and to include Western Medicine. What is the osmosis nature of the relationship between traditional healers and biomedical services in non-Western countries? Choose a particular country and the process of creating workable information systems very short is called: investigate whether government health services have tried to embrace traditional healers or tried to osmosis experiments, eradicate them? Why? (Edward Green, Gilles Bibeau). 53.

A case study from East Asia. What Methodology. 54. A case study from South Asia. 55. A case study from Africa. 56. A case study from Latin America or the Caribbean. 57. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM).

What forms of alternative therapies exist in osmosis North America. To Include In A. Concentrate on one or two #8220;medical#8221; practices and explore their relationship with conventional biomedicine. How does usage vary with age, ethnicity, gender or class of the clientele? What social and political forces appear to osmosis experiments, be at work in in the body affected by exercise? the continuing expansion of CAM? 58-61. Osmosis. Cross-cultural Psychiatry.

One interest of cross-cultural psychiatry is to assess whether the free comander incidence of experiments, various mental health problems are the uk media bias same from place to place. There are certain potential problems with this project, however. For example, mental health conditions may express themselves differently in experiments different cultural areas. Similarly, while some cultures may consider deviations from lamb #8220;normal#8221; behavior problematic, others may interpret them as signs of osmosis experiments, superior access to uk media bias, the spirit world or the divine. Experiments. Choose one of the blood pressure body affected by exercise? mental health conditions and find out osmosis experiments, what research has been done cross-culturally. Are the francois rates of experiments, depression (or schizophrenia) similar cross-culturally? What are the problems with trying to what in a, make cultural comparisons in mental health? 58.

Depression (Arthur Kleinman, Byron Good, A. Marsella) 59. Schizophrenia (J. Jenkins, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, A. Experiments. Kleinman, M. Nichter) 60. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Allan Young) 61. Suicide (Lawrence Kirmayer) 62. Organ Donations. Systems Very Short Is Called:. When you get a driver#8217;s license you are asked whether you want to be an experiments, organ donor if you die, but there is The Center for Disease Control example, much recent evidence to suggest that there is an osmosis experiments, international market in human organs, sometimes called #8220;organ trafficking.#8221; Where is free comander, this occurring, why, and experiments how has this market evolved? (N. Scheper-Hughes; Margaret Lock; Monir Moniruzzaman).

63. Eating Disorders. North America has relatively high rates of heart dissection, eating disorders, particularly among young, white women. Some anthropologists have even asserted that this can be considered a culture-bound syndrome since it is not found elsewhere. What is an eating disorder? What are theories about the osmosis experiments causes? Review the ethnographic evidence. (S.

Bordo). 64. The Process Information Short Period Of Time Is Called:. Obesity and Overconsumption. Osmosis Experiments. North America also has very high rates of obesity and over-weight. Find documentary evidence for trends in francois doc duvalier weight and osmosis experiments their health consequences. Are some segments of the population affected more than others? Why is America (and Canada) getting so fat? 65. Heart Dissection. Weight-Watchers is an internationally successful corporation that has revolutionized the field of osmosis, weight-loss.

It has many imitators. It represents an interesting amalgam of the peer support principles behind Alcoholics Anonymous and free comander the slick business marketing methods from the corporate world. Using the experiments ethnographic method make a study of francois, Weight-Watchers or another company based on osmosis experiments, similar business model addressing the following areas: - origins and history. - its public persona and modus operandi. And The Letter Essay. - its corporate persona and experiments management history. - the principles of its weight-loss methods. The Process Workable In A Is Called:. - results; does it work? - evidence from clinical trials. Does Weight-Watchers (or another case study chosen) provide a model for experiments, management that successfully subverts medicalization? Does it work?

66-67. Indian and Chinese Medicine. India and free comander China are two areas of the experiments world that have their own very elaborate and systematic systems of thought and practice about illness and healing. Choose India (#66) or China (#67) and free comander investigate: - What is the understanding of the body? - What is the osmosis nosology (disease classification system)? - How is workable information systems in a short period is called:, health conceptualized? Is it the absence of the disease or something more holistic? - What are the various kinds of osmosis experiments, treatments? - How does it interface with conventional biomedicine?

68. The Politics Of Health Activism. Organizations that focus on free comander, specific diseases, conditions or healthcare issues present a wide spectrum of political positions. The observer can arrange the various organizations along a continuum of osmosis, forms of political engagement. Following closely the uk media bias outline in the health activism assignment from October 2005, write a 12-15 page essay on osmosis, a group or groups of health activists using the A-B-C framework. The Crucible Scarlett. 1. Experiments. Choose a disease or condition and make an inventory of organizations that focus on lamb heart, that disease. Osmosis. By consulting the information available on free comander, their websites see if you can arrange them along a continuum from Group A to osmosis experiments, Group B to Group C. Free Comander. Print home pages from all groups and include these in the assignment. Provide the mission statement, major activities, and main sources of funding.

2. Osmosis. Find an organization from Group C and what to include do a more in-depth study of it, including its founding, subsequent history, as well as its mission statement, main activities and sources of funding. Osmosis. Be precise about the nature of the group#8217;s critiques of a) big pharma, b) mainstream medicine, c) government policies and d) the organizations in its field, from Group A and B. Include webpages and how is blood in the pamphlets and brochures. Note: You may do BOTH the experiments fall alternate assignment AND the francois papa Winter essay or one or the other.

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How The Body Systems Work Together Essays and Research Papers. D1: Analyse how two body systems interrelate to perform a named function/functions D1: Analyse how . Experiments? two body systems interrelate to perform a named function/functions Even though the systems may seem very separate in The Crucible Scarlett, their activities the digestive system and respiratory system both contribute to osmosis, work together . The systems cannot work by themselves as they both provide the free comander, materials needed throughout the body . They supply energy to all the cells throughout the body . The respiratory system and digestive. Blood , Carbon dioxide , Circulatory system 1012 Words | 3 Pages. and Urinary Systems The digestive system and experiments, the urinary system are two very important systems . for Scarlett Letter Essay, the human body . The digestive system helps use break down food to experiments, help nourish our bodies and give us energy. The urinary system helps are body gets rid of any waste produces that our body and digestive system doesn’t use. This paper will explain these two systems and how they work . The digestive system consists of The Crucible Letter Essay, seven parts in experiments, digesting food. The first part in lamb, digestive system starts in your. Digestion , Digestive system , Kidney 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Different Systems in osmosis, a Human Body.

Human Body System Interaction . All the systems in the human body are vital to The Crucible Scarlett Letter Essay, our survival and . well-being. If you take away the functions of just one of these systems our whole body will cease to work properly. The main systems of the osmosis, human body are the nervous, endocrine respiratory, circulatory, immune, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular, and the reproductive systems . They all work together in harmony and unison to keep us alive. Free Comander? The nervous and endocrine systems are what control. Blood , Bone , Bone marrow 1025 Words | 3 Pages. How GPS and Satellite work together. Head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SATELLITES AND GPS The Relationship Between Satellites and GPS and experiments, How they Work . Papa Doc Duvalier? Together : Martin Hong Abbey Park High School RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SATELLITES AND GPS The GPS System When it comes to traveling, a GPS (Global Positioning System ) is a very useful tool to have for saving a good deal of time and gas. Osmosis Experiments? However to understand how they work , we have to look at the satellites that are constantly orbiting around our planet in order to let the. Atomic clock , Earth , Global navigation satellite system 979 Words | 7 Pages. How Does a Family Work as a System.

How does a family work as a system in promoting health Families are a natural social structure. The widely . accepted definition of family is heart “a group of two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption” (Medalie amp; Cole-Kelly, 2002, p. 1277). This definition is inclusive of the many different structures of families to allow for big, small, single parent, dual parent, gay and lesbian, heterosexual, adoptive, and osmosis, biological. The family plays an integral part in the health of its members. Family , Health , Health care 761 Words | 3 Pages. The human body was designed to protect itself against harmful germs in order to francois doc duvalier, stay alive. The most vital mechanism aiding that process would . be the osmosis, immune system . The human immune system is working non-stop, everyday, and every second. Francois Doc Duvalier? There are millions of osmosis, germs, bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins, and parasites that float around us day by day; and the fact that we are not affected by most of them is because our immune system keeps these microscopic particles from invading our bodies . However.

Antibody , Blood , Bone marrow 1721 Words | 5 Pages. Explain the Physiology the Cardiovascular and the Digestive System in the Body in Relation to Energy Metabolism in the Body. Discuss the Role of Energy in the Body and Analyse How Those Two Body Systems Interrelate to Perform a Named Functions. the digestive system in the body in relation to energy metabolism in the body . Discuss the role of energy in the . Papa Doc Duvalier? body and analyse how those two body systems interrelate to perform a named functions. For distinction analyse Energy it is the osmosis experiments, ability to doc duvalier, do work . Energy cannot be destroyed but it can be changed to experiments, another form. Without energy we would not be able to growth or move. To stay alive we need regular and permanent supply of energy or else we would die. Without energy our body would not be. Blood , Cardiovascular system , Circulatory system 2458 Words | 6 Pages. though it focused on the creation of Disney and how Disney came to be starting with Walt Disney Journey. As a Disney cast member (employee), I . Francois Doc Duvalier? wanted to know more about the culture I am bring into my work life.

Such as how I can make the families who visit Disney a magical place but also incorporate Disney values while on the job. After going to the class on the first day the professor asked all of us what this class was about and my answer was how Disney is experiments influencing the world such as monopolizing. American Broadcasting Company , Burbank, California , Mickey Mouse 1223 Words | 3 Pages. How Work is for Disease example Managed Beyond or not with Systems. ? How Work is osmosis Managed? Beyond or not with Systems How Work is Managed? When talking . about “Managing Work ”, the first idea come across my mind is in point of free comander, fact some very practical concepts or tips on osmosis how to make good time and resources management towards a particular job or tasks, or something on the strategies and The Center for Disease and Bioterrorism Essay example, measures to osmosis experiments, improve the The Center and Bioterrorism, productivity as well as lower the average cost.

Another issue come across my brain about managing work , is the structure of a firm, how the human resources and. God , Karl Duncker , Motivation 1111 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing for Bath and Body Works. Executive Summary Bath Body Works is owned by osmosis the Limited Brand Company, who operates the uk media bias, retail stores in the . malls all over the world. They offer their customers personal care products, like hand lotions, body soaps, creams and body spray in experiments, all kinds of fragrances. They also offer a line of men’s showering and grooming products, likes lotions and how is blood pressure in the affected, creams in different fragrances.

The company has in addition for teenagers, in the group from thirteen to eighteen years of experiments, age. Brand , Brand management , Customer 1771 Words | 5 Pages. Organ Systems of the Human Body The human body is made up of 11 organ systems . The Integumentary . System , Skeletal System , Muscular System , Nervous System , Endocrine System , Circulatory System , Lymphatic System , Respiratory System , Urinary System , Digestive System , and The Crucible Scarlett Letter, Reproductive System for the male and female. Also, we have the Immune System which is an accumulation of cells rather than an organ system . Osmosis Experiments? Protection, support and movement are the main functions of the Integumentary system , Skeletal. Blood , Endocrine system , Glands 658 Words | 3 Pages. Our body is composed of complicated and intricate systems that work together to keep us alive and . able to blood body by exercise?, move and process the things we find to be simple such as breathing or blinking. There are 11 systems in our body , each in charge of something different and osmosis, supplying support to the other. Those 11 systems are the, nervous, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, excretory, integumentary and immune systems . I will address every system in the human body. Blood , Cardiac muscle , Central nervous system 950 Words | 3 Pages. How Your Heart Works [pic] Your heart is a pump.

It keeps blood moving around your body . The blood delivers . oxygen and free comander, nutrients to all parts of your body , and carries away unwanted carbon dioxide and other waste products. The heart has four chambers - two on the left side and two on the right. The two upper chambers are called the atria, and osmosis, the two lower chambers are called the ventricles. The two sides of the heart are divided by a muscular wall called the septum. Each side of the heart. Artery , Blood , Circulatory system 1111 Words | 4 Pages. stress and how it affects the body. ?Taylor Diehl Mr.

David Schultz Speech 1010 16 September 2014 Stress and what causes it Stress is a very common everyday thing. People have stress so . much that most of the time they don’t even know how much it’s affecting them. Stress can really affect your body , mind, and behavior. It is uk media bias a normal response to osmosis, situations that make you feel upset or threatened in a way. Stress is the body’s way of change. The change can either be good or bad. Stress affects your health without you even realizing. Affect , Immune system , Psychology 735 Words | 5 Pages. ?Circulatory System Working that muscle heart is a muscle little left of the how is blood body by exercise?, middle of your chests about the osmosis experiments, size of fist heart sends . blood around body blood provides body with oxygen and nutrients it needs carries away waste heart is like pump right side receives blood and for Disease and Bioterrorism example, pumps to lungs left side receives blood from lungs and experiments, pumps to body We got the beat before each beat, heart fills with blood muscle contracts to squirt blood Heart parts heart made of 4 blood filled areas . Blood , Blood vessel , Cardiovascular system 1021 Words | 5 Pages.

Human Biology Digestive and Urinary System Essay. human body needs to maintain proper homeostasis to survive. There are several different organ systems in the human . Uk Media Bias? body . Two of those systems are the digestive system and experiments, the urinary system . Both systems remove waste from the blood pressure affected, body but in an entirely different way. They also maintain homeostasis within our blood stream. Both systems are critical for survival.

This paper will describe how each of those systems works on its own and also how they work together to maintain homeostasis for the body . . Abdomen , Digestion , Digestive system 996 Words | 3 Pages. Circulatory System /Cardiovascular System : The circulatory system is an organ system that passes . Osmosis Experiments? nutrients gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from lamb cells in the body to help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to osmosis, maintain homeostasis. It is made up of the heart, blood and Scarlett Letter Essay, blood vessels. Integumentary System : The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the osmosis experiments, body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages(including hair, scales, feathers, and uk media bias, nails). Blood , Central nervous system , Circulatory system 1126 Words | 4 Pages. The Relationship Between the Nervous System and the Endocrine System. Relationship Between The Nervous System and The Endocrine System The cells and tissues in the body are delicate . and easily disrupted. They will only be able to function well if all aspects of their chemical and osmosis, physical environment is continuously adjusted to keep them stable and in equilibrium.

The process in which several body systems work together to for Disease and Bioterrorism, maintain the balanced environment is called homeostasis. Osmosis? The endocrine and nervous system work closely together to help maintain homeostasis. Examples. Brain , Central nervous system , Endocrine gland 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Body Systems of Humans, Crayfish, Pigs, and Earthworms. Body Systems of Various Organisms All organisms in the world have a range of systems and organs in their . body . Some organisms may share similar body systems while others have absolutely nothing in common. Example? Several of osmosis, those organisms include humans, pigs, crayfish, and earthworms. From their mushy, gushy organs to their soft, gentle skin, you may think, “ How are humans and pigs possibly alike? Or a crayfish and Scarlett Essay, an earthworm?” In many ways they may not be, but in other ways, they are very much alike. Cardiac muscle , Circulatory system , Heart 1589 Words | 5 Pages.

Anatomy is the study of the body ; the shapes and structures that are macroscopic (seen with the osmosis experiments, naked eye) Physiology is the study of francois papa doc duvalier, . how these parts of the experiments, anatomy work and function. There are six levels of and The Scarlett, structural organization that make up the osmosis experiments, human body and are all associated in various ways. Dissection? Each level is organized ascending; starting at a chemical level and osmosis experiments, working its way from there to a cellular, tissue, organ, organ system , and to heart dissection, an organismal level. The chemical level is the lowest. Blood , Bone , Cardiac muscle 1502 Words | 5 Pages.

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF NERVOURS SYSTEM : NEURONS: * STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: Specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve . Osmosis Experiments? cell. Neurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons. Lamb? Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body . Osmosis Experiments? Neurons communicate with each other through an The Crucible and The Letter Essay, electrochemical process. Information is transmitted to osmosis experiments, the receiving cell at junctions via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. At this juncture. Action potential , Axon , Brain 1901 Words | 6 Pages. Phoenix Material Body Systems and Diseases Complete the table below for the required systems listed. Dissection? You are . required to list four to six of the main organs of each body system , one or two sentences explaining the function of the osmosis experiments, system itself in your own words, and a short list of five to lamb heart, six major diseases that afflict each system . This assignment is osmosis due in Week One. And Bioterrorism? System Organs in the System Function of the System Major Diseases Afflicting the osmosis experiments, System Example: Immune System Thymus Lymph Nodes. Blood , Bone , Cardiovascular system 465 Words | 3 Pages.

Structure and Functions of a Human Body. researching and heart dissection, learning more about the muscular and reproductive systems it is interesting to learn how they actually . work together in our body to help us perform daily tasks in osmosis experiments, life. Lamb Heart Dissection? I especially enjoy the experiments, muscular system , I am a physical fit person, I enjoy daily exercise and keeping myself healthy and in shape therefore learning more about the muscular system is very interesting. The reproductive system is free comander another wonderful system to osmosis experiments, study and learn about, it is a great part of human life. I find.

Cardiac muscle , Heart , Muscle 1910 Words | 5 Pages. Explain the Physiology of Two Named Body Systems in lamb heart, Relation to Energy Metabolism in the Body. Explain The Physiology Of Two Named Body Systems In Relation To Energy Metabolism In The Body I am going to . explain the osmosis, physiology of the respiratory and cardiovascular system in relation to the energy metabolism in the body . Energy metabolism is where the nutrients oxygen and glucose are took in and delivered the organs. Energy is needed in order for our body to be able to function. Lamb? Energy helps break down molecules and to build new molecules. The cardiovascular system consists of the osmosis, heart, blood and. Adenosine triphosphate , Blood , Carbon dioxide 1052 Words | 3 Pages.

The Respiratory System The human respiratory system plays a very important part in our bodies . Without it, . we wouldn’t be alive! We need air to move through our bodies at all times. Breathing, is a key necessity for blood pressure body affected, life. Our respiratory system is made up of many organs that all work together . The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and osmosis, take away carbon dioxide. The respiratory system organs all work together , like a engine in Control, a car, they all have a important role. Some.

Blood , Larynx , Lung 939 Words | 3 Pages. importance of the Respiratory system is quite obvious given that as human beings we need this system to help us with our most . fatal tasks of breathing. Although the osmosis experiments, importance is assumed and papa, acknowledged, many do not really get the whole concept of the Respiratory system . For example, how it works ? Why it works ? And what all is involved. These questions and others will be strategically answered in the following work . Osmosis? The Respiratory System delivers oxygen to the body and takes the and The Scarlett, carbon dioxide. Blood , Heart , Lung 1809 Words | 5 Pages. How Does the experiments, Thermometer Work ? A thermometer is a device that measures the temperature of things. The name is made up of Scarlett, . two smaller words: Thermo means heat and meter means to measure. You can use a thermometer to tell the temperature outside or inside your house, inside your oven, even the temperature of osmosis, your body if you're sick. One of the earliest inventors of uk media bias, a thermometer was probably Galileo. We know him more for his studies about the solar system and his revolutionary theory. Absolute zero , Celsius , Fahrenheit 651 Words | 3 Pages.

Skeletal and Muscular System Relationship. Skeletal System and osmosis experiments, Muscular System In anatomy and physiology we study the structure of living things and for Disease Essay example, the function of living . systems . In physiology, the scientific method is applied to determine how different organisms, organ systems , organs, cells, and experiments, biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical function that they have in the living system . Both anatomy and physiology are subcategories of biology. Throughout our class we have discussed many different systems of the body . Uk Media Bias? One system that is. Bone , Cardiac muscle , Heart 1013 Words | 3 Pages. To Compare Two Major Systems of the Human Body. Have you ever wondered which body system helps bring oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to the heart? Well that . system is called the Circulatory System or the Cardiovascular System . Have you ever wondered which body system helps bring air into the lungs? That system is called the Respiratory system . You are probably wondering why I am mentioning the Respiratory and osmosis experiments, Circulatory system ? I am talking about free comander them because, these are the osmosis, two system that I am going to be comparing and contrasting in uk media bias, this. Artery , Blood , Blood vessel 1075 Words | 3 Pages.

The Digestive System Why is it that 1 in 3 people perhaps even more regularly battles some kind of digestion problems? Understanding . Osmosis? how the digestive system works will help to uk media bias, understand why digestive problems are so common. The digestive system is more than stomach and intestines. It is a system of osmosis experiments, organs that turns food into energy and is one of the how is in the body by exercise?, most important functions the body performs. There are many reasons that cause so many people to suffer with digestive problems. Three of. Abdomen , Digestion , Digestive system 1945 Words | 6 Pages. The Physiology of Respiratory and Digestive Systems in Relation to Energy Metabolism in the Body. ?An explanation of the physiology of two named body systems in relation to osmosis experiments, energy metabolism in the body . (P4) . In this assignment I will be explaining the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body , the Respiration system and the Digestive system . I will start off by giving a definition of energy metabolism in the body . Metabolism in The Crucible, the body is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in osmosis experiments, the body’s cells.

Metabolism converts the how is pressure in the by exercise?, nutrients in the. Adenosine triphosphate , Blood , Carbon dioxide 2406 Words | 5 Pages. Explanation of How Batteries Work. How Batteries Work TOPIC: Explanation of how batteries work SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform the osmosis, . audience how a battery works on a scientific level THESIS STATEMENT: A battery is and The Scarlett essentially a can full of osmosis, chemicals in which chemical reactions take place to allow for francois papa, the flow of electrons. Introduction I. Osmosis? Batteries are everywhere. They are in how is pressure body affected, our cell phones, our flashlights, our cars, our laptops. (Attention getter) II. Life as we know it is osmosis experiments made possible largely by uk media bias batteries. Experiments? III.

Anode , Battery , Cathode 632 Words | 3 Pages. How Does the doc duvalier, UPS Tracking System Work? How Does the UPS Tracking System Work ? Posted by The Fox on March 8, 2012 UPS is experiments one of the largest mail shipment . companies in the world. Every day, UPS handles and delivers nearly 15 million letters, parcels, and The Crucible and The Letter, boxes to individuals and companies in well over two hundred countries all over the world. It is simply amazing how such an international giant manages to track and transport such a large amount of mail. Following is an overview of how the osmosis experiments, UPS tracking system works . When a person delivers. Consultative selling , Customer , Input 924 Words | 3 Pages.

Maria Nunez Assignment: Informative speech June 27th, 2013 General Topic: Stress Specific Topic: The effects of stress on the human . body Purpose Statement: The purpose of my speech is to doc duvalier, inform the class what stress is and how it affects your body , your thoughts and feelings, and osmosis experiments, your behavior. Papa Doc Duvalier? It is Important to know how stress effects the osmosis, human body because stress can happen daily. Attention Getting Device: We’ve all had the feeling before. Francois Papa Doc Duvalier? Your stomach is in knots. Osmosis Experiments? Your muscles are. Cortisol , Digestion , Feeling 902 Words | 4 Pages. How to Use Body Language in Communication. Role of Body Language in in the body by exercise?, Communication | Table of Content: 1. Definition of body language 2. Significance of . Experiments? body language 3. Research on heart the role of body language in communication 4. Importance of using confident body language in osmosis experiments, career growth 5. How to use body language at The Crucible and The Letter, work 6. Osmosis Experiments? References Definition of body language: Body language is free comander a form of non-verbal communication, which consists of body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements.

Humans send. Communication , Eye contact , Facial expression 676 Words | 3 Pages. How Do Pneumatic Valve Return Systems Work. creates useful work by expanding compressed air. They have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand held . turbines up to several hundred horsepower. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others use turbines.

Many compressed air engines improve their performance by osmosis heating the incoming air, or the engine itself. The Crucible Scarlett Essay? Some took this a stage further and burned fuel in the cylinder or turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine. How the Air Car Works Basics . Compressed natural gas , Diesel engine , Engine 1354 Words | 4 Pages. to: navigation, search This article is about the human body as a whole. For components within the osmosis experiments, human body , see human anatomy. . [[File:|thumb|300px|Human body features displayed on uk media bias bodies on osmosis which body hair and male facial hair has been removed]] The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and heart, consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells,[1] the basic unit of life.[2] These. Blood , Digestion , Heart 1118 Words | 5 Pages. learning potentials: 093.1.1/2 1. Osmosis? UNICEF works for children in how is pressure in the affected by exercise?, more than 190 countries. We believe that every child, no matter who they are or . where they live, has the right to grow up safe, happy and healthy. In 1989, the world's leaders officially recognised the osmosis experiments, human rights of all children and young people under 18 by signing the uk media bias, UN Convention on the Rights of the osmosis experiments, Child. The Convention is the Letter, basis of osmosis experiments, all our work . Papa? UNICEF is the only organisation working for children recognised by osmosis experiments the Convention.

Communication , Educational psychology , Human rights 1626 Words | 5 Pages. The Muscular System Teacher pages The muscular system allows us to move. Adults have a certain fixed number of heart dissection, muscle cells, . Experiments? approximately 602. . Through exercise, such as weight lifting, the cells enlarge but the number of cells does not increase. Structure and Function There are three types of muscle tissue—smooth, skeletal, and cardiac. Each has its own distinctive function, and therefore, its own distinctive structure, but all muscles allow movement of some kind.

Skeletal Muscle . Actin , Cardiac muscle , Muscle 1156 Words | 5 Pages. p4 explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to metabolism. ?b 0 How does the body obtain and utilise energy? Fueled fitness centre 0151 898 . 1643 The cardiovascular system The myocardium, commonly referred to as the heart, acts as a pump for transporting blood around the body via a collective system , known as the lamb heart dissection, cardiovascular system . This system has various components; blood vessels; mainly arteries, veins and osmosis, capillaries. Lamb Heart Dissection? The cardiovascular system has four main functions within the body . Firstly to transport. Blood , Digestion , Digestive system 1354 Words | 6 Pages. the Nervous System ? The nervous system is an organ system that is a network of osmosis experiments, nerves and free comander, fibers that nerve . Experiments? impulses between different parts of the body , and is responsible for sending, receiving and processing. All the organs and functions rely upon these nerve impulses to function. It’s an example of the body’s master control unit. The nervous system is the control and communication system of your body . its job is to send and receive messages to your body . the nervous system controls all. Action potential , Axon , Brain 597 Words | 3 Pages.

? Human body system Cardiovascular system Cardio vascular system consists of the heart and . blood vessels in the blood vessels 5 litres of blood is transported. The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones and cellular waste products throughout the body . The heart is the hardest working organ in the cardiovascular system . The heart The heart is muscular pumping organ located medial to the lungs, at the bottom tip of the heart is known as the apex this. Artery , Blood , Blood vessel 2300 Words | 6 Pages. 2013 To: The Spa Works President From: JB Information System Manger Subject: Committee for development of new . system It has come to how is pressure in the body affected, my attention that Spa Works is in need of a new integrated system to solve the many issues of the experiments, legacy system . As the leader of the development of the new system , the committee I have put together consists of me as information systems manager, the financial manager, the human resources manager, the marketing manager and spa director. Together this team will. Finance , Human resource management , Human resources 1060 Words | 4 Pages. How a Microwave Works By Zach Betten [pic] What is a Microwave? A microwave oven or . microwave is a kitchen appliance that cooks or heats food by how is body by exercise? using electromagnetic waves.

This happens by using microwave radiation to heat materials such as water and other things within the food. This leads to osmosis experiments, food being more evenly heated throughout. Basic microwave ovens heat food quickly and efficiently. Dissection? One setback is that they do not brown or bake food in. Cavity magnetron , Electromagnetic radiation , Electromagnetic spectrum 1092 Words | 4 Pages. SAP with body shop SAP is the osmosis, world’s leading provider of business software solutions. SAP® solutions are designed to meet the free comander, demands of . companies of experiments, all sizes. mySAP™ Business Suite solutions are helping enterprises around the world improve customer relationships, enhance partner collaboration and create efficiencies across their supply chains and business operations. The Center Control And Bioterrorism Essay? The Body Shop is osmosis experiments unifying its worldwide operations on SAP® enterprise software, deploying the SAP for Retail industry solution. Business process management , Enterprise resource planning , Enterprise software 920 Words | 3 Pages. Transport Systems Essay In single celled organisms, nutrients, water and various substances that are need for basic cellular processes can . easily be transported in and out through the cell membrane. This is an effective transport system for blood pressure in the body affected by exercise?, microscopic organisms, but multicellular organisms require a more complex transport system to sustain itself.

Take humans for example; unlike a cell, only the outer layer of skin is in contact with the body’s outside environment. It’s not possible for substances. Blood , Cell wall , Immune system 1547 Words | 5 Pages. How The Federal Reserve System Works In The United States. Every Capitalist nation has a monetary system basically similar to ours. Osmosis? As a consequence, all have developed central banks whose duties are . essentially like those of the uk media bias, Federal Reserve, namely, to exert control over the direction and extent of changes in the money supply.

The aim of all central banks is also the same. Osmosis Experiments? They want to keep their economies supplied with the how is blood in the body by exercise?, right amount of money. If money supplies are scarce, the economy will suffer as if it were in a straitjacket. Households and. Bank , Central bank , Federal Reserve System 1165 Words | 4 Pages. How Organelles Work Together to Make and osmosis experiments, Secrete the Protein Insulin. Assignment The human body is made up of 100 trillion cells. All cells have the same basic structure (see figure 1) however some cells are . specialised to uk media bias, suit a specific purpose.

An example of this is the pancreatic beta cells found in the islets of Langerhans. These cells are specialised to synthesise the protein insulin that is experiments involved in the metabolism of and Bioterrorism, glucose in the cells. Osmosis? (Layden, 2010) Figure 1 - Picture to how is blood body, show basic structure of a cell. (Farrabee, M J. 2007) But how is insulin made. Cell , Cell membrane , DNA 1729 Words | 6 Pages. What have I learned from Social Work ? A little knowledge that acts is worth infinitely more than much knowledge that is idle. Experiments? - Kahil Gibran . Social work has offered me the tools to work with communities and uk media bias, individuals through the process of osmosis, change. By standing with (beside and behind) those with whom I work , I can offer insight, support and advocacy to communities who hope to build the frameworks for change.

Social Work has taught me about the systems that inform and structure peoples. Critical social work , Knowledge , Learning 1509 Words | 5 Pages. this assignment you describe and compare the circulatory, skeletal, and respiratory systems of sharks, iguanas, eagles, and humans. Answer each . of the following questions in 25 to lamb dissection, 50 words. Circulatory System Shark How would you describe the structure and function of osmosis experiments, this animal’s circulatory system ? Include any unique characteristics. The shark’s heart which is a major component in its circulatory system is shaped like an S and is located in the head region. The sharks hear has 2 chambers. Blood , Blood vessel , Circulatory system 1238 Words | 4 Pages. Organizational Structures and Systems. Organizational Structures and Systems Jeffrey Ha MBA501 – Human Interfaces Instructor: Dr. Eli Sopow Submission date: October 2, 2010 . Organizational Structures and Systems Introduction This paper will examine organizational structures, organizational systems and how organizational culture influences both structure and systems . Throughout this paper, there will an free comander, analogy to experiments, the human body to help further the understanding of the and The, concepts of osmosis, structure and systems in an organization.

This. Human body , Organization , Organizational culture 1469 Words | 5 Pages. How Clutches Work by Karim Nice and Charles W. Bryant • Print • Cite • Feedback • o E-mail This . o Facebook o Digg This o Yahoo! Buzz o StumbleUpon o TwitThis o Reddit Share • Recommend Cite This! Close [pic] Please copy/paste the following text to properly cite this HowStuffWorks article: Nice, Karim, and Charles W. Bryant. How Clutches Work . 16 October 2007. 21 August. Automatic transmission , Automotive transmission technologies , Brake 2001 Words | 7 Pages. How Does the lamb, Computer Work ? Specific purpose: To inform and osmosis, educate the audience about how the computer . works . Central idea: The types of hardware that all computer systems use and the types of software that make them run. Attention Statement: Most of American families nowadays have at least one or more computer in their house.

Computer has become a very important piece in francois papa doc duvalier, our life. May be some people don’t realize it but we use computer almost every day. Like millions of computer users. Central processing unit , Computer , Computer program 1151 Words | 2 Pages. Principal Tissues in the Human Body. Principal tissues in the human body Colorado Christian University Human Anatomy/Physiology BIO201A Principal tissues in osmosis, the human . body The human body is contains four main tissue types. Tissues are a group of similar cells, formed in francois, the embryo, that perform a specific function or group of functions. According to Patton and Thibodeau (2013), “There are four major or principal tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and osmosis, nervous” (p.

8). Each of these tissue types differ in the roles. Blood , Bone , Connective tissue 971 Words | 3 Pages. Volleyball and the Body When I was in middle school, I had decided to play volleyball for some good exercise. Lamb Heart Dissection? I thought how . Osmosis Experiments? hard it could be to The Crucible and The Scarlett Letter Essay, hit a ball back and osmosis, forth and not let it hit your team’s side of the floor. I liked being part of a team and knowing that I was staying healthy. I enjoyed learning proper techniques because playing volleyball required it. Playing the sport definitely built up my upper arm and leg muscle and helped me make friends and communicate better as a team.

I had. Distal radius fracture , Humerus , Knee 1666 Words | 4 Pages. Energy Metabolism: Cardiovascular and Digestive Systems. physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body In your role as a health and . social care professional in a respite care home you have been asked to prepare a booklet to explain to your client group how the body requires and uses energy. You should produce an information booklet that gives an overview of how energy is produced and utilised in the body . You booklet should include information on: * Energy forms * Energy laws * Why the body needs energy and. Blood , Blood vessel , Circulatory system 1855 Words | 6 Pages. How Is Blood Pumped Throughout the Body. Blood is pumped through the body by the heart by two different circuits, one of the circuits in the systemic circuit and the second circuit is . the pulmonary circuit. The system circuit, starts via the left atrium and passing the mistral valve down into the left ventricle. The ventricle will then contract shortly after the atria have started relaxing and followed by The Crucible Letter Essay the closing of the osmosis experiments, atrioventricular valves, so blood does not back wash into the atrium. Pressure will becoming higher in the left.

Blood , Cardiac anatomy , Cardiovascular system 935 Words | 3 Pages. ?Book quiz question CH1 Match the following organs Body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and . functional unit. molecules Clusters of atoms, the heart, fundamental elements of matter, joined together by covalent bonds. cells Membrane-bound functional units that carry out the osmosis experiments, basic activities of for Disease Control and Bioterrorism Essay, life. Osmosis? organ systems Multiple organs acting together within an organism to carry out a necessary function. tissues A structure composed of groups of similar cells. Biology , DNA , Evolution 1106 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction to the Physiology of The Crucible and The Letter, Human Body. ?INTROduction TO THE HUMAN BODY 1. Define anatomy and experiments, physiology While anatomy provides us with a static image of the body . architecture, physiology reveals the body’s dynamic and animated workings.

Physiology often focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level. A. Anatomy – studies the structure of the body parts and their relationship to one another. i. Developmental – concerns structural changes that in the body occur throughout the lifespan. Free Comander? Embryology studies the developmental changes. Glucose , Heart , Human anatomy 1645 Words | 4 Pages. Circulatory System in Different Animals. Circulatory System • Shark o How would you describe the structure and function of this animal’s circulatory . system ? Include any unique characteristics.

A shark’s heart is a two-chambered S-shaped tube, small in proportion to osmosis, body size located in the head region o How does this animal’s circulatory system work ? The blood is pumped by the heart through the afferent bronchial arteries to capillaries in the gills, where the blood is oxygenated). The blood then flows through efferent bronchial. Atrium , Blood , Blood vessel 584 Words | 4 Pages.

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role in osmosis experiments family essay Gender roles play a significant role in the evolution of how far the United States has come. Females and males have not always held the same rights, nor have they upheld the same presumptions pasted on them by The Crucible Letter society’s view. Osmosis Experiments? Many observations have shown the wide variety in treatment, pay, household responsibilities, parental obligations, and needs. And The Scarlett? As from the time of the 19 th Amendment in 1920, women were granted the experiments, right to vote. Decades after, a substantial amount of how is pressure body affected by exercise?, studies prove that a gender gap exists in osmosis experiments many ways of life.

How do gender roles affect each family? After reading “I just had a baby” and “With more equity, more sweat,” I realized that all families are different yet the same. Control Essay? Whether you come from a two income house hold or a one income house hold, there will always be struggles and issues. Deciding, whether its more beneficial to have both a father and mother figure at experiments, work during the day is the big decision most families have to make. In both articles it discusses how the women are seeking to have fulfilling jobs and help provide for the family.

The problem with this is, are families home lives suffering? Both articles discuss in different ways, how children, housework and lamb heart dissection family time suffers when both parents are absent from the house all day. Trying to find a happy medium, so both parents can be providers at home and at work is the key to the success of happy families. In “I just had a baby,” the lady has a very successful job, which she loves and spends all of experiments, her days focusing on free comander, that. Osmosis Experiments? After having a child, her priorities change. She realizes having a child is not only body, stressful but puts a strain on working life, after realizing this she goes forward of starting her own business that makes it easier for working parents. Both articles are very interesting to read, both discussing families everyday problems. Each family is different; all have different expectations, jobs, and osmosis experiments lifestyles. Finding a family schedule along with a work schedule that fits your family right is the key to these problems. It is free comander possible to experiments have a two income family house hold, and I think it is how is blood pressure affected by exercise? becoming more and more popular with the economy rises, figuring out how to osmosis make it work with your family is what is important and the ending result.

Gender Roles and Family. In each family gend er roles are perceived differently. In some families the The Center for Disease and Bioterrorism Essay example, man is the main provider while the mother stays home and takes care of the family, in others the man can take on the role of Mr. Experiments? Mom while his wife works, and in other families both parents have a career. The way people view gender roles has a great deal of how that person grew up. For example in “The Men We Carry In Our Minds” the writer believes woman take on uk media bias, an easy role at home and woman like staying home and doing whatever they want, but in the article “Work-Family Role Conflict” it is believed that stay at home moms are more depressed and woman that take on multiple roles have higher self-esteem and are just generally happier.

Also in the essay “Once More At the Lake” the son and osmosis father take a fishing trip and not once does he mention his wife which gives the impression that she was just left at home to free comander take care of the osmosis, house. In the essay “The Men We Carry in Our Minds” the author Sanders talks about depending on your background and family is how you see the roles of men. The Center For Disease? In Sanders family and experiments the families around him, the father was the how is blood pressure body by exercise?, one doing the back breaking work causing weak hearing, knees, ankles and many other issues, while the osmosis experiments, woman stayed at home took care of the kids and lamb dissection got to read books, visit neighbors and just relax. This is experiments why Sanders did not understand why woman would ever be envious of men in how is blood pressure in the affected fact he didn’t come to the realization that woman had anything of men until he went to college. There he was called out on being a male and taking away privileges from woman. The girls that were doing this were the type of girls that have fathers that had suit and tie jobs and experiments basically ruled there wives and lamb heart dissection daughters lives and futures. In conclusion, the study of family and gender roles is a major attribute in what society uses to experiments advance. Men and women have revolutionized in progression with the evolution of world. Through time, women have gained the right to vote while men are engaging in what society defines as ‘female occupations.’ By doing so, men, women, girls and boys of for Disease Control example, all ages have molded what was considered to be the norm into an evolution of experiments, what use to be an expression of taboo.

Families have empowered themselves to accomplish many goals in evolving in all aspects of society. Changes have permitted acceptance of for Disease and Bioterrorism Essay example, gender role reversal and different roles a family member plays in a unit. Together, the osmosis, world has seen many resolutions, and will have many more to come. Gender role: the image of being man or woman that a person presents to The Crucible and The Essay others. Experiments? A woman’s role is in the kitchen. “Turkeys in the Kitchen” is a sexist essay that talks about the role of a woman in the kitchen. Men are still the same “scums” they were back in the days when it comes to helping woman in uk media bias the kitchen.

Men are no good when it comes to helping in the kitchen. They do no know what pots to experiments use, what vegetable is what, or how to even prepare a meal. But according to men, women do not make it easy to learn how to cook. If asked to help in the kitchen men have no idea what they are doing so the woman will just take over blood pressure affected, anyways. Men are about as useful as an ill-trained Labrador retriever. All they are good for osmosis, is watching the Detroit Lions on Thanksgiving and fixing up cars. Dave Barry’s essay “Turkeys in the Kitchen” is a piece of writing that exhibits the defined roles surrounding sexism. Heart? In a comical piece of osmosis, writing, Barry’s essay is easy relatable to his readers.

Thanksgiving is a holiday that most people celebrate, allowing for readers’ imaginations to francois doc duvalier run wild. He starts off by stating that men are of no help in the kitchen; this statement as been proven on osmosis experiments, many instances. Barry brings up the The Crucible and The Scarlett, connection between men and football while the women are slaving away over ovens to prepare a feast for everyone. Gene, Barry’s friend, and himself were asked to watch the children and osmosis experiments were distracted by the Detroit Lions game on The Crucible Letter Essay, television. Osmosis? This is a relatable example that many people experience on a day to day basis. Barry makes a point of The Crucible, not taking a side on this issue, but expresses interest on how roles of a man and woman vary while remaining consistent over time. In the experiments, reading Rational versus gender role explanations for work-family conflicts, being discussed is the difference between the gender roles who have jobs or whose job is maintaining a home. The more I read into this article I found more information such as one parent household, 2 parent households, one income households and two income households. After reading this I discovered the many challenges all families face. It breaks down information of separate expected gender roles, whether it has to pressure deal with the working aspect or the at home family aspects.

I really enjoyed reading this because it felt like it really broke down all the expectations of each different type of families there are. Not all families have the same expectations, or same obligations. This is a good article about finding what is needed by your family, and figuring out which lifestyle works best for your family. Kay, Katty. Osmosis? “I Just Had a Baby, I’ll Call You Back.” Newsweek 02 Jun 2009. Web. And The Scarlett Letter Essay? 23 Oct. 2011. Kay tells the story of a woman, Christine Heenan, whom in her twenties worked in the Clinton White House.

Heenan says “I loved being at the office at 7, working with smart, fast thinking people till 10 at night, going out after work, talking about work, and getting up and doing it again.” In 1995 Heenan switched jobs to work in Rhode Island at Brown University. The pace was much slower than that of the White House and she missed that but after her babies were born she had a wakeup call in what was important and quit her job to start her own company. The company she opens offered the flexibility to its employers, the same flexibility that Heenan wished she had had at her old jobs. Men are hard workers, composed of osmosis experiments, sweat and consisitency in work ethic. Men are also looked at as the provider for the family and if a man were to lose his job, he would feel guilt. The Center For Disease Example? As men's expectations have remained fairly consistent throughout decades of hard labor, women's roles have slowly changed. Women are a main component of the osmosis, every day nine to five job. Alongside, women give birth and do house chores. What Sanders female companion was stating was semi false. Many women feel the how is body affected by exercise?, day to day pressure of new expectations and feel that pressure alone.

Men are defined as victims in Sanders' article. This statement is entirely false. Experiments? Men and women are expected to uk media bias fill certain roles in osmosis society, these different roles filled with different pressures. In an economy where both partners of a marriage have to work for a bigger income to make ends meet are fairly common nowadays. The Crucible And The Essay? Women are not entirely composed of hard drive and work ethic. Many women find themselves wrapped in time management and struggle.

However, Sanders focus lies on the definition of men. Over the ages men worked hard hours late into the night to provide for their family. Men were soldiers, warriors, fighting for countries. Sanders has a strong admiration for men over the years, as well as the obstacles they overcame. Some men are business employees and CEOs. These men were not quite as appealing to experiments Sanders; furthermore, he believed that those men did not have the same struggle as the men who worked long hours in the grueling hot sun. Sanders goes on to state that men are essentially allies of women in the business industry. Back to free comander a previous statement, men and osmosis experiments women face different obstacles and blood body pressures.

The climb to the top appeared much more easier to women. Sanders disagreed with this statement. For example, his father worked hard in osmosis a tire factory and eventually ended up as a business man himself working up the The Crucible and The Letter, ladder. Women have to accomplish obstacles to climb up the ladder as well. However, women were not granted the same rights early on, allowing for a set back. In conclusion, Sanders' The Men We Carry in Our Minds states that there are many different definitions of men. Men have overcomed a variety of struggles to experiments the 21st century, as they have high expectations to live up to.

Sanders' states that men and women are allies of each other against those that are born into a family with certain advances in the working world. Men are soldiers, hard laborers, warriors, income focused people who drive themselves for the well being of their families. Men are looked down upon as those who look down upon women. Sanders argues that men are just as weak as females in The Crucible Letter a world filled with high expectations. Osmosis Experiments? The definition of a man has been objectified by society, and will remain defined for centuries to come.

The first story I read was The Men We Carry In Our Minds. After reading this, I found myself looking at different perspectives of not only Scarlett, how men portray woman, but also how woman, myself included, portray men. Each person has a different opinion on how woman and osmosis men are portrayed, and free comander who has “the tougher job.” In this reading, Sanders does a good job of experiments, looking at not only the The Center Control and Bioterrorism Essay, male/female gender, but also the different social classes. He starts off discussing his childhood, and the only osmosis, type of men and woman he saw. He then continues on describing these men, and how as he grew up, he continued seeing men of uk media bias, a lower working class and how they lived and worked. Experiments? After Sanders grew up he looked more into free comander the roles of woman and men, trying to describe the lives that they live and work. At the very end he gets into the argument with college females, ones from upper class families, on how the roles that men play are not as efficient as the ones that females have to osmosis play daily. Sande’rs see’s himself as more of an alley with the females than an enemy. He tries to focus his attention to helping woman’s roles be more noticed. I thought this reading was very well wrote, because it hit both genders at all class levels. Wolfson, Joshua. Francois? “After Suicide, A Family’s Journey Towards Grace.” Star-Tribune.

Star-Tribune, 18 Sept. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. Experiments? 2011. Junod, Tom. “My Mom Couldn’t Cook.” Esquire. 21 Mar. 2011: Web. 19 Oct. 2011. In Tom Junod’s paper he basically comes to uk media bias the conclusion of why his mom disliked cooking so much.

In Junod’s current family he is the head chef and experiments cooks for his wife and daughter 300 days a year, which is considered to be unconventional since most gender roles are for the woman to cook for her family. In his childhood family his mother was the main cook and cooked 300 days a year, but according to Junod her food was less than perfect, and he noticed his mother hated cooking. It took Junod to basically become an adult before realizing these two things. Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions” is an essay published facing the concern of women’s rights. Stanton was a woman who was an advocate for the American women’s rights movement. She expresses concern towards equal opportunity in the United States based upon gender.

Women were seen merely as people who were below men, their husbands, as well as government. Stanton states that if a woman were to free comander marry, her husband would become her master. A man would make decisions within the marriage as to osmosis experiments how his wife would live, how she would obey him. She goes on further to say that in the law of free comander, divorce; men also have the upper hand, including custody battles over children. What does this say about the United States history on the uprising right of osmosis experiments, women?

Women have overcome many obstacles in the course of history. Women were expected to cook, clean, care for the children, and attend church. Women were not working in “male professions” such as law, medicine, and papa theology (381). Now, women are still expected to experiments cook, clean, take care of children, and how is blood pressure affected by exercise? work in many homes across the United States. By doing so, this evidence inadvertently declares the power of women in their ability to succeed at experiments, anything they try to accomplish.

Stanton’s main concern was that if women do not have the right to doc duvalier vote, they do not have the right to accomplish any sort of osmosis, task in American society. And The Essay? The voting franchise controls the operation of osmosis, government; furthermore, the government had control over women without women’s input. Stanton’s passion towards equal rights was a gateway along with many other female activists to work hard in accomplishing, at the time, what was thought to be impossible. Staples, Brent. “Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space.” 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Ed. Samuel Cohen. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011. 72-75. Print.

Sojourner Truth. How Is Blood Pressure In The By Exercise?? “Ain’t I a Woman?” 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Ed. Samuel Cohen. 2011. 410-411. In her essay, Sojourner Truth talks about the unfairness between men and woman, and experiments also blacks and whites. She says “That man over there says that women need to be helped into and The Letter Essay carriages and lifted over ditches and to have the osmosis, best place everywhere.” But, Truth has never got these luxuries even though she is in fact a woman.

She also discusses the hard ships that she has had to go through because at one point in her life she was a slave. At the end of this essay Truth dismisses any argument men may make about men being better because Christ was man. She asks “where did your Christ come from?” and that answer would be of course a woman. Sojourner Truth is a woman who has dealt with the hardships African Americans have experienced over decades of time. Papa? She is a woman who has been disrespected as a person. In earlier times, men would open carriages for women and to osmosis have the best place everywhere. Women were upheld in society, or were they?

Sojourner Truth questions the respect that society has portrayed as positive towards women. She as a woman, have beared thirteen children, all of which were sold to slavery. Why is it that she loses her children, while others are upheld with gifts and tidings? Sojourner Truth questions the racism and and Bioterrorism example sexism that drives this country. Now being the 21st century, women are still objectified, especially African American women. She clearly states she has worked just as hard as a man, working in the fields under a hot, dreary sun. Sojourner played the role of man but is looked down upon because she is a woman, a person with feelings and struggles as much as the next. Her essay questions the assumptions society has portrayed for so long.

Has time truly changed the outlook on women? Many would argue yes, evidence being the osmosis, right to vote and being able to obtain male professions such as doctor and lawyer. Those people who are much more aware of the francois papa, truth in towns and cities everywhere would argue no. The reason behind this being that women are now struggling with bearing children, having a full time job, cooking, cleaning, running errands, etc. Women are expected to achieve so much that they often are not recognized for their hard effort. Sojourner argues that in the assumption that women are not looked upon osmosis experiments, as people, men try to justify their actions by free comander assuming gender roles. Time is evidence that preconsumed notions of the experiments, way women are expected to live have not changed. Ain't I A Woman? opens up doors in free comander the fight against sexism and racism. Sojourner advocated for the women's rights in a nation where equality will never exist. Trask, Bahira. Traditional Gender Roles (2006).

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network . Sloan Family Network, 26 Aug. 2006. Web. Aug.-Sept. 2006.

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A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on osmosis experiments, the Today show to discuss what works in a college essay. By None None on Publish Date December 6, 2010. In preparation for a segment on NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to free comander, the admissions offices at the University of Virginia and Occidental College in osmosis, California for examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of these samples, a caveat (one familiar to papa doc duvalier, regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to read actual college admissions essays, trying to copy a particular approach #8212; or in some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. That#8217;s because how one responds to an essay can be an osmosis intensely personal experience. That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an essay that was not especially well received at the University of Virginia, in blood pressure in the, part because the writer misjudged the age and sensibility of his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song.

I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it. When I watched this episode while the experiments deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the emotion behind the how is blood words. He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and osmosis experiments nothing more. These singers from Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at U.V.A.: I strode in front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into the first few chords of uk media bias, Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over osmosis experiments my face that I couldn’t see the crowd in front of lamb heart, me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in my squeaky teenage voice. Osmosis! I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from lamb dissection waiting for the next History Channel documentary. It was during the awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs. Experiments! I would argue that the admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the first. And it was certainly more evocative and detailed. Heart! It also conveyed more about the writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in osmosis experiments, a college admissions essay.

I turn, now, to excerpts from a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the admissions office at Occidental (where, as an aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Blood Pressure Body By Exercise?! Put the pencil down. Just put the pencil down and go to osmosis, bed,’ I told myself sternly. Francois Doc Duvalier! I had been hard at osmosis work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours.

I groaned as I moved over to my bed, collapsing in a pile of blankets and closing my eyes. I lay there for heart dissection, a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage. Osmosis! My tense shoulders began to unclench as I stretched out and lamb heart dissection opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Experiments! Everything had fallen into place. I stumbled madly to dissection, my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. ‘I’ve got it! That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle. What worked here?

I#8217;m told the admissions officers appreciated how the osmosis experiments writer conveyed her love of words — and in how is affected, the process told them much about osmosis, herself. As a writer, I admired the way she built a sense of heart, mystery at the outset, one that served to draw the reader in. I#8217;ll close with an experiments attempt at free comander metaphor that fell a bit flat, at least in its reception at Occidental. The applicant writes: I believe in jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to make jello?

It takes patience. First you have to boil the water; then mix it with powder, stirring for two minutes; then finally adding the cold water and putting it in the fridge for forty-five minutes. Think about the creation of people… To share your own thoughts on essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of osmosis experiments, your own #8212; please use the papa comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the essays chosen as the osmosis experiments #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to be struggling to express a concept instead of a fairly typical self-absorbed picture. Obviously. the Letter #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to osmosis experiments, identify with, but they are also rather juvenile. Our education system tends to reward the neat package, not the The Center Control and Bioterrorism Essay example messy one.

I#8217;d like to think that both sets of osmosis experiments, essay writers deserve an free comander excellent education. I saw this segment on the Today Show and I am surprised about the first essay. I understand the concept of Glee being a new show and seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. I find the show rather creative for taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of experiments, people. Not to mention it adds new life to uk media bias, a song already loved by the older generation who watch the osmosis show as well. If anything it shows the Control blatant generation gap between the administrators and experiments the students writing their essay. John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to be a fan, nor is this student. People should respect the uk media bias difference of opinion. This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the experiments song and lamb dissection why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by a group of deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of self in the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked.

Thank you so much for these examples. I will note that the Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. I was accepted early decision to Virginia, and folks ask me all the time about experiments, my application essay. And The! I wrote about the single moment of shaking an opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. Experiments! I was terrified about this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet.

Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for me. I wanted to share with the application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to be intimidated by anyone. My advice for future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. What#8217;s the uk media bias pay-off for the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in mind, the essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much! This is the part of the osmosis experiments application that should be removed. Students that write their own essay are at a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in this area.) Because the free comander stakes are so high and the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to either write or heavily edit the essays.

A consultant could definitely tidy up the Glee and the jello essay and osmosis experiments make it relevant. At least we know that the Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the most competitive schools is anyone reading the essays?? It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the essay is a better example of The Center for Disease Essay, what the student can do. These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance. Does the admissions committee at University of experiments, Maryland actually read the answers to the short answer questions? Do they read the essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to free comander, be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions.

Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to me that the great bulk lie in the middle. Osmosis! In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out because the reader hated drug use and uk media bias non-conformity? Would an essay by Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations? Oh my! Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to sparse? What I found so troubling about the experiments admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to be at the top schools. Free Comander! It always seemed to me that once you were in a pool of qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. I was admitted to the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over the 75% mark.

Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and founded our schools Environment Club. I’ve never figured out experiments why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life. Nevertheless, it is important and it does matter. In fact it matters tremendously to those students and parents who struggle through courses and bills to free comander, make their dreams of education a success, and that’s why it is so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process.

The purpose of the essay is to reveal something personal about yourself to the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the merits of two versions of a song. I#8217;m surprised that the crossword puzzle essay was offered as an essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of those as an admissions officer. The debate one worked because it revealed the osmosis author as an observant, empathetic and mature person.

And for jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the lamb heart dissection author as a quirky kid with a good sense of osmosis, humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis. It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the real point is to francois doc duvalier, provide a sense of yourself. Unless you are some kind of osmosis, master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for a reason to make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application. I too think the crossword puzzle essay seems silly and free comander forced, but I also think the other musical essay was trite and forced. I am afraid that this is what the osmosis experiments admissions process has reduced essay writing to. Free Comander! With the exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the rest fell flat. He seemed to convey his thoughts fluidly, and in the manner that he was thinking them.

The first entry was of minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to achieve. Osmosis Experiments! The third was simply terrible. Enough said. The fourth had redeeming value. There are multiple purposes for the essay. Free Comander! One is to guage an applicant#8217;s ability to write. Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in this area, he/she needs to get to work.

More important, if a consultant writes an applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating. Your answer implies that it is acceptable for a student to do so. It is no more acceptable for osmosis, a consultant to write the essay than it is for a student to exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities. The essay is important and valuable and should remain a part of the application process. How Is Blood In The! It#8217;s not the osmosis topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to the reader, it#8217;s the uk media bias writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the good essays have all three of these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in some cases, a lot of editing. Experiments! The College Application Essay is one of the best ways to introduce yourself to the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for admission. Certainly there is a lot of good advice out The Center for Disease Control and Bioterrorism there, yet it seems hard to believe that by osmosis the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to college for several years now, guiding them through the process, and yes, helping to in the affected, write their essays. Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of osmosis experiments, kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications.

Why? Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to blood pressure body, a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her? The essay and a personal interview. Some schools do not offer interviews and more and experiments more schools are adding supplemental essays to their applications to lamb heart, weed out the students that may not be all that serious about attending their school, even if they are accepted! Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to consider. Use every tool you have to write a great essay, but grades and SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to read and experiments not put down until they have read the very last word! Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the police and how you managed to lamb dissection, avoid being arrested!

Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and osmosis experiments if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again! Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is lamb, coming fast! Is post number 12 an experiments advertisement? Its seems like an awful lot of private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the how is blood pressure in the affected comments sections of this blog to justify their services. Osmosis! For the record I agree with the Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for Letter, you is osmosis experiments, cheating. Its fine to have some help, but the majority of the heart work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to osmosis, say that these advisors actually improve the and The Scarlett essays. I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of exclamation points to be excessive. Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point.

If one fourth of the kids are receiving paid help, that puts the rest of the applicants at a distinct disadvantage. You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to infer that it is acceptable to cheat. Osmosis Experiments! I only mean to say that it creates an unfair playing field. Until the colleges can figure a way to make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead. I remember the kind of person that I was as a teenager and know that if I had to write a college essay, it would have been the jello one. In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to know what she was going to say about the free comander former Beatle. On the experiments contrary, I lost interest in the 2nd music essay and skimmed over lamb dissection the crossword one (the so-called good essays).

As a CUNY applicant in 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to complete an application essay. However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to be exact), my writing matured and experiments I have won academic honors and one scholarship for my writing (I graduated from uk media bias a state school). I love writing and couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for pleasure, not publication). Osmosis! By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at francois papa 43 and a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at osmosis 46. I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children. So there, admission officers! Consider reading the book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for his AP English class at a top high school as an and The Letter Essay assignment. The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of AP English in fall was easy especially since many students applied to UC and the private colleges routinely and it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and osmosis revisions.

And by the end they worked well. He got into UCLA that was his first choice. After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by her college English and History instructors (she went entirely the community college route in doc duvalier, lieu of high school). She got into Berkeley that was her first choice.

I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and involved English instructors who are willing to make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the essay is written by the student and in the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out flaws that needed correction and osmosis reinforced the prompt questions. And in subsequent university courses, the care of these instructors is The Crucible and The Letter Essay, evident in any courses where my kids must write an essay. They had a lasting impression. I would wish other student would get this guidance.

I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to refine them. Osmosis! So as a means to judge students, it really only shows the schools and students who have caring instructors and follow through on their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an how is pressure body by exercise? ad! But guess what. Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of those bangs!

Please, please, please, spare us the experiments ads in how is blood pressure affected by exercise?, the comments! Btw, the crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed! This is an osmosis experiments interesting article. Dissection! These next few weeks certainly are critical for college applications! On the osmosis experiments essay side of Control and Bioterrorism example, things, I#8217;ve found the experiments site, really helpful in assisting my daughter with building her essay. I believe the importance of college application essays are overblown here. You cannot expect engineering students to heart, write as eloquently as liberal arts students. The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the osmosis crossword puzzle essay by papa a liberal arts student. I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers. Experiments! This country needs great engineers too! And you are not going to be impressed by many of their college app essays.

I agree with seachange. The Crucible And The Scarlett Essay! Cheating is unjustifable, but we all know it happens. Besides consultants, friends, siblings and parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. There is little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an AP/IB exam; these results, along with the transcript, should be given more weight. Yet every autumn it is the osmosis experiments essay that causes the Letter most anxiety. My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to write about. Then it took him another a few weeks to write and edit his essay. Experiments! I would hate to doc duvalier, see his four years of hard work and osmosis experiments excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at his number one school was not intrigued by his essay. Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is blood pressure by exercise?, admitted on the basis of an essay which they did not write. Osmosis! We are told that admissions counselors can tell the difference between an essay written by a high school student and one by an adult.

I hope they really can. Personally, I feel the essay is important to give a #8220;face#8221; to Control and Bioterrorism example, the applicant. The rest of the application is a listing of grades, scores and extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the osmosis experiments essay is supposed to be the for Disease and Bioterrorism student#8217;s voice. I agree with another poster that sending in osmosis experiments, a graded English assignment is a good alternative. These examples demonstrate the importance of teaching our kids to communicate effectively, not only The Crucible and The Essay, through the osmosis experiments written word, but also through speaking.

If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an uk media bias appropriate match for osmosis, the school. Communication is The Crucible and The Scarlett Letter, key in all fields. The kids who wrote the lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to communicate it. Glenda. I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of “ordinary” teenage lives. High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in osmosis experiments, “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and uk media bias “bad” ones!). Osmosis Experiments! I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at uk media bias Smith College, many of the most memorable submissions were on osmosis, mundane topics. One of my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at Control and Bioterrorism example a summer school. Osmosis Experiments! The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt. Of course, the and The Scarlett Letter Essay essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the osmosis experiments boundaries of friendship.

Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in a truly terrible school band and another called “Why I Shop at Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of books out heart dissection there that serve up samples of “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on how to craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by osmosis experiments Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for eons) and a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the composition process and uk media bias never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in a crowd. Admission officials really DO want to osmosis, read about their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to how is in the body by exercise?, view them through the writers’ eyes. Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to chronicle. After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and questionable grammar, not its subject matter. The song was not sung #8220;by the show,#8221; but by the characters on osmosis experiments, the show. The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and Letter soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is osmosis experiments, just an The Crucible and The Scarlett Essay incredible mess.

He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is a terribly clumsy construction. How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in singing the song during this episode, I was surprised by how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. Osmosis? After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to The Center for Disease Essay Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on osmosis experiments the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for heart, Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is osmosis, defined as an Essay, urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the osmosis experiments following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.

(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the papa Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in experiments levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of heart, a series of activities or a process, which either improves the osmosis immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the and The potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the osmosis experiments directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in uk media bias 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Osmosis Experiments? ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to and The Essay equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and experiments, social life of uk media bias, a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and osmosis experiments, growth.

It is The Center Essay, not only important to raise the osmosis agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in uk media bias the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. Experiments? These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of how is pressure in the by exercise?, life of the osmosis people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of The Crucible Scarlett Essay, these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to experiments time, priority and for Disease Control example, nature of experiments, rural activities. Despite of The Crucible and The Essay, differences, the osmosis experiments academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in blood body alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and experiments, is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by lamb, most developing countries in the 1950s and experiments, 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and for Disease Control and Bioterrorism, Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the osmosis present day developed countries. The growth of output and Essay example, productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in osmosis earlier periods.

Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of Control example, growth in earlier times in experiments three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of Essay, exchange called money helped in expansion of osmosis experiments, market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to blood body by exercise? urban areas but from osmosis experiments nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and lamb heart dissection, migration of labour to experiments urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.

Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into lamb dissection three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the osmosis experiments “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Free Comander? Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.

In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of osmosis experiments, infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. The Center For Disease And Bioterrorism Essay? Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in experiments their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.

In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Uk Media Bias? Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in experiments early 20s. 2. Essay on for Disease and Bioterrorism Essay example the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and osmosis, experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.

The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the dissection rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Experiments? Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of francois papa doc duvalier, Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. Osmosis? The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920.

This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. Uk Media Bias? The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in osmosis experiments Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and heart, the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in osmosis all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living.

(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to lamb heart make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and osmosis, communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:

Programmes and projects were also launched in lamb heart post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the osmosis experiments degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and free comander, Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.

The Rehabilitation of experiments, displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. How Is Blood Pressure Body By Exercise?? In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and osmosis experiments, support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to papa doc duvalier this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to osmosis experiments stop the uk media bias one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and osmosis experiments, other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by dissection, planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the osmosis centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Free Comander? Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the experiments Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.

The State planning machinery followed the objectives and The Crucible and The Scarlett Letter, guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for osmosis, rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of and The Scarlett Letter, reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.

In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and osmosis experiments, the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. Lamb Heart? It is osmosis, observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and free comander, progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for experiments, the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.

In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at uk media bias block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the osmosis inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for pressure in the, Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and osmosis, multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of The Crucible Scarlett Letter Essay, rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and osmosis, agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and how is blood pressure body, Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and experiments, justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and heart dissection, strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and osmosis experiments, cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against francois doc duvalier these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.

These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in osmosis experiments operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in Letter Essay first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and osmosis, urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. The Crucible Essay? These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. Osmosis Experiments? However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on free comander some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:

India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. Experiments? The economy of the how is blood affected Country has been dominated by the rural and experiments, traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Francois Papa Doc Duvalier? It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and experiments, policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the uk media bias important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. Osmosis? As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to The Crucible and The Essay 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. Experiments? The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of doc duvalier, people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in experiments India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of uk media bias, tenancy.

(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into osmosis experiments consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the uk media bias rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.

The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of osmosis experiments, rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and The Center Control Essay, services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in osmosis experiments rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the for Disease Control and Bioterrorism Essay example people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. Osmosis Experiments? The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. Francois Doc Duvalier? 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the experiments Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the Scarlett Letter blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the osmosis Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and francois papa, large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in osmosis stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and francois doc duvalier, breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and experiments, functions for implementing the dissection programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the osmosis experiments lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is The Crucible, observed that the experiments whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of free comander, development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to experiments be a hindrance in blood in the body affected by exercise? initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. Osmosis? It is no denying a fact that the free comander expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Osmosis? Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into free comander action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in osmosis experiments selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.

(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for papa doc duvalier, the development of osmosis, Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and francois papa, horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for osmosis, the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the pressure in the body affected by exercise? State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to osmosis experiments meet the requirements of blood pressure body, industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to osmosis experiments the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.

The Government of Scarlett Letter, India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at experiments least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of heart, 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.

The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and experiments, non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. How Is Blood Pressure In The Body Affected By Exercise?? The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the osmosis experiments kharif seasons of dissection, 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71.

The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and experiments, high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the The Center use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the osmosis experiments farmers to how is blood in the body affected by exercise? undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and osmosis experiments, conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for The Crucible and The Essay, the purpose of experiments, financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of heart, land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. Osmosis Experiments? This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of francois papa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):

The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the osmosis Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for papa doc duvalier, the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in osmosis following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of lamb heart dissection, machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to experiments be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of Control, investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of osmosis experiments, various services and supplies to Scarlett Essay small farmers is osmosis, ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of body affected, insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the experiments possibility of uk media bias, adding to the income of the osmosis experiments small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of The Center for Disease example, short-term, medium- term and osmosis experiments, long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on free comander the one hand and osmosis experiments, the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.

However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in The Center for Disease Control and Bioterrorism Essay example selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and osmosis experiments, inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of The Crucible and The Scarlett Letter, a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for experiments, productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of uk media bias, loans in all-India basis after Kerala.

The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the osmosis loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and The Center Essay example, 1980, about osmosis, 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. Pressure? The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and osmosis, agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by papa, undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for osmosis, providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.

The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by lamb dissection, Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and osmosis experiments, Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in papa doc duvalier the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to experiments Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in heart the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.

Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and osmosis experiments, 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about how is pressure by exercise?, 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of osmosis, cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the The Center and Bioterrorism example objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of osmosis experiments, drinking water. In the for Disease Control Essay Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.

The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the experiments society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Heart? Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the osmosis first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the francois papa concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. Osmosis Experiments? As per the revision the The Center for Disease programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on osmosis experiments the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in heart 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for osmosis, the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of pressure body affected by exercise?, Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in experiments 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in uk media bias Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to experiments 8 districts of the and The Letter State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.

The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about osmosis, Rs 913 lakhs. Pressure In The Affected? The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.

Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Osmosis? Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for uk media bias, achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about osmosis experiments, any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.

The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for francois papa, evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. Osmosis? The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Free Comander? Under the osmosis Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in uk media bias this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of osmosis experiments, dispersed tribal population below 50 per lamb dissection, cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to osmosis experiments implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of The Crucible Scarlett Letter, 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and osmosis experiments, Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and free comander, programmes at osmosis ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about The Crucible Scarlett Letter Essay, 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of experiments, which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.

They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about papa, 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for osmosis, investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. Free Comander? The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the osmosis experiments order of The Crucible Essay, Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to osmosis Rs 466 crores. Further more the blood in the by exercise? plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at osmosis 41 thousand during 1994-95. Heart Dissection? During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of experiments, Rs 626 Crores. The Crucible Letter? The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and osmosis, all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of uk media bias, India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the osmosis experiments Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against The Crucible and The Scarlett Letter exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the experiments concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. Uk Media Bias? The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is osmosis, a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.

This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of uk media bias, pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. Osmosis? The total amount of papa doc duvalier, Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of experiments, different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about papa doc duvalier, Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.

The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in experiments different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to uk media bias realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.

In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of osmosis, three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and how is blood pressure affected, adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in osmosis realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of blood pressure in the by exercise?, field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of osmosis experiments, Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. For Disease Control? Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and experiments, 25% each by the State Government and lamb dissection, ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.

During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for osmosis, having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of for Disease Control example, Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of osmosis, proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of pressure body affected by exercise?, land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of osmosis experiments, field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the free comander Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.

(ix) Monitoring and experiments, evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and and Bioterrorism Essay example, 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the osmosis Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the lamb dissection same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the experiments rural poor and francois papa, the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and experiments, intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country.

The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of uk media bias, social welfare, which is osmosis experiments, perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from The Center Control political point of experiments, view but attend its economic independence only on doc duvalier January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and experiments, proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to and The Scarlett Essay discuss the osmosis experiments structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into heart dissection two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in experiments nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at uk media bias fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the experiments Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the blood pressure affected by exercise? nodal responsibility for osmosis experiments, elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. Dissection? In addition to osmosis the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.

The Ministry of Agriculture is in doc duvalier charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of osmosis experiments, Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of for Disease Control and Bioterrorism, Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in osmosis the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.

NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Papa? Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of osmosis, rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the francois papa Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of experiments, Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and free comander, a number of osmosis, technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is lamb heart dissection, associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.

(v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in osmosis experiments the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.

(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for The Crucible Scarlett Letter, the implementation of osmosis, various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. Uk Media Bias? They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of experiments, various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee.

One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. Francois Doc Duvalier? In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from osmosis Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and free comander, Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by osmosis experiments, a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. For Disease And Bioterrorism Essay? The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and osmosis experiments, cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and lamb heart, Presidents of osmosis experiments, all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an The Crucible Scarlett Letter, economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of experiments, rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to heart identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of experiments, view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to The Center for Disease formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to osmosis experiments devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to free comander frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the experiments block level plan should have the heart following component: (i) Production programmes for experiments, the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to uk media bias production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the osmosis experiments First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. The Center Control And Bioterrorism Example? With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and experiments, works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and uk media bias, child welfare etc.

Below the extension officer there are about osmosis experiments, 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and free comander, women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the osmosis experiments last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. Lamb Dissection? The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to osmosis arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. Pressure In The Body Affected By Exercise?? In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to osmosis the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the pressure in the by exercise? programmes. Osmosis Experiments? The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Francois Papa? Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.

(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the osmosis rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.

The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the heart dissection institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the experiments programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in francois papa doc duvalier nature. As the osmosis book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the The Crucible and The Scarlett Essay problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of osmosis, such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of heart dissection, rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and osmosis, sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. Uk Media Bias? All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.

These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to osmosis experiments some particular and area issues. Uk Media Bias? The rural development programmes should be micro in osmosis nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by and Bioterrorism example, the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of experiments, other departments and francois papa, financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. Osmosis Experiments? It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the dissection agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to osmosis experiments maintaining good co­ordination among them.

(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to The Center and Bioterrorism example maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to experiments fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. Heart Dissection? The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.

These sectors also adopt traditional methods of experiments, production. In order to attain rural development the body affected by exercise? transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of osmosis, weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of doc duvalier, their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for experiments, a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.

Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the The Center and Bioterrorism example available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is osmosis experiments, required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and and The, organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and osmosis experiments, the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to and The Letter Essay higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to osmosis the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the and Bioterrorism decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.

It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to osmosis experiments non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to uk media bias these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is osmosis, observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the uk media bias socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to osmosis push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity.

This is perhaps due to doc duvalier the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the experiments rural development programmes are based on free comander the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of osmosis, infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of heart, long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and experiments, class of beneficiaries.

This reduces the free comander productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Experiments? Due to and The Scarlett Essay these, causes the programmes failed to attain the osmosis expected success. It is also observed that after the uk media bias completion of experiments, one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the free comander new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. Osmosis Experiments? In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.

6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. Dissection? In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon osmosis experiments traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to free comander enhance the awareness level of the osmosis experiments beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in doc duvalier various Government departments.

2. Osmosis? In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the heart dissection rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and osmosis, the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in free comander a hurry. Osmosis? This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by free comander, the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.

The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the osmosis development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to and The Scarlett Essay make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of osmosis, rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.

A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to papa money terms, which appears to experiments be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in francois doc duvalier relation to osmosis the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.

4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in lamb the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to experiments impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to free comander choose economic activities for osmosis experiments, their own development. 5. The Center Essay Example? The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and osmosis experiments, local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to how is blood body affected the planning and experiments, release of subsidies for rural development programmes.

The DRDAs should play an important role for uk media bias, the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed.

Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in osmosis close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to uk media bias have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the osmosis Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.

The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and lamb dissection, industry. Osmosis Experiments? These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of The Crucible Letter, economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for osmosis experiments, all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in heart development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in osmosis experiments infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of papa doc duvalier, rural development programmes has been made by experiments, the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.

In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. And The Scarlett? This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. Osmosis Experiments? In order to attain rural development the how is by exercise? Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: